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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 10 • Date Oct. 2012

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 48
  • Table of Contents

    Page(s): C1 - C4
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  • IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Theory of Magnetic Transmission Lines

    Page(s): 2941 - 2949
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1767 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents, for the first time, the frequency-domain theory of magnetic transmission lines, i.e., transmission lines where electromagnetic energy guidance is assured by means of two magnetic-flux carrying parallel magnetic wires, as opposed to the ordinary situation of two current carrying parallel electric wires (an electric transmission line). Propagation equations for the fundamental quasi-TEM mode are established and solved. Wave parameters are analyzed. A transmission matrix is described. View full abstract»

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  • A Mode-Matching Approach to Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Nematic Liquid Crystals

    Page(s): 2950 - 2958
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    In this paper, we present a computationally efficient and highly accurate numerical method for the analysis of electromagnetic wave propagation in nematic liquid crystal (N-LC) cells. An iterative procedure is employed where the mode-matching technique (MMT) is used to solve the time-harmonic Maxwell equations inside the N-LC cell, whereas a finite-difference method (FDM) with relaxation is utilized to treat the nonlinear stationary Ginzburg-Landau equation for the director field. The angular distortion of the directors in the N-LC cell depends on the applied electric field which, in turn, affects the anisotropic dielectric properties of the medium. Numerical results are obtained for various values of the governing parameters. These simulations provide further insight into the Fréedericksz transition with special emphasis on resonances, bi-stability, hysteresis, phase shift between ordinary and extraordinary waves (birefringence), and soft anchoring effects. Obtained results are compared and validated against measurements and data published in the literature. View full abstract»

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  • A Time-Domain Adjoint Variable Method for Materials With Dispersive Constitutive Parameters

    Page(s): 2959 - 2971
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    We present the first time-domain adjoint variable method (AVM) algorithm for materials with dispersive constitutive parameters. We develop our algorithm based on transmission-line modeling techniques for electromagnetic problems. The developed theory is based on utilizing the Z-domain representation of the dispersive materials, which can model arbitrary dispersive behavior. We develop a formulation similar to the original AVM theory for nondispersive materials. The theory has been successfully applied to problems with dispersive materials modeled by the Drude, Debye, and Lorentz models. View full abstract»

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  • Hybrid Field/Transmission-Line Model for the Study of Coaxial Corrugated Waveguides

    Page(s): 2972 - 2978
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    A transmission-line model is reformulated and combined with field theory to study the propagation characteristics in coaxial waveguides with wedge-shaped corrugations, either on the outer wall or the inner conductor. Numerical results show that this equivalent-circuit approach is in agreement with conventional full-wave methods presented in the literature. Additionally, this formulation overcomes numerical issues in the calculation of higher order Bessel functions, which usually conscript sophisticated expansion techniques. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient Analysis of Metallic and Dielectric Posts in Parallel-Plate Waveguide Structures

    Page(s): 2979 - 2989
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    A mode-matching method is proposed for the accurate and fast analysis of structures composed by metallic and dielectric posts in a parallel-plate waveguide environment. The incident and scattered fields on each post are expressed with a cylindrical mode expansion. After enforcing the appropriate boundary conditions, a set of matrix equations is derived. The corresponding solution are the coefficients of the field vector expansion. The method is validated with several examples found in the literature and compared with the results obtained with the commercial software Ansys HFSS. The proposed method can be used for a very fast electromagnetic analysis of substrate integrated waveguides and substrate integrated slab waveguides. View full abstract»

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  • Subgradient Techniques for Passivity Enforcement of Linear Device and Interconnect Macromodels

    Page(s): 2990 - 3003
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    This paper presents a class of nonsmooth convex optimization methods for the passivity enforcement of reduced-order macromodels of electrical interconnects, packages, and linear passive devices. Model passivity can be lost during model extraction or identification from numerical field solutions or direct measurements. Nonpassive models may cause instabilities in transient system-level simulation, therefore a suitable postprocessing is necessary in order to eliminate any passivity violations. Different from leading numerical schemes on the subject, passivity enforcement is formulated here as a direct frequency-domain H norm minimization through perturbation of the model state-space parameters. Since the dependence of this norm on the parameters is nonsmooth, but continuous and convex, we resort to the use of subdifferentials and subgradients, which are used to devise two different algorithms. We provide a theoretical proof of the global optimality for the solution computed via both schemes. Numerical results confirm that these algorithms achieve the global optimum in a finite number of iterations within a prescribed accuracy level. View full abstract»

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  • Mode Analysis of the Corrugated Substrate Integrated Waveguide

    Page(s): 3004 - 3012
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    The corrugated substrate integrated waveguide (CSIW) is compatible with substrate integrated waveguides (SIWs) but permits ease of integration of active devices. The CSIW differs from the SIW by using quarter-wave open-circuit stubs in place of vias to form the electric sidewalls. In this paper, an efficient analysis method has been formulated that distributes the loading effect of each stub across its width. The formulation was used to calculate CSIW dispersion characteristics and identify mode behavior in the vicinity of the desired TE10 mode. Simulations and measurements of X-band CSIWs were used to validate the calculations. Apart from normal waveguide mode behavior, surface wave-like behavior was also identified. View full abstract»

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  • Polarization-Independent Metamaterial Analog of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency for a Refractive-Index-Based Sensor

    Page(s): 3013 - 3022
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    A polarization-independent metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) at microwave frequencies for normal incidence and linearly polarized waves is experimentally and numerically demonstrated. The metamaterial consists of coupled “bright” split-ring resonators (SRRs) and “dark” spiral resonators (SRs) with virtually equal resonance frequencies. Normally incident plane waves with linear polarization strongly couple to the SRR, but are weakly interacting with the SR, regardless of the polarization state. A sharp transmission peak (i.e., the transparency window) with narrow spectral width and slow wave property is observed for the metamaterial at the resonant frequency of both, the bright SRR and the dark SR. The influence of the coupling strength between the SRR and SR on the frequency, width, magnitude, and quality factor of the metamaterial's transparency window is theoretically predicted by a two-particle model, and numerically validated using full-wave electromagnetic simulation. In addition, it is numerically demonstrated that the EIT-like metamaterial can be employed as a refractive-index-based sensor with a sensitivity of 77.25 mm/RIU, which means that the resonance wavelength of the sensor shifts 77.25 mm per unit change of refractive index of the surrounding medium. View full abstract»

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  • Common-Mode Suppression in Microstrip Differential Lines by Means of Complementary Split Ring Resonators: Theory and Applications

    Page(s): 3023 - 3034
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1435 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper is focused on the application of complementary split-ring resonators (CSRRs) to the suppression of the common (even) mode in microstrip differential transmission lines. By periodically and symmetrically etching CSRRs in the ground plane of microstrip differential lines, the common mode can be efficiently suppressed over a wide band whereas the differential signals are not affected. Throughout the paper, we present and discuss the principle for the selective common-mode suppression, the circuit model of the structure (including the models under even- and odd-mode excitation), the strategies for bandwidth enhancement of the rejected common mode, and a methodology for common-mode filter design. On the basis of the dispersion relation for the common mode, it is shown that the maximum achievable rejection bandwidth can be estimated. Finally, theory is validated by designing and measuring a differential line and a balanced bandpass filter with common-mode suppression, where double-slit CSRRs (DS-CSRRs) are used in order to enhance the common-mode rejection bandwidth. Due to the presence of DS-CSRRs, the balanced filter exhibits more than 40 dB of common-mode rejection within a 34% bandwidth around the filter pass band. View full abstract»

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  • Dual Composite Right-/Left-Handed Coplanar Waveguide Transmission Line Using Inductively Connected Split-Ring Resonators

    Page(s): 3035 - 3042
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    In this paper, a simple geometrical modification of the well-known split-ring resonator (SRR) topology is proposed. This modification consists of joining the opposite sides of the rings by means of an inductive connection. Due to this modification, it is possible to synthesize a dual composite right-/left-handed artificial transmission line from a host coplanar waveguide (CPW). In addition, it is quite straightforward to synthesize a dual balanced line showing a wider transmission bandwidth (around 13% for 3 GHz and 8% for 6 GHz) with this new SRR geometry. In fact, in order to design a balanced line, one must just modify the inductance of the direct connection between the rings, which can be derived from the equivalent circuit of this new ring, which is also presented in this paper. The final result is a balanced artificial CPW transmission line with a dual composite right-/left-handed behavior. In this case, the right-handed transmission band is placed below the left-handed one, and there is no frequency separation between both transmission bands. View full abstract»

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  • Pseudo-Traveling-Wave Resonator With Magnetically Tunable Phase Gradient of Fields and Its Applications to Beam-Steering Antennas

    Page(s): 3043 - 3054
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    A pseudo-traveling-wave resonator with magnetically tunable phase gradient of field distribution is investigated, and a new type of beam-steering antenna based on the resonator is experimentally demonstrated for the first time. It is a short-ended transmission-line resonator and is composed of a nonreciprocal phase-shift composite right/left-handed transmission line using a polycrystalline yttrium-iron-garnet rod. The resonator operates as zeroth-order resonator if there is no dc magnetic field, and the radiation beam directs to broadside. By increasing an externally applied dc magnetic field normal to the substrate, the effective dc magnetization in the ferrite increases under the unsaturated regime. The phase gradient of the field distribution along the resonator is then continuously increased. As a result, the radiation beam direction changes obliquely with respect to broadside. Continuous backfire-to-endfire beam steering with more than 40° was achieved with almost constant gain of 5 dBi. In addition, numerical simulation results show considerably high radiation efficiency of 85%-95%, and the measured beam angle and gain were found almost constant within the relative bandwidth of 2%. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Dual-Band 3-dB Branch-Line Coupler Design With Controllable Bandwidths

    Page(s): 3055 - 3061
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    This paper presents, for the first time, the design and implementation of a dual-band branch-line coupler with unequal operating bandwidths. The control of bandwidths is accomplished by the use of dual-band quarter-wavelength impedance transformer with controllable phase slopes over the two designated frequency bands. The adjustment of phase slopes is attained by the proper selection of the circuit parameters of the transformer. For design purposes, closed-form expressions are derived for the determination of the electrical lengths and line impedances of the resulting coupler. For experimental verification, both simulated and measured results of dual-band couplers designed to operate at 1 and 2 GHz are shown. View full abstract»

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  • Ultra-Wideband Single and Dual Baluns Based on Substrate Integrated Coaxial Line Technology

    Page(s): 3062 - 3070
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1929 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, ultra-wideband (UWB) Marchand baluns using substrate integrated coaxial line (SICL) technology are first proposed. SICL is a shielded planar coaxial line, which is very suitable for wideband and high-speed applications due to its broad unimodal operation band, low insertion loss, very small dispersion, and easy integration with other planar circuits. In order to achieve wider bandwidth and better VSWR performance of the SICL balun, a pair of quarter-wave impedance transformers are inserted into the balanced line. The impedance characteristics of the proposed SICL baluns are analyzed, and the parameters that determine the balun bandwidth are discussed. Then, curves of the balun resistance, reactance, and the SICL characteristic impedance are presented. According to these curves, the design parameters of the proposed SICL baluns can easily be determined. To verify these ideas, an UWB SICL single balun and an UWB SICL dual balun are designed, fabricated, and measured. Both full-wave simulated and measured results are presented, and good agreement between them is observed. The proposed SICL baluns have a simple structure and good performance, which are suitable for applications in UWB communication systems. View full abstract»

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  • Substrate Integrated Waveguide Quasi-Elliptic Filters With Controllable Electric and Magnetic Mixed Coupling

    Page(s): 3071 - 3078
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2708 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a type of quasi-elliptic filter with controllable electric and magnetic mixed coupling based on substrate integrated waveguide cavity resonators using two-layer printed circuit board process. For the second-order mixed coupling filter, an embedded short-ended strip line is combined with a conventional inductive window between two cavities to create the mixed coupling, in which the electric and magnetic coupling can be separately controlled by adjusting the width of the strip line and the inductive window, and a controllable transmission zero can be produced below or above the passband. For local multipoint distribution service application, three directly coupled quasi-elliptic filters and two cross-coupled quasi-elliptic filters are designed, simulated, and fabricated using the mixed electric and magnetic coupling second-order filtering units at the Ka-band. For the N-order filter, a maximum of N-1 finite transmission zeros can be realized. The proposed filters show the advantages of good selectivity with controlled transmission zeros, wide upper stopband, and easy integration with other planar circuits. Good agreements have been observed between the measured results and the simulated ones. View full abstract»

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  • A Finite-Element Algorithm for the Adjustment of the First Circulation Condition of the Turnstile Waveguide Circulator

    Page(s): 3079 - 3087
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    The adjustment of the first circulation condition of the waveguide turnstile junction is an eigenvalue problem. It fixes all the physical parameters of the circulator, except for the gyrotropy. This paper describes an algorithm in conjunction with a finite-element solver for the adjustment of this class of junction. It is met provided the in-phase and counter-rotating eigen-networks of the junction are 90° long and the corresponding reflection angles differ by 180°. The algorithm introduced in this paper may also be used to determine the split frequencies of the junction by replacing the demagnetized permeability of the resonator, one at a time, by appropriate scalar counter-rotating permeabilities. An inverted re-entrant turnstile junction in half-height WR75 waveguide is characterized by way of an example. A re-entrant turnstile junction in standard WR75 waveguide has been separately synthesized. View full abstract»

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  • A 3-D Table-Based Method for Non-Quasi-Static Microwave FET Devices Modeling

    Page(s): 3088 - 3095
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1830 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A highly accurate method of building a large-signal modeling approach considering dispersive effect of field-effect transistors is presented in this paper. The non-quasi-static effect of the transistor is described through high-order constitutive nonlinear current sources and charge sources. The extraction and building of these sources are executed by polynomial regression, which is fast and determined by unique values. The sources are built by 3-D tables, where the added dimension is a variable integration path used to account for the dispersion effect. The performance up to the millimeter-wave frequency of the model is satisfied. The validity of the proposed technology-independent approach has been verified by both GaAs and GaN devices. View full abstract»

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  • A High-Reliability High-Linearity High-Power RF MEMS Metal-Contact Switch for DC–40-GHz Applications

    Page(s): 3096 - 3112
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3869 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an mN-level contact and restoring force RF microelectromechanical systems metal-contact switch exhibiting high reliability, high linearity, and high power handing for dc-40-GHz applications. The device, which is insensitive to stress and temperature effects, achieves 1.2-1.5 mN of contact force (per contact) from 80 to 90 V and 1.0 mN of restoring force (per contact). The up-state capacitance is 8 fF, resulting in an isolation of 46, 31, and 14 dB at 1, 6, and 40 GHz, respectively. Measured results show switch resistances of 1-2 Ω and a reliability of >; 100 million cycles at 2-5 W under cold switching at 100 mW under hot-switching conditions, in an unpackaged and standard laboratory environment. Furthermore, the device was tested under prolonged hold-down conditions and demonstrated excellent RF power handling (>;10 W) and dc current handling (>;1 A) capability. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and Design of 60-GHz SPDT Switch in 130-nm CMOS

    Page(s): 3113 - 3119
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    This paper proposes a new 60-GHz single-pole-double-throw (SPDT) switch. It is designed in a 1.2-V 130-nm bulk CMOS and has a small core area of 222 μm × 92 μm. The switch exhibits measured insertion loss of 1.7 dB, isolation of 22 dB, input return loss of 20 dB, output return loss of 14 dB, and simulated power-handling capability of 13.8 dBm at 60 GHz. The proposed SPDT switch demonstrates such superior performances and consumes a much smaller die area to those of other SPDT switches, and therefore has potential to be used in highly integrated 60-GHz CMOS radios. View full abstract»

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  • Pulse-Biased Low-Power Low-Phase-Noise UHF LC-QVCO for 866 MHz RFID Front-End

    Page(s): 3120 - 3125
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    This paper discusses an 866-MHz UHF quadrature voltage-controlled oscillator (QVCO) for RFID front-end. The VCO achieved an improved phase noise performance of -130 dBc/Hz at a carrier-offset of 1 MHz using an improved architecture employing pulsed self-biasing. It was fabricated using the IBM 130-nm CMOS process with the core VCO occupying around 0.36 mm2 die area. The loading effect of finite gds for nanometric CMOS design was also considered. The VCO achieved 8% tuning range with very low quadrature error. It was tested using a power supply in the range of 0.6-1 V, drawing a maximum of 2.5 mW. In addition, it achieved a figure of merit of -185 dBc/Hz. View full abstract»

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  • Large-Signal Oscillator Design Procedure Utilizing Analytical X -Parameters Closed-Form Expressions

    Page(s): 3126 - 3136
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    New analytical behavioral model formulations based on the polyharmonic distortion (PHD) model have been successfully used to describe the nonlinear behavior of transistors and circuits. In this paper, the PHD model and its associated analytical X -parameters formulation will be utilized to provide an analytical design procedure for use in nonlinear microwave circuit design. For RF oscillator design, the negative-resistance method based on the analytical manipulation of scattering parameters is very popular due to its high rate of success in oscillation frequency prediction. However, it cannot be used to accurately predict the oscillator performance because it is based on linear parameters. To overcome this limitation, new analytical expressions based on large-signal X-parameters have been developed for use in transistor-based oscillator circuit design. The robustness of this new approach has been validated by designing and manufacturing a 5-GHz microwave oscillator. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of Oscillation Modes in Free-Running Ring Oscillators

    Page(s): 3137 - 3150
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    An in-depth investigation of oscillation modes in ring oscillators is presented. The small-signal stability is initially considered, demonstrating that the poles associated with the dc regime are uniformly distributed on a circle on the complex plane, with increasing density for a higher number of stages. The existence of multiple pairs of poles on the right-hand side of the complex plane gives rise to different oscillation modes, related here to the eigenvectors of the circulant active-device immitance matrix. This paper shows that the stability properties of detected modes depend on both the order of appearance from dc regime, in a sequence of Hopf bifurcations, and the bifurcations undergone by each steady-state mode until reaching the final operation point, when changing a bias voltage, for instance. Thus, the stability analysis must combine a bifurcation analysis from dc regime and a bifurcation analysis of each individual oscillation mode in large-signal regime. The large-signal stability analysis presented shows the possible stabilization mechanisms, which lead to the common physical observation of some of these modes. The stabilization of the desired mode, using concepts from bifurcation theory, is also presented. All techniques have been successfully applied to a ring oscillator at 12.6 GHz. View full abstract»

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  • Design of Low Phase-Noise Microwave Oscillator and Wideband VCO Based on Microstrip Combline Bandpass Filters

    Page(s): 3151 - 3160
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    This paper presents a new low phase-noise microwave oscillator and wideband voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) based on microstrip combline bandpass filters. For this type of oscillator, the passband filter is embedded into the feedback loop to treat as a frequency stabilization element. Instead of designing the oscillator at the group-delay-peak frequency of the filter to achieve a good phase-noise performance, in this paper, the peak frequency of the complex quality factor Qsc is adopted for oscillator design. To demonstrate the effectiveness of using Qsc-peak frequency, two filter-based oscillators are implemented at the Qsc-peak and group-delay-peak frequencies, respectively. The oscillator designed at the Qsc-peak frequency improves the phase-noise about 10 dB as compared with that realized at the group-delay-peak frequency. The developed oscillator with the three-pole combline filter is experimentally demonstrated at 2.05 GHz with -148.3-dBc/Hz phase noise at 1-MHz offset frequency. Moreover, by attaching a varactor on each resonator of the combline filter, the oscillator can be extended to a wideband VCO. The developed VCO has a frequency tuning range from 1.3 to 2.2813 GHz with a 54.8% bandwidth. Over this frequency range, all the phase noises measured at 1-MHz offset frequency are better than -117.19 dBc/Hz. View full abstract»

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  • Low-Power-Consumption Wide-Locking-Range Dual-Injection-Locked 1/2 Divider Through Simultaneous Optimization of VCO Loaded Q and Current

    Page(s): 3161 - 3168
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (700 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new 1/2 dual-injection-locked frequency divider (dual-ILFD) with wide locking range and low-power consumption is proposed, analyzed, and developed together with a divide-by-2 current-mode logic (CML) divider. The chip was fabricated using a 0.18-μm BiCMOS process. The 1/2 dual-ILFD enhances the locking range with low-power consumption through optimized load quality factor (QL) and output current amplitude (iOSC) simultaneously. The relationship between iOSC and QL, and hence the locking range, is explained analytically. The designed 1/2 dual-ILFD also works as a free-running oscillator between 3.592 and 4.102 GHz without injection signals. The 1/2 dual-ILFD achieves a locking range of 692 MHz between 7.512 and 8.204 GHz. The current consumption of the designed core 1/2 dual-ILFD is 2.93 mA with 1.5-V supply. The designed 1/2 dual-ILFD increases the locking range by 9.9 times over a single-injection counterpart. The new 1/2 dual-ILFD is especially attractive for microwave phase-locked loops and frequency synthesizers requiring low power and wide locking range. View full abstract»

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The IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques focuses on that part of engineering and theory associated with microwave/millimeter-wave components, devices, circuits, and systems involving the generation, modulation, demodulation, control, transmission, and detection of microwave signals. This includes scientific, technical, and industrial, activities. Microwave theory and techniques relates to electromagnetic waves usually in the frequency region between a few MHz and a THz; other spectral regions and wave types are included within the scope of the Society whenever basic microwave theory and techniques can yield useful results. Generally, this occurs in the theory of wave propagation in structures with dimensions comparable to a wavelength, and in the related techniques for analysis and design..

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