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Systems, Man and Cybernetics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Jan.-Feb. 1985

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Displaying Results 1 - 22 of 22
  • IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics [Cover]

    Page(s): 1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • On better mousetraps and basic research: Getting the applied world to the laboratory door

    Page(s): 2 - 8
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    Issues surrounding the relationship between the basic research community and the applied world are discussed. Considerations include the contrasting perspectives of the two worlds and the resulting differences in the ways in which design and evaluation are approached. These contrasts are used as a basis for suggesting mechanisms for improving transfer of basic research results to real world applications. View full abstract»

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  • An information theory model for the evaluation of circumstantial evidence

    Page(s): 9 - 16
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    The problem of assessing the weight of circumstantial evidence linking a suspect with the perpetrator of a crime is considered. The quantitative measure PG of weight of circumstantial evidence that is used is the probability that culprit and suspect may be identified with certainty as one and the same based solely upon the circumstantial evidence. A unifying model for evaluating PG taking into account expert testimony is established on the basis of the Kullback-Leibler discrimination information measure. This model is applied to deriving PG based upon a jurist's interpretation of the expert testimony. An important property of the model is the first-order agreement, as the testimony becomes compelling, of PGs based on different jurists' viewpoints. The methodology developed is applied to the well-known Collins case. View full abstract»

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  • The entropy of design: A study on the meaning of creativity

    Page(s): 16 - 30
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    A view on the design process based on the information flow that occurs during this process is presented. The detailing step paradigm is used as the modeling primitive, and the formalization is based on simple expressions and rules from information theory. A formal medium is provided for studying the relationship between the complexity of a design and the creativity involved in the design process. By making reasoning more precise when speaking about designing, creativity, model information, complexity, etc., understanding of the design process will increase. The aim is to improve the methods and techniques for the design of complex systems by formalizing the basic mechanisms involved and incorporating the acquired knowledge into these methods. View full abstract»

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  • The use of analogs in the innovation process: A software engineering protocol analysis

    Page(s): 30 - 44
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    A human information processing account of how experienced practitioners utilize analogues in the innovation process is presented. The protocols of several practitioners are collected and analyzed. The problem behavior graphs, knowledge elements utilized, and operator elements applied are described, and a descriptive model of the innovation process is assembled. Implications for a production system, deviations from other models of the innovation process, and extensions to other models of the analogy procedure are explored. View full abstract»

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  • Fuzzy multiattribute utility analysis for collective choice

    Page(s): 45 - 53
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    An extension of multiattribute utility analysis for the multiple-agent decision problem is presented. Although multiattribute utility analysis is concerned with decision-making under uncertainty, assessment of the parameters of the multiattribute utility functions is actually performed deterministically by the single decision-maker. The authors are concerned with fuzzy evaluation of the multiattribute utility function, which is based on fuzzy preference ordering and scaling constants using membership functions of fuzzy set theory. The fuzzy approach treats a conceptual imprecision that accrues from a multiplicity of evaluation. A fuzzy multiattribute utility function with multiple agent evaluation is derived. A computer package, ICOPSS/FR, for ensuring the transistivity of collective preference ordering in an agreement level is demonstrated for assessment of fuzzy multiattribute utility functions. View full abstract»

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  • Computer control via limited natural language

    Page(s): 54 - 68
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    A natural language processor is described for control of a machine in task-oriented situations. Particular emphasis is given to issues related to flow-of-control statements in dialogue. These include branching constructs, as in `if row 1 contains a positive entry, then . . .' and looping constructs, as in `repeat for all other rows'. Special problems are discussed concerning the processing of deeply nested control structures, pronoun resolution, and the handling of conjunctions. An experiment is described in which the robustness of the conditional feature was tested with a group of computer naive subjects. It was found that subjects could discover and use the feature effectively in solving problems even though the fact of its existence was systematically withheld during the training session. View full abstract»

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  • A mechanism for touch control of a sagittal five-link finger-hand

    Page(s): 69 - 77
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    A five-link planar model of a hand with one finger is developed. The actuators are analogous to muscle force generators. Three control problems, stability, maintaining a constrained motion, and control of the force of constraint, are considered in this model. Two feedback loops-one time-invariant and one time-varying-appear to be adequate for control purposes. Digital computer simulations are presented to confirm the control strategy and its effectiveness. View full abstract»

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  • A structured framework for the control of industrial manipulators

    Page(s): 78 - 90
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    A framework for the intelligent control of industrial manipulators is described. The control structure that is described is designed to take full advantage of the improved sensing capabilities and more powerful languages that have become, or are now becoming, available. The framework is a hierarchical structure is which the aspects of motion control are isolated in independent layers of the organization. A scheme for control that is nontraditional in orientation is introduced; it is specifically intended to operate in the framework presented. The control scheme is not strictly organized, but rather achieves the same pose in response to both the intended goal and the real-world conditions. Two adjacent layers of the hierarchy are discussed in detail. These layers are capable of providing noncompliant control of a multijointed manipulator. It is indicated where other aspects of intelligent machine control are located in this structure, but there are no details presented regarding their operating specifics such as vision, taction, and collision avoidance. View full abstract»

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  • Reorganization and diversification of signals in vision

    Page(s): 91 - 101
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    Extensive processing and reorganization of information are required as retinally generated signals flow centrally. Insight into some principles of the reorganization and transformations that occur in the early stages of the visual pathway, prior to the higher stages of pattern recognition, is provided through an analysis of receptive fields and cell counts. The rate of information flow is reduced approximately 100-fold by a retinal position-dependent (inhomogeneous) spatial sampling scheme. This principle of specialization, or nonuniform processing, is further elaborated in the retino-cortical mapping. In the central fovea, where the retinal spatial sampling rate is the highest and processing function is uniform, there are about 4000 striate cortical neurons receiving information from each cone. This number, which provides a measure of function multiplicity, drops to about 200 over the range of the near periphery. In the peripheral field beyond eight degrees, where information is compressed at the retina, the functional multiplicity stays approximately constant at 200. As it seems that no two cells perform exactly the same operation, it is concluded that the striate cortex performs many simultaneous functional mappings. View full abstract»

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  • Periodic optimization of a class of bilinear systems with application to control of cell proliferation and cancer therapy

    Page(s): 102 - 115
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    The authors are concerned with the optimization of a class of bilinear systems under an exponential stability constraint by periodic control functions. Such problems arise in many practical applications, a typical one being the design of optimal strategies for cancer chemotherapy by a suitable control of the proliferation kinetics of cell populations. To provide a focus to the approach used for optimization and the utility of periodic controls, this particular application is discussed in detail. An integration of a pharmacokinetic model with a multicompartmental model for cell proliferation is made. This is done in order to obtain a mathematical formulation of the problem of designing treatment strategies as a parameter optimization problem of determining the optimal dose and the optimal period for minimizing the total quantity of drug administered (and hence the host toxicity) under a specified rate of cure constraint. A procedure for solving this problem is developed, and an illustration is made by designing strategies for administering the phase-specific drug ara-c on L1210 leukemia. View full abstract»

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  • Fuzzy identification of systems and its applications to modeling and control

    Page(s): 116 - 132
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    A mathematical tool to build a fuzzy model of a system where fuzzy implications and reasoning are used is presented. The premise of an implication is the description of fuzzy subspace of inputs and its consequence is a linear input-output relation. The method of identification of a system using its input-output data is then shown. Two applications of the method to industrial processes are also discussed: a water cleaning process and a converter in a steel-making process. View full abstract»

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  • Computer understanding of air traffic control displays

    Page(s): 133 - 135
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    Possible aircraft collisions from a display of many aircraft are perceived by a human air traffic controller. In the work described, the computer understands the displayed aircraft conflict data by processing a global semantic representation of the displayed data. Understanding implies that the computer can represent and interpret the displayed data in a manner suggestive of an experienced human controller. The representation is called the conflict structure. The conflict structure and its use by an expert system that performs portions of the enroute air traffic control task are described. An example from a `live' air traffic control training problem is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • On the performance of edited nearest neighbor rules in high dimensions

    Page(s): 136 - 139
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    It is shown that, asymptotically, as the dimensionality of the space increases, the usual sample editing becomes independent. This makes an accurate calculation of performance in a high-dimensional space straightforward. Thus, with high dimensionality, the grouping given by J. Koplowitz and T.A. Brown (1981) is not necessary for determining the risk, and, similarly, the results presented by D.L. Wilson (1972) become very close to exact. View full abstract»

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  • Information energy of a fuzzy event and a partition of fuzzy events

    Page(s): 139 - 144
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    In order to define a measure of the information processed by a fuzzy event and by a partition of fuzzy events, the `information energy' provided by a fuzzy event and a partition of fuzzy events is considered. This measure integrates the statistical uncertainty resulting from the occurrence of events and the uncertainty of meaning of events that is expressed by the membership function. The functional information energy if formally similar to the Onicescu's information energy, which used an analogy to kinetic energy from mechanisms, although it is conceptually different. View full abstract»

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  • Detecting edge segments

    Page(s): 144 - 152
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    The performances of three classes of edge operators are evaluated. The three are conventional 3×3 operators with a connectivity test, sequential edge detectors using both edge strength and direction information, and edge detectors using large masks. Implementations of the sequential edge operators using both the edge strength and direction information to detect edge segments with smoothly varying edge direction and physical length are discussed. Results of applying these edge detectors to real-world images are also presented. View full abstract»

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  • A high-accuracy syntactic recognition algorithm for handwritten numerals

    Page(s): 152 - 158
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    A new set of topological features (primitives) for use with a syntactic classifier for high-accuracy recognition of handwritten numerals is proposed. The tree grammar used in this study makes it possible to achieve high-recognition speeds with minimal preprocessing of the test pattern. View full abstract»

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  • A representation theorem for linear pattern classifier training

    Page(s): 159 - 161
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    A new representation concept, named the teaching space approach, for the pattern classification training theory is proposed as an alternative to the feature space and the weight space approach used in the contemporary pattern classification theory. The concept is introduced formally by means of a representation theorem. A model of the training process is given by the theorem that makes transparent the essential factors of the pattern classification training. This result is significant in the development of a theory of teaching systems, which is relevant to areas such as pattern recognition, neural networks, associative memories, robot training, and human training. View full abstract»

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  • A differentiation / enhancement edge detector and its properties

    Page(s): 162 - 168
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    A differentiation/enhancement edge detector for noisy situations is proposed. The definition of the gradient has been initiated from the algorithm for finding a border in a binary picture. The advantages of this operator have been compared with those of other widely used operators. A measurement of error in extracting edges by thresholding the gradient has also been suggested, and for the detection of acceptable edges, the optimum threshold is chosen corresponding to the minima in the error function. View full abstract»

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  • A new approach to the design of reinforcement schemes for learning automata

    Page(s): 168 - 175
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    A new class of reinforcement schemes for learning automata that makes use of estimates of the random characteristics of the environment is introduced. Both a single automaton and a hierarchy of learning automata are considered. It is shown that under small values for the parameters, these algorithms converge in probability to the optimal choice of actions. By simulation it is observed that, for both cases, these algorithms converge quite rapidly. Finally, the generality of this method of designing learning schemes is pointed out, and it is shown that a very minor modification will enable the algorithm to learn in a multiteacher environment as well. View full abstract»

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  • Applications of fuzzy set theory

    Page(s): 175 - 189
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    A state-of-the-art review of the literature related to applications of fuzzy set theory, with special emphasis on fuzzy industrial controllers, is presented. It is demonstrated that fuzzy set theory is applicable to a wide range of practical problems and that simple fuzzy control algorithms do give good results. View full abstract»

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  • Contributors

    Page(s): 190 - 192
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    Freely Available from IEEE