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Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date March 1987

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 36
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Inside front cover]

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): c2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Utilize software rather than fight it

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Experimental results on a 9.2-GHz superconducting cavity stabilized oscillator

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 2 - 8
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    Experimental results of the frequency stabilization of a Gunn diode oscillator by a 9.2-GHz TM010 niobium superconducting cavity (unloaded Q=4×108) are described. The cavity is used as the frequency-determining element in a frequency discriminator circuit. The technique of frequency stabilization is reviewed. The frequency shift of the superconducting cavity stabilized oscillator (SCSO) induced by the mismatch of a square-law detector in the discriminator is studied. By improving this problem, the fractional frequency fluctuation due to room-temperature changes is reduced to less than 1×10-13/°C. The frequency stability of the SCSO is measured by comparing it with the auto-tuned hydrogen maser. The frequency stability of σy(τ) reached 1.4×10-14 at τ=500 s, after subtraction of the linear frequency drift. The measured SNR of the discriminator shows that even with the comparatively low Q cavity, short-term frequency stability of 1.4×10-14/√τ is achieved in the SCSO. The frequency fluctuation due to mechanical deformation of the cavity caused by the tilt and vibration of the dewar, however, seems to be serious. The measured acceleration sensitivity of the SCSO was 6.5×10-8/g for a vibration frequency of less than 80 Hz. View full abstract»

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  • Generalized injected voltage method for the establishment of multidecade inductive voltage divider standard

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 9 - 12
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (832 KB)  

    A generalized injected voltage (GIV) method for a multidecade inductive voltage divider (IVD) is described. This method can be used for calibration multidecade IVDs including not only each individual decade's settings but also combinations of decade settings in succession. The uncertainty of this method is estimated to be within 2×10-8 at 1 kHz and 2×10-7 at 10 kHz. An example of complete self-calibration for first and second decades of a multidecade IVD by the GIV method, and the corresponding data are given. View full abstract»

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  • Wide-range electronically tunable multifunctional OTA-C filter for instrumentation applications

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 13 - 17
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    A simple scheme is presented for realizing four standard second-order transfer functions, i.e. low-pass, high-pass, bandpass, and band-elimination. The system is implemented using only operational transconductance amplifiers (OTAs) and capacitors. The resulting circuit has the attractive feature of wide-range electronic tuning of pole frequency, bandwidth, and pole Q. These parameters may also be programmed digitally. The OTA-C filter achieves excellent sensitivity performance and is suitable for monolithic IC implementation. View full abstract»

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  • Minimization of reactive power under nonsinusoidal conditions

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 18 - 22
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
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    The author extends his earlier paper `Considerations on reactive power in nonsinusoidal situations' (see ibid., vol.IM-34, no.3, p.399-404, 1985) to compensation issues. IT is shown that the shunt LC compensator can minimize the reactive power of an RL load only if one of its parameters, L or C is fixed. A method of capacitance calculation is presented and it is shown that the inductance choice affects the harmonic suppression. The complexity of a compensator for the total compensation of reactive power is calculated and a method of synthesizing such a compensator is presented. View full abstract»

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  • Techniques for measuring the effective source reflection coefficient of two-resistor power splitters

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 23 - 28
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1233 KB)  

    Three techniques for measuring the effective source reflection coefficient of a two-resistor power splitter are discussed. Computing the coefficient from measured S parameters is sensitive to small measurement errors. Descriptions are given of two direct measurement methods that avoid such sensitivities. The more convenient one uses a passive open circuit on the input port of the splitter during measurements at the output ports. It yields acceptable results in many cases. Better results are obtained in all situations by injecting the proper signal at the input port. The three techniques are compared experimentally for two typical power splitters. View full abstract»

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  • Error minimization in time-constant measurements

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 29 - 31
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Time-constant measurements are often applied to determine parameters of exponential waves, and to find the value of capacitance or resistance in an RC circuit. The charging or discharging process is then monitored and the time distance, defined by two threshold levels, is precisely measured by means of a digital method. Analysis shows that proper choice of the thresholds can reduce a measurement error due to inaccuracy of threshold level calibration. View full abstract»

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  • Accurate spectral estimation from unequally spaced samples of exponentially damped sinusoidal signals

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 32 - 36
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    A method is presented to interpolate and extrapolate unequally spaced signals that are not bandlimited. This is achieved by utilizing the Gregory-Newton quadrature formula which circumvents aliasing without bandlimiting. With the Gregory-Newton quadrature formula, it is possible to compute the Fourier spectrum of the unequally spaced signals, which is not bandlimited. The effect of noise on the Gregory-Newton quadrature formula is observed. Specifically, the quality of interpolation, extrapolation, and the spectrum as a function of various signal-to-noise ratios is observed. This may be a useful technique for computing unaliased spectra of unequally spaced, damped sinusoidal signals having a signal-to-noise ratio greater than 20 dB. View full abstract»

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  • The recording and processing of pulsed laser diode spectra

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 37 - 43
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    A system capable of measuring and statistically analyzing wavelength and intensity fluctuations in pulsed-laser-diode output beams has been developed. The snapshot wavelength-intensity performance of laser diodes emitting discrete short-duration optical pulse is determined by isolating and recording individual pulses. Statistical processing of the resultant data generates information about the magnitude and/or frequency of occurrence of power variations of wavelength fluctuations in narrow optical bands. The system configuration, along with plots depicting results based on measurements taken for various laser diodes, are presented. View full abstract»

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  • An experimental investigation of transient torques

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 44 - 46
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    A technique is described for measuring and recording the torque generated by a prime mover over the full range of its speed. The prime mover chosen for the investigation is an induction motor in order to demonstrate that the technique can be used even on a motor whose torque over a wide range of speed cannot be readily measured by conventional steady-state methods. A method of measuring the transient motor torque, based on the principle of the reaction torque of a motor, is described. The transducer used in the torque measurement is a strain gauge. A description is given on the bridge and voltage amplifiers. The calibration of the torque output readings is explained. Torque-speed characteristics of the induction motor are obtained, and the accuracy of the measuring system for the starting torque and transient torque is discussed. One by-product of the investigation is the experimental verification of the presence of the switching-transient torque in an induction motor. View full abstract»

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  • Systematic errors in digital cross correlators due to quantization and differential nonlinearity

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 47 - 53
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1463 KB)  

    The errors in digital cross correlators caused by quantization and differential nonlinearity are discussed. It is shown that if there is sufficient uncorrelated noise, the effects of quantization are negligible. Analytic expressions for errors caused by differential nonlinearity in a cross correlator measuring Gaussian noise are derived. A procedure for calibrating digital cross correlators is outlined. The results of the analysis are verified to high accuracy by computer simulation of digital cross correlators based on nonideal analog-to-digital converters. The results find direct application in high-accuracy Johnson noise thermometry. View full abstract»

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  • Digital sampling laboratory wattmeter

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 54 - 59
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
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    A versatile laboratory multifunction wattmeter based on digital sampling has been developed for incorporation into a laboratory calibration system. The meter uses two 15-bit analog-to-digital converters and achieves an overall power measurement accuracy of 0.015% of applied volt-amperes at power line frequencies over the range of 100 mA to 100 A and 5-100 V. Although intended for system use through the IEEE standard 488 bus, the meter can be used as a standalone instrument if required. View full abstract»

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  • A 4-GHz band low-noise measurement system

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 60 - 66
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    A 4-GHz-band noise measurement system has been built for calibrating microwave low-noise sources accurately. The system reduces the contribution of several errors occurring in conventional systems. The system is composed of a highly stable and sensitive Dicke-type comparison radiometer, whose front end is cooled with liquid nitrogen, and two highly stable standard noise sources: one using liquid nitrogen and the other operating at the ice point. It is also computerized to provide automatic measurement operation and real-time data processing. The ultimate calibration error is within about ±0.4 K, for all temperatures up to 350 K, and is within ±0.2 K near 80 K and 273 K. View full abstract»

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  • Uncertainties in radiofrequency dielectric measurements of biological substances

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 67 - 70
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    Capacitive sample holders and an automatic network analyzer are used to measure dielectric properties of biological tissues in vivo and in vitro at a controlled temperature in the frequency range of 10 kHz-100 MHz. An analysis of uncertainty is performed leading to the optimization of the sensor and the measurement system. Under optimized conditions, one sample holder can be used over the entire frequency range, and uncertainties below ±3% in the dielectric constant and ±1% in the loss factor are achieved for high water content tissues (blood, muscle, brain, liver, kidney, and spleen). View full abstract»

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  • Instrumentation for high-speed image connectivity

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 71 - 76
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    For flexible manufacturing, sorting, parts handling, etc., there are but a few object identification and tracking techniques that can approach or attain the speed requirements for real-time measurements on sequential images. One of the subtasks involved in the object identification process is the grouping of previously classified pixels into objects that can then be identified and located. Significant improvement has been attained in the implementation of a fast connectivity analysis algorithm, using a specially designed run length encoder and a high-speed digital signal processing chip. View full abstract»

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  • Application of MOSFET's in the temperature compensation of DC amplifiers

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 77 - 82
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1182 KB)  

    A new application of metal oxide silicon field-effect transistor (MOSFET) devices is presented for solving the problem of drift in the characteristics of DC amplifiers under the effect of temperature variations in the range of 20-75°C. Expressions for the bias voltages and drain currents for operation at zero temperature coefficient for linear and nonlinear devices were derived. The validity of the derived expressions was checked experimentally for various samples of MOSFETs. These expressions were used to design the MOSFET stage to compensate for the drift of the DC amplifier. The amplifier has proved to be very reliable and can be adjusted for practically zero drift over a narrow band of temperatures. The drift was about 40 μV/°C over the range of 20-75°C and about 10 μV/°C over the range of 50-70°C. The 3-dB point in the frequency response is about 1.7 MHz. The overall gain is about 750 and the amplifier is capable of supplying a peak-to-peak output voltage of 3.0 V. View full abstract»

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  • Displacement measurement by SAW delay-line oscillator consisting of two LiNbO3 plates with IDT

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 83 - 86
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    A displacement sensor can be made by constructing a surface acoustic wave (SAW) delay-line oscillator, in which two LiNbO3 plates with an interdigital transducer (IDT) on the surface of each plate are conjoined by attaching a part of the propagation surface of one plate to a part of the propagation surface of the other. In the SAW sensor, the oscillation frequency depends on propagation path length of the SAW element, which is changed by moving one of two LiNbO3 plates of the oscillator. It is shown that SAW displacement sensors with high sensitivity, 300 Hz/μm and 1.0 kHz/μm, were achieved by making IDTs of 6.5 pairs with 0.55-mm pitch and those of 5 pairs with 0.4-mm pitch on the surface of Y-X LiNbO3 plates, respectively. The mode transition of the SAW delay-line oscillator, which occurred at certain propagation path lengths, was observed by using a spectrum analyzer. View full abstract»

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  • A microcomputer-based programmable temperature controller

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 87 - 91
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The authors have designed an automatic electronic temperature controller using an analog-to-digital converter, a digital-to-analog converter and a power device controlled by the phase of the power supply current. An Apple II microcomputer controls the heating or cooling in response to the digitized data, and can be set to control a wide range of nonlinear and repetitive processes. Need for continuous attention or manual adjustment is eliminated. Software programs developed in this system are simple to use and provide versatility in programming temperature ranges and timing of processes. View full abstract»

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  • A programmable function generator for dynamic analysis testing

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 92 - 95
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    A flexible function generator with high-resolution programmability of frequency, amplitude, and DC offset has been developed for structural dynamics testing. The generator consists of a clock generator which defines the signal frequency and memory tables which define the signal functions. In order to obtain a fast-settling, stable, accurate variable clock signal, a frequency-locked-loop circuit was developed. View full abstract»

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  • A microcomputer-controlled multichannel programmable pattern generator

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 96 - 99
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    The design of a single-board, microcomputer-controlled, digital pattern generator is discussed. The generator provides eight synchronous, TTL-compatible, NRZ channels. The controller is a 6502-based Rockwell AIM 65 microcomputer. The generator master clock frequency is 10 MHz, but a single vector can be delayed from 100 ns to 99000 s. Programmable delays avoid wasting memory in applications requiring short bursts of data followed by long steady-state conditions. Memory depth per channel is 100. The operational speed of the generator is independent of that of the controller. An interactive menu-driven program supports entry and editing of vectors for the sequence. After the sequence is transferred to the generator board, the generator can be started or reset locally, or by remote action. The generator can be configured in the burst or continuous modes. Features of the design are simplicity, low cost, flexibility for expansion of the number of channels and memory depth per channel, conversion into an arbitrary waveform generator, application as a square-wave function generator from 5 μHz to 5 MHz with programmable duty cycle, and seven supporting channels for trigger. The generator has been applied in the characterization of nonvolatile semiconductor memory transistors. View full abstract»

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  • Microcomputer-aided measurement equipment for performance monitoring of a digital radio-relay system in the presence of multipath propagation

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 100 - 103
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (822 KB)  

    A microcomputer-controlled radio-communication controller (μCC) was designed and constructed to analyze and measure a `true' error rate in a high-capacity digital radio link and to record fast-level variations of received radio frequency power (IF amplifier-AGC voltage) for a better characterization of propagation anomalies. The μCC represents a high-performance measuring device for ascertaining bit, block, and burst errors on out-of-service digital radios, to provide information on the performance degradation owing to the presence of propagation anomalies. The error measurement criteria were chosen specifically to evaluate parameters relating to the CCIR criterion of accuracy. Performance results and a burst statistic are reported. View full abstract»

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  • An accurate method for the measurement of line frequency and its deviation using a microprocessor

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 104 - 109
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1128 KB)  

    A digital method for the accurate measurement and display of line frequency and its deviation from its nominal value is described. The method is based on counting a number of high-frequency pulses proportional to the line period, and then calculating the line frequency and its deviation in a microprocessor system that also provides the monitoring functions. The method provides a resolution of one millihertz and an accuracy better than a millihertz plus the tolerance and stability of the high-frequency crystal clock used. View full abstract»

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  • High-resolution instrumentation radar

    Publication Year: 1987 , Page(s): 110 - 114
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    An instrumentation radar that uses a chirp waveform to achieve high-range resolution is described. High-range-resolution instrumentation radars evaluate the target response to operational waveforms used in high-performance radars and/or obtain display of the individual target scattering mechanisms to letter understand the scattering process. This particular radar was efficiently constructed from a combination of commercially available components and in-house fabricated circuitry. This instrumentation radar operates at X-band and achieves a 4.9-in.-range resolution. A key feature of the radar is the combination of amplitude weighting with a high degree of waveform fidelity to achieve a good range sidelobe performance. This range sidelobe performance is important to avoid masking lower-level target returns in the range sidelobes of higher-level target returns. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Papers are sought that address innovative solutions to the development and use of electrical and electronic instruments and equipment to measure, monitor and/or record physical phenomena for the purpose of advancing measurement science, methods, functionality and applications.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Prof. Alessandro Ferrero
Dipartimento di Elettrotecnica
Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32
Politecnico di Milano
Milano 20133 Italy
alessandro.ferrero@polimi.it
Phone: 39-02-2399-3751
Fax: 39-02-2399-3703