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Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date Dec. 1976

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 72
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 1
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 1
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  • [Inside front cover]

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): c2
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  • Preface

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 281 - 282
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  • Editorially speaking

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 283
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  • The continuing vitality of electromagnetic measurements

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 284 - 285
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    MR. CHAIRMAN, members, and guests of CPEM. There are at least two reasons why I feel honored in being asked to address this meeting. First, the mark of excellence that characterizes the conference — a dynamic, up-to-date conference of international importance, one that has continued to maintain its scientific and technological interest during the 18 years of existence; and second, because I find in looking back through the record, that, I join a prestigious list of others who have served in the same capacity as keynote speaker. View full abstract»

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  • Precise submillimeter-wave spectrometry of gases

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 286 - 289
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    The UK NPL program of submillimeter-wave absorption measurements on gases is described. The instrumentation is capable of giving absorption line centres to an absolute accuracy of ±0.003 cm−1 (±100 MHz) in the spectral region 10–40 cm−1 (300 GHz–1.2 THz). As well as setting standards of measurement precision at submillimeter wavelengths, the Fourier spectrometer described is being used to compile an atlas of standard spectra at these wavelengths. The results and relevance of measurements on ozone, some fréons and isotopically substituted water vapor are discussed. Examples are given of measurement capability in respect of relative and absolute intensities. View full abstract»

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  • High-precision dielectric measurements on liquids and solids at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 290 - 294
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
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    A brief outline is given of the improvements which have been made in the measurement techniques available for the determination of the complex relative permittivity of liquids and low-loss solids in the frequency range v = 100 GHz to 18 THz. These improvements involve very stable interferometric systems with either dielectric beam splitters for the upper frequency end or else free standing wire grid beam splitters for the lower frequency end, novel cell designs, the use of sensitive detectors, and of new computational procedures. The results can be checked by independent spot frequency measurements using HCN and H2O lasers coupled to an improved Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The optical properties of the polymeric (polyethylene, TPX, polypropylene, PTFE) and single crystal (quartz, silicon germanium) windows now assume an increased importance and we have determined refractive index n (v) and power absorption coefficient α(v) to much improved precision. With our present technique we can now determine the complex permittivity of very heavily absorbing liquids such as primary alcohols and water as far as 6 THz and beyond in favorable cases as functions of frequency over a wide temperature range. View full abstract»

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  • Sweep frequency transfer function measurement applied to optical fiber

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 294 - 297
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Up to now, most of the experimental work on propagation through optical fibers was done using pulse measurements techniques. Short-light-pulse sources almost monochromatic and easy to drive to high-peak-power pulses are available on the optoelectronic components market; this is one of the main reasons why fiber manufacturers characterize their fibers by the broadening of the transmitted light pulse. This parameter does not provide enough information on the fiber behavior to the digital transmission system experts, unless one assumes a very-stable pulse shape at the fiber input and uses fast Fourier transform computation on time-domain signals. This paper presents the more classical technique which is being used on transmission cables and devices. The central unit is the network analyzer which can simultaneously provide attenuation versus frequency and phase rotation versus frequency of any optoelectronic device coupled between the reference and the test inputs. Various light sources have been selected for their sinusoidal modulation facilities; most of our measurements were made with fast-light-emitting diodes (GaAlAs 0.82 μm) and some of them with a CW injection laser (GaAlAs 0.82 μm). View full abstract»

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  • A 1–18-Ghz attenuator calibrator

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 298 - 306
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    This single-channel parallel IF substitution system performs attenuator calibrations in a stepped frequency mode to 110 dB through 1–18 GHz, with the accuracy of a fixed frequency system. Measurement time is reduced and operation is simplified by use of two digitally controlled, frequency-locked oscillators as signal source and local oscillator, a 30-MHz precision digital substitution standard and an adaptive bandwidth closed-loop substitution technique. Incident power and source impedance at the insertion point are established by a precision broad-band power splitter and a leveling loop using a barretter as the microwave detector. The load impedance is established by a low mismatch masking attenuator. Measurement sequences can be controlled manually or by a programmable calculator which processes the data. The IF substitution process when under calculator control is terminated when a signal buried in the noise is recovered and the servo-loop is balanced. View full abstract»

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  • A reflectometer and power-ratio technique for the measurement of low values of waveguide attenuation

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 307 - 311
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    The device under test, which is terminated in a sliding short-circuit, is connected to the measurement plane of a tuned waveguide reflectometer and dc voltages, proportional to the incident and reflected power levels, are balanced, for various short positions, to yield the dissipative component of attenuation. Provision of a switched reference arm in the reflectometer enables the effects of thermal and mechanical changes to the apparatus during a measurement to be minimized. Remaining sources of error are due to power meter zero offset, power meter linearity and mismatch. 99.7-percent confidence levels for a component with a mean total attenuation of 0.1290 dB, at 7.3 GHz, are ±0.0014 dB; the maximum deviation, of the five results, from the mean is 0.0002 dB. View full abstract»

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  • Maximum limits of efficiency for low-loss reciprocal adapters

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 312 - 314
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    Since the efficiency ηαl of an adapter for connecting two different transmission lines is a function of the reflection coefficient of the adapter termination, it will be different for each new use of the adapter. This paper suggests two estimates of ηαl for low-loss reciprocal adapters. Maximum limits of error are given in terms of the magnitude of the load reflection coefficient for one estimate ηα0, which is the efficiency of the adapter when terminated in a matched load. Similar error limits are given for the second, more precise estimate, which requires accurate knowledge of both ηα0 and ηα, the maximum efficiency of the adapter. View full abstract»

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  • Repeatability of SMA coaxial connectors

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 314 - 320
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (909 KB)  

    SMA connectors in three different configurations were investigated for variation of reflection coefficient magnitude and insertion loss for a given SMA connector connect-disconnect sequence. Repeatability measurements were taken over the frequency range of 2 to 18 GHz on the NBS Automatic Network Analyzer. Plots are given that show the SMA connector repeatability for both reflection coefficient magnitude and insertion loss as a function of frequency. View full abstract»

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  • Launcher and microstrip characterization

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 320 - 323
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
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    A method for identifying scattering parameters of launchers and uniform microstrips is presented. It is shown that 8 complex measurements (magnitude and phase) on two microstrips which are different only in length, inserted between two launchers, can give, with suitable algebraic treatment, the S-parameters of either the microstrips and the launchers. This technique is promising for deembedding active devices as well for microstrip discontinuities. View full abstract»

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  • Measuring and minimizing diode detector nonlinearity

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 324 - 329
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
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    This paper describes two techniques for measuring the linearity of amplitude detectors in general, and for measuring the deviation from square-law E of point-contact diode detectors in particular. A general mathematical model is given for determining the RF input power as a function of the detector output voltage. It is shown how to choose the value and the temperature coefficient of the video load resistance to minimize E and make E independent of temperature. View full abstract»

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  • Scattering parameters of SMA coaxial connector pairs

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 329 - 334
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    A technique is described for making reflection and insertion loss measurements on microwave connectors, without the need for reference to calibrated or precision standards. The effects of connectors used in the measuring system are removed from the results, thus providing a means for testing and selecting cables from a group for specific critical applications. Results are given for a group of eight sections of Type 141 solid dielectric line having SMA connectors, and generic behavior is predicted for the SMA connector. View full abstract»

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  • Development and evaluation of a set of group delay standards

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 335 - 342
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    Group delay standards of 15,30, and 60 ns have been developed at JPL. Calibration data provided by NBS and others are presented and compared. Calibrations were performed at microwave frequencies of 2113,2295, and 8415 MHz as well as at a baseband modulation frequency of 500 kHz. The uncertainties of the measurement and effects of dispersion and cable reflections are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • A new self-balancing DC-substitution RF power meter

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 343 - 347
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
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    Problems intrinsic in self-balancing Wheatstone bridges have led to the development of a new dc substitution microwave power meter. The new instrument allows four-terminal measurement of bolometer resistance and affords improved accuracy and lower noise at a lower cost than earlier instruments. Measurement errors due to imperfect behavior of the servo system are typically less than 0.01 percent. View full abstract»

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  • Microwave power measurement using absorption spectrum of ammonia gas

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 348 - 352
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    A microwave power measurement technique using power saturation effect of the ammonia-gas spectrum is described. The absolute value of the power irradiated on the gas at resonance frequency is measured by detecting the fractional decrease of resonance absorption. Experiments carried out at 23.870 GHz, (J, K) = (3,3) inversion spectrum of ammonia 14NH3, are in agreement with the values calibrated by the calorimetrie power standard, within several percent of the error of the apparatus used. By improvements on the resolution of attenuation measurement and the estimation of the relaxation time constant, the error in power measurement could be less than ±1 percent. This technique could also be applied to the power measurement at many different frequency points in microwave and millimeter-wave region, where a huge number of spectral lines of various gases and their isotopie variants are found. View full abstract»

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  • Nuclear magnetic resonance thermometry at ultra-low temperature

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 352 - 356
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    The electromagnetic signal of NMR in pure metallic samples emerges as the most reliable technique for measuring low temperatures from 1 K to below 1 mK (10−3 K). This fact stems from the self-consistency of the temperature measurement by NMR, which relies on the Curie law and the Korringa law separately. Samples of Pt, Al, and Cu have been studied with a careful evaluation of the effect of magnetic impurities. Finally the temperatures of the remarkable features of the 3He melting curve which may be regarded as thermometric fixed points have been measured. View full abstract»

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  • A precision nuclear quadrupole resonance thermometer

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 357 - 362
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    A fully automatic precision thermometer using the NQR absorption of KCIO3 has been developed. The temperature absorption signal is automatically “searched.” The search frequency is locked to the center of the absorption signal and is converted to a temperature scale. Temperature readings from 77 to 374 K, with accuracy, reproducibility, and stability confirmed to ±1 mK at the triple point of water have been obtained. View full abstract»

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  • Precision measurement of backscattering cross-sections as a function of frequency

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 363 - 370
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    For a scattering measurement setup comparisons are made between different modes of operation. In order to make the comparisons, a simple procedure is outlined so that a figure of merit characterizing a given mode can be found. Figures of merit are found for three modes of operation. The different modes of operation are characterized by the manner in which the test object signal is separated from undesired signals such as background and support scattered signals. The setup and the analysis of the measured signals in the different modes of operation are discussed in detail. View full abstract»

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  • Time-domain spectroscopy of dielectric materials

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 371 - 375
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
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    The uses are discussed of formulas derived by input admittance analysis for the complex permittivity of dielectric samples, placed in a matched coaxial line or terminating it, as a function of the Fourier transforms of the incident and reflected real time pulses observed in time-domain spectroscopy. Precautions to be taken for dielectrics with appreciable ohmic conductance are described, and it is also shown that magnetic permeabilities of linear isotropie materials can be obtained by measurements of open- and short-circuited samples. View full abstract»

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  • High-sensitivity picosecond time-domain reflectometry

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 376 - 379
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    The combination of a time-domain reflectometer, signal averager, and lock-in amplifier is shown to increase the amplitude sensitivity of the reflectometer by a factor of about 200 for observing small, multiple transmission line reflections. Replacing the signal averager by a second lock-in amplifier increases the sensitivity further by a factor of 10, but this method is only suitable for measuring reflections from a single point. In the latter case, the minimum, detectable shunt capacitive discontinuity (signal-to-noise ratio of unity, Z0 = 50 Ω) is about 5 aF (1 aF = 10−6 pF); the corresponding value for a series inductive reflection is 10 fH (1 fH = 10−3 pH). The time window drift must be very low to achieve such sensitivity. Methods are described which reduce the intrinsic drift by about a factor of 500 to 20 fs. In precision 7-mm coaxial line, relatively pure shunt “capacitors,” below 0.5 fF, and series “inductors,” below 1 pH, have been constructed and measured using these techniques. View full abstract»

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  • Impulse generator spectrum amplitude measurement techniques

    Publication Year: 1976 , Page(s): 380 - 384
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Various techniques that have been used to calibrate impulse generators and to measure spectrum amplitude are surveyed. A summary of experiments comparing the various techniques is included. The NBS measurement service for calibrating impulse generators is described. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Papers are sought that address innovative solutions to the development and use of electrical and electronic instruments and equipment to measure, monitor and/or record physical phenomena for the purpose of advancing measurement science, methods, functionality and applications.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Prof. Alessandro Ferrero
Dipartimento di Elettrotecnica
Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32
Politecnico di Milano
Milano 20133 Italy
alessandro.ferrero@polimi.it
Phone: 39-02-2399-3751
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