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Computers, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 12 • Date Dec. 1985

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Displaying Results 1 - 16 of 16
  • Introduction — Distributed computing

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1069 - 1070
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  • List of referees

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1071
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  • A distributed VLSI architecture for efficient signal and data processing

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1072 - 1087
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    The machine described, the Hughes Data-Flow Multiprocessor (HDFM), is a high-performance, scalable, fault-tolerant, highly programmable multicomputer designed for embedded signal and data processing applications. The architecture of the machine is described in detail, and the influences on the final design of various requirements such as weight, size, power consumption, performance level and reliability are shown. The processing elements have been designed to reduce the number of VLSI component types required and for modularity of the physical system. The modular nature of the architecture allows a range of throughput and reliability requirements to be met. The model of execution, derived from original data-flow principles, is presented, as well as the various software tools which give the system its high-level language programmability. Complex constructs (such as large structure handling) are demonstrated. The results of a deterministic simulation of the machine show that a 64-processing-element machine may provide real throughput of 64 million instructions per second (MIPS). View full abstract»

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  • A cost-effective multistage interconnection network with network overlapping and memory interleaving

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1088 - 1101
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    A cost-effective design is proposed for circuit-switching multistage interconnection networks (CSMINs). Increase of the network bandwidth and reduction of the network size (and thus low costs) are accomplished by network overlapping and memory interleaving (NOMI), instead of by increasing the number of switches or adding buffers. NOMI and its control principle are described on the basis of the structure and interconnection functions of CSMINs. Detailed accounts of both the network design and the drastic reduction in hardware costs are given. The impact of NOMI on system performance is also analyzed. View full abstract»

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  • The trace specification of communications protocols

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1102 - 1113
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
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    A methodology for the formal specification of communications protocols is described. Communications protocol software offers special specification problems, because typically such software connects computers which are widely distributed geographically and differ in model, manufacturer and operating system. The specification method discussed is a modified version of traces, which were originally developed as a general technique for software specification. The author first describes the trace language and presents several examples. He then describes the trace methodology, illustrated with a specification of Stenning's protocol. He summarizes his experience of using the methodology to write specifications of major portions of two commercial standards: the Advanced Data Communications Control Protocol (ADCCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP). It is concluded that traces are a feasible technique for formal specification of communications protocols. View full abstract»

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  • HPC: A model of structure and change in distributed systems

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1114 - 1129
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
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    Distributed systems must provide certain fundamental facilities, including communication, protection, resource management, reliability and process (computation) abstraction. The authors describe the design of HPC, an object-oriented model of interprocess relationships for distributed systems which addresses all of these fundamental services. The major novelties of HPC lie in the extension of the process abstraction to collections of processes and the provision of a rich set of structuring mechanisms for distributed computations. An important aspect of the model is that it results in the ability to maintain and exploit execution context for managing processes in a distributed computation. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of a flexible task scheduling algorithm for distributed hard real-time systems

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1130 - 1143
    Cited by:  Papers (58)
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    Most systems which are required to operate under severe real-time constraints assume that all tasks and their characteristics are known a priori. Scheduling of such tasks can be done statistically. Further, scheduling algorithms operating under such conditions are usually limited to multiprocessor configurations. The authors present a scheduling algorithm which works dynamically and on loosely coupled distributed systems for tasks with hard real-time constraints; i.e., the tasks must meet their deadlines. It uses a scheduling component local to every node and a distributed scheduling scheme which is specifically suited to hard real-time constraints and other timing considerations. Periodic tasks, nonperiodic tasks, scheduling overheads, communication overheads due to scheduling and preemption are all accounted for in the algorithm. Simulation studies are used to evaluate the performance of the algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • Resource scheduling for local computer systems with a multiaccess network

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1144 - 1157
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    A study of resource scheduling based on a distributed state-dependent discipline for a system of processors connected by a local multiaccess network is made. The scheduling problem is reduced to the identification of the extremum from a set of physically dispersed random numbers. The authors propose an efficient method of utilizing the primitive operations of collision detection and broadcast in multiaccess networks to efficiently distribute status information and to identify the extremum. The optimal performance of extremum identification is found to be constant and on the average independent of the number of contending processors. The protocol can be implemented either by minor hardware modification of existing multiaccess-network interfaces or in software. View full abstract»

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  • System architecture for partition-tolerant distributed databases

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1158 - 1163
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    An overview is presented of an approach to distributed database design which emphasizes high availability in the face of network partitions and other communication failures. This approach is appropriate for applications which require continued operation and can tolerate some loss of integrity of the data. Each site presents its users and application programs with the best possible view of the data which it can, based on those updates which it has received so far. Mutual consistency of replicated copies of data is ensured by using time stamps to establish a known total ordering on all updates issued, and by a mechanism which ensures the same final result regardless of the order in which a site actually receives these updates. A mechanism is proposed, based on alerters and triggers, by which applications can deal with exception conditions which may arise as a consequence of the high-availability architecture. A prototype system which demonstrates this approach is near completion. View full abstract»

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  • Connection-oriented versus connectionless protocols: A performance study

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1164 - 1173
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
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    The impact of various implementations of an end-to-end transport service on the performance of high-volume data transfers in a local-area network is investigated. The impact of using a connection-oriented logical-link control (LLC) protocol below a connection-oriented transport protocol is of particular interest. The performance measure is the throughput which can be achieved between two stations either from memory to memory or from disk to disk. The throughput was determined by simulation for various combinations of differing LLC protocols, disk models and processor speeds. The parameters for the simulation model were determined partially by measurements of an implemented file server. The results show that the performance penalty of a connection-oriented LLC protocol can be substantial, but can be significantly lowered when an acknowledgment accumulation strategy is applied. View full abstract»

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  • Implementation and performance of pipes in the V-System

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1174 - 1178
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The measured performance of pipes implemented by a pipe server process on top of the V message passing transport protocol is compared with the calculated performance of pipes implemented by an operating system kernel and supported by a dedicated protocol. The author describes the implementation of pipes in the V system and presents measurements of their performance. He then calculates the performance of pipes when implemented in the kernel and supported by a dedicated protocol. The performance loss as a result of using the pipe server is shown to be about 8% for network pipes and about 25% for local pipes. Given these figures and given the fact that messages and not pipes are the principal means of interprocess communication in V, it is concluded that it is quite practical to implement pipes by a process using message passing, thereby avoiding the need for additional kernel and protocol complexity. View full abstract»

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  • Distributed data structures: A case study

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1178 - 1185
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
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    In spite of the amount of work recently devoted to distributed systems, distributed applications are relatively rare. One hypothesis to explain this scarcity of examples is a lack of experience with algorithm design techniques tailored to an environment in which out-of-date and incomplete information is the rule. Since the design of data structures is an important aspect of traditional algorithm design, the author feels that it is important to consider the problem of distributing data structures. She investigates these issues by developing a distributed version of an extensible hash file, which is a dynamic indexing structure which could be useful in a distributed database. View full abstract»

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  • Distributed computation via active messages

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1185 - 1190
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    An extension to the token ring protocol which allows a special type of arithmetic, called shift arithmetic, to be performed directly on the node's interfaces is proposed. The new protocol is based on an approach in which the communication channel and the interfaces form an environment in which simple commands can be executed. Each command operates on operands located at the interfaces, and places the result at the interface which initiated the command. The commands utilize the mandatory 1-bit delay of the token ring protocol to implement arithmetic and logical operations on the operands without further delay. The goal of this protocol is to enhance the performance of distributed algorithms on ring networks by performing many simple tasks in the lowest possible level. The authors show that this protocol is especially useful for load sharing in local area networks. Other potential application areas include parallel algorithms, distributed simulation, distributed operating systems, distributed databases and real-time computations. View full abstract»

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  • Speculative computation, parallelism, and functional programming

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1190 - 1193
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
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    Many problems can be solved more quickly on parallel machines if some work can be started before it is known to be necessary. If work which is known to be necessary (mandatory work) is given priority over other work (speculative work), then performing speculative work can only speed computation. A simple functional language feature to control speculative work is proposed. View full abstract»

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  • Author index

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1 - 9
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  • IEEE copyright form

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 1 - 2
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The IEEE Transactions on Computers is a monthly publication with a wide distribution to researchers, developers, technical managers, and educators in the computer field.

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Editor-in-Chief
Paolo Montuschi
Politecnico di Torino
Dipartimento di Automatica e Informatica
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e-mail: pmo@computer.org