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Consumer Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date August 2012

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 57
  • IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics - Table of contents

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  • IEEE Consumer Electronics Society

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  • IEEE Consumer Electronics Society Administrative Committee

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  • 2012 IEEE Consumer Electronics Society Officers and Committee Chairs

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  • Unequal error protection scheme based hierarchical 16-QAM for 3-D video transmission

    Page(s): 731 - 738
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1778 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, an unequal error protection (UEP) scheme based on hierarchical quadrature amplitude modulation (HQAM) for three-dimensional (3-D) video transmission is proposed. The proposed scheme exploits unique characteristics of the color plus depth map stereoscopic video, where the color sequence has a more significant impact on the reconstructed video quality. The UEP scheme assigns more protection to the color sequence than the depth map so as to achieve high quality 3-D video. Different levels of protection are assigned through hierarchical 16-QAM. The color data with high priority (HP) are mapped onto the most significant bits (MSBs) of the 16- QAM constellation points and the depth map with low priority (LP) are mapped onto the less significant bits (LSBs). Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed UEP scheme outperforms the conventional equal error protection (EEP) schemes by up to 5 dB in terms of the received left and right views quality. View full abstract»

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  • Design and implementation of a low-power OFDM receiver for wireless communications

    Page(s): 739 - 745
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (789 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM) systems can efficiently combat the issue of frequency-selective fading channels. Therefore, OFDM has become one of the most popular baseband modulation techniques for wireless communications. This paper presents the design and implementation of a low-power OFDM baseband receiver for wireless local area networks (WLAN). The proposed architecture employs low-power register files and resource-sharing techniques, thus consuming less power than many existing works. The proposed design adopts a number of area-efficient hardware structures to further reduce the hardware cost. Finally, because it is designed using 0.18 μm CMOS technology, the core of the proposed chip has approximately 239K gates, and its power consumption is approximately 36 mW at 20 MHz. View full abstract»

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  • Video streaming exploiting multiple-antenna techniques of wirelessMAN-advanced systems

    Page(s): 746 - 751
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (544 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a novel video streaming technique is proposed for the recently standardized IEEE802.16m system also known as the Wireless MAN-Advanced or WIMAX2 system. The antenna mode considered is single user spatially multiplexed (SUSM) transmission suitable for video streaming. In previous works, the linear signal detection method was used in order to achieve unequal error protection (UEP). In this paper, it is shown that a joint signal detection method can also be used to achieve UEP. Computer simulations demonstrate improved performance using the proposed method. In the simulations, H.264/AVC compressed video is used, and the PHY layer procedures such as resource unit allocation, convolutional turbo code (CTC), pilot tone insertion, and pre-coding are implemented in strict accordance with the IEEE 802.16m standard. View full abstract»

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  • Nonlinear companding transform technique for reducing PAPR of ODFM signals

    Page(s): 752 - 757
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (736 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper a novel nonlinear companding transform (NCT) scheme based on the inverse hyperbolic sine function is proposed for reducing the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals. By introducing the variable companding parameters and an inflexion point in the companding function, it enables more design flexibility and freedom in companding form so that an effective trade-off between the PAPR and bit error rate (BER) performance can be offered. Moreover, the theoretical study reveals that, to approach a desired PAPR threshold, it is preferable for the proposed scheme to make the companding distortion as small as possible with appropriate selection of the companding parameters and forms. The analysis expressions regarding the achievable PAPR reduction, transform gain G, and signal attenuation factor are derived. Simulation results also demonstrate that this scheme can substantially outperform existing NCT techniques. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and design of coding and interleaving in a MIMO-OFDM communication system

    Page(s): 758 - 766
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2642 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Use of Wireless communications for Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) in consumer electronics has increased significantly in the recent past. This paper, presents the performance analysis of four different channel coding and interleaving schemes for MIMO-OFDM communications systems. A comparison is done based on the BER, hardware implementation resources requirement, and power dissipation. It also presents a memory-efficient and low-latency interleaver implementation technique for the MIMO-OFDM communication system. It is shown that among the four coding and interleaving schemes studied, the cross-antenna coding and per-antenna interleaving performs the best under all SNR conditions and for all modulation schemes. It is also the best scheme as far as the hardware resource implication and power dissipation are concerned, which are particularly important in the context of consumer electronics. Next, using the proposed interleaver, a MIMO-OFDM based transmitter employing a double data stream 2×2 MIMO spatial multiplexing system is built. View full abstract»

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  • Human powered wireless charger for low-power mobile electronic devices

    Page(s): 767 - 774
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1185 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new wireless charger, named as Human-Powered Wireless Charger (HPWC), is proposed for low-power mobile electronic devices in this paper. Unlike conventional plug and socket charger, HPWC is not only a wireless one but also powered by human. It can harvest human energy, convert it into electricity, and then deliver to mobile electronics wirelessly. Theoretical analysis on the working principle of the HPWC has been performed. In addition, conceptual experiments have been carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of HPWC. The output characteristics of HPWC with two kinds of receiver coils have been tested when it works at different frequencies. It is shown that the maximum open-circuit voltage of this charger can reach 1280mV, when the number of coil turns in receiver is 700 and the rotation frequency of hand crank is 1.5Hz. Moreover, the output voltage of HPWC with a load has also been measured. The maximum output voltage of HPWC with a load of 75Ω approximates to 400mV and an effective power of 1.1mW is gained when the 700 turns coil in receiver is available and the rotation frequency of hand crank is 1.5Hz. These results suggest the important value of HPWC in future electronics. Further, improvement and extensive applications of HPWC have also been discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal design of a wireless power transfer system with multiple self-resonators for an LED TV

    Page(s): 775 - 780
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (778 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes an optimal design method in an asymmetric wireless power transfer (WPT) system for a 150 watt LED TV. The WPT system has three self-resonators: a Tx resonator, an Rx resonator, and an intermediate resonator. The Tx and Rx resonators are perpendicular and offset, respectively, to the intermediate resonator in the geometry. For optimal design, the WPT system is analyzed using an equivalent circuit. In particular, a calculation method for mutual inductance in the system is expressed. The calculation results of mutual inductance are used to determine the optimal position of each self-resonator for maximizing the power transfer efficiency. For verification, a WPT system for a 150 watt, 47 inch LED TV is fabricated at 250 kHz. The WPT system exhibits wireless power transfer efficiency of 80%. View full abstract»

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  • Implementation of automatic gas monitoring in a domestic energy management system

    Page(s): 781 - 786
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1680 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A domestic energy management system provides effective positive behaviour change by offering end users direct and ambient feedback based on their monitored energy consumption and experiences. DEHEMS, as a wide scale domestic energy monitoring and managing system differs from others by enabling real-time and historical electricity monitoring and feedback. However, there is also a requirement to be able to monitor and report domestic gas consumption in order to reason and represent more complete energy feedback information to achieve effect positive behaviour changes. In this paper, we present the gas monitoring system in DEHEMS, that implements automatic retrieval of gas readings. We describe how the system is designed, integrated within the DEHEMS architecture, as well as its implementation and deployment. View full abstract»

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  • Increasing reliability and availability in smart spaces: A novel architecture for resource and service management

    Page(s): 787 - 793
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2811 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Smart spaces are physical spaces where services provided by Consumer Electronics (CE) devices with varying resource availabilities work together to realize user-specific automated scenarios. These scenarios may be interrupted in case one of the services making up the scenario stops working, e.g. due to lack of resources, node failure or leave. Therefore, the user experience is highly dependent on the availability and reliability of smart space resources and services. This paper proposes an architecture for resource and service management in smart spaces. We present mechanisms for automatic node entry and exit, service discovery and matching, failure detection and recovery, and resource monitoring. The proposed architecture is evaluated in the context of a simple use case scenario. View full abstract»

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  • An intelligent self-adjusting sensor for smart home services based on ZigBee communications

    Page(s): 794 - 802
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4464 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been becoming increasingly essential in recent years because of their ability to manage real-time situational information for various novel services. Recently, the scope of WSN technologies has been expanded to places such as the home, in order to provide the residents with various intelligent services, such as home automation services or home energy management services. However, due to their architectural constraints, such as the trade-off between the performance and cost, WSNs are not effectively implemented in home environments. Therefore, this paper proposes a ZigBee-based intelligent self-adjusting sensor (ZiSAS) in order to address these concerns. This paper presents a situation-based selfadjusting scheme, an event-based self-adjusting sensor network, and hardware and middleware implementation. We also introduce some smart home services using the proposed system. We implemented our system in real test bed and conducted an experiment. Our experiment shows that we reduce the system's energy consumption. View full abstract»

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  • A new interface using image-based foot tracking for motion sensing devices

    Page(s): 803 - 809
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2991 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Foot interfacing has applications in games that require foot manipulation control using motion sensing devices. However, when part of a foot overlaps itself (selfocclusion), is out of the line of sight of the infrared sensor and it is then difficult to accurately capture foot pose. To overcome this problem, we propose a real-time motion sensing method based on 3-dimensional motion estimation. Our method employs pose parameters that are acquired using the ground plane and camera coordinates. This enables an assessment of the positions of the two joints that comprise a skeletal foot model. The proposed approach can capture a foot's 3-dimensional information that an infrared sensor may miss; therefore, motion sensing device's pose estimation results improve. According to the tracking and experimental results, the proposed method is applicable for use by motion sensing devices. View full abstract»

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  • Discovering and accessing peer-to-peer services in UPnP-based federated Domotic Islands

    Page(s): 810 - 818
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (348 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The growing availability of low-cost network-enabled consumer equipment is pushing for novel domotic scenarios characterized by a plethora of heterogeneous devices providing services in a peer-to-peer fashion. In particular, UPnP is widely recognized as the most spread and adopted industrial standard to support inter-device discovery and communication in home networks. However, UPnP scope is traditionally limited to domotic islands, i.e., devices communicate only if in direct visibility and deployed in the same subnet. The paper presents a novel approach to easily and efficiently federate UPnP-based domotic islands, supporting seamless interworking of legacy UPnP devices deployed in different networks at multi-hop distance. In addition, the proposed solution supports Internet federation of remote islands, based on user-managed named groups, to allow the secure discovery and fruition of peer-to-peer services only to authorized users. The proposed solution has been implemented, deployed, and thoroughly tested on several platforms, ranging from high-performance desktop PCs to off-the-shelf smartphones and router-like OSGi-enabled equipment. The reported performance results demonstrate that our solution is suitable even for low-end devices with limited hardware capabilities. View full abstract»

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  • A human detection method for residential smart energy systems based on Zigbee RSSI changes

    Page(s): 819 - 824
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1270 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this article, the device-free human presence detection method based on radio signal strength variations is proposed. The method exploits the known fact that human body interferes with radio signals by causing fading and shadowing effects. Introduced irregularities in the radio propagation pattern indicate possible presence of a human. The proposed method is incorporated into the existing platform for intelligent residential energy management. As opposed to conventional solutions which utilize a complex set of sensors for human detection, the proposed approach achieves the same only by analyzing and quantifying radio signal strength variations incorporated in messages exchanged between 2.4 GHz radio transceivers. One of the key benefits of the proposed solution is the integration of the detection algorithm into the smart power outlets and smart light switches. Such an approach improves interactions in smart home systems, enables intelligent power consumption management and low installation cost. View full abstract»

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  • An efficient use of PRAM for an enhancement in the performance and durability of NAND storage systems

    Page(s): 825 - 833
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (514 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    NAND flash memory is widely used in many embedded systems owing to such advantages as a small size, shock resistance, and low power consumption. However, NAND flash memory has certain hardware limitations such as an "erase-before-write" constraint, which creates a long write latency. Therefore, many studies have been performed to reduce the write latency of NAND flash, one of which uses phase-changed RAM (PRAM) as a supplemental device to overcome the disadvantages of NAND flash memory. However, it is difficult to apply PRAM to storage systems owing to its limited density and high cost per capacity. To solve this problem, a novel management scheme for PRAM/NAND flash hybrid storage is proposed. Our proposed method uses limited PRAM space more efficiently by reducing the size of the data to be stored through an efficient compression scheme using differential values and rates. In addition, the proposed method improves the performance and durability of storage systems by efficiently reducing the flash program operation. Our experiments show that the proposed scheme can improve the performance and durability of PRAM/NAND flash hybrid storage with only slight increases in hardware costs. View full abstract»

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  • Compressed memory swap for QoS of virtualized embedded systems

    Page(s): 834 - 840
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (835 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Virtualization has recently drawn attraction in smart consumer electronics as a way of completely isolating the main applications, which are in charge of the primary functionality of a device, from untrusted third-party applications. In a virtualized embedded device, flexible memory management is required to run multiple VMs efficiently on resource-constrained hardware. This paper presents an in-memory compressed swap device (CSW) for the virtualized consumer electronics environment. It swaps out only the memory of third-party applications in response to memory pressure on the main applications, to ensure its quality of service. To this end, CSW collaborates with memory ballooning, which is a scheme for dynamic memory partitioning between VMs. By compressing the swapped out memory pages, CSW can effectively provide memory to the main applications while preserving the availability of thirdparty applications. We implemented our scheme in a Xenbased virtualized system that has limited resources similar to conventional consumer electronics devices. The evaluation results show that CSW successfully provides memory to the main VM with a reasonable cost, while the third-party applications are not killed. View full abstract»

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  • BEST: Best-effort energy saving techniques for NAND flash-based hybrid storage

    Page(s): 841 - 848
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1425 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The NAND flash-based hybrid storage that consists of a hard disk and flash cache has been widely used in mobile PCs, such as laptop/desktop computers, that require large storage capacity, energy efficiency, and better performance. In particular, in such consumer devices, energy saving is a major concern under limited battery capacity. Although a disk can be spun down during idle time for energy saving, it has been observed that there are frequent read and write requests generated by background applications, even while there is no user activity. In the hybrid storage, the flash cache is used for reducing disk activities and prolonging disk spin-down time. During the spin-down time, write requests can be temporarily stored in the flash cache, whereas read requests should be carefully handled to avoid frequent disk spin-ups. This paper presents Best-effort Energy Saving Techniques (BEST) that make the best use of the hybrid storage to provide low energy consumption, even under many background applications. In addition, the proposed techniques ensure the lifetime of the hybrid storage by considering the limited block erase and load/unload cycles of the flash memory and hard disk, respectively. Evaluation results demonstrate that the proposed techniques achieve considerable energy saving under various workloads, compared with previous studies. View full abstract»

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  • PCRAM-assisted ECC management for enhanced data reliability in flash storage systems

    Page(s): 849 - 856
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (458 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recent advance in per-cell bit density and semiconductor technology for NAND flash memories have led to significant cost reduction in non-volatile storage implementation. However, the reliability of data stored in flash memory has dramatically decreased, requiring an efficient mechanism to detect and correct bit errors during read and write operations of the data. For this purpose, when user data are often written into a flash page, an Error Correction Code (ECC) for the data is generated and stored in the spare area of the page. ECCs tend to become longer to correct more bit errors, sometimes beyond what is affordable by the spare area. In order to cope with this problem, there have been many attempts to keep ECCs in the data area, as opposed to the spare area of the flash memory. However, an additional mapping mechanism is required to locate ECCs for a given data page, and the program time and cycle are increased due to reading/storing the ECCs. In this paper, we present a novel ECC management mechanism with an assist from PCM for NAND flash storage systems. This technique uses PCM as a temporal storage to store ECCs for the data in log blocks. Later, the pages in log blocks are merged into data blocks with their ECCs kept in the PCM. Our experimental results show that the overhead from ECC management has been improved by 57% and 69% over previous attempts in BAST and FAST mapping schemes, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • An efficient multiple object detection and tracking framework for automatic counting and video surveillance applications

    Page(s): 857 - 862
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (407 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Automatic visual object counting and video surveillance have important applications for home and business environments, such as security and management of access points. However, in order to obtain a satisfactory performance these technologies need professional and expensive hardware, complex installations and setups, and the supervision of qualified workers. In this paper, an efficient visual detection and tracking framework is proposed for the tasks of object counting and surveillance, which meets the requirements of the consumer electronics: off-the-shelf equipment, easy installation and configuration, and unsupervised working conditions. This is accomplished by a novel Bayesian tracking model that can manage multimodal distributions without explicitly computing the association between tracked objects and detections. In addition, it is robust to erroneous, distorted and missing detections. The proposed algorithm is compared with a recent work, also focused on consumer electronics, proving its superior performance. View full abstract»

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  • Depth video-based human activity recognition system using translation and scaling invariant features for life logging at smart home

    Page(s): 863 - 871
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (656 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Video-based human activity recognition systems have potential contributions to various applications such as smart homes and healthcare services. In this work, we present a novel depth video-based translation and scaling invariant human activity recognition (HAR) system utilizing R transformation of depth silhouettes. To perform HAR in indoor settings, an invariant HAR method is critical to freely perform activities anywhere in a camera view without translation and scaling problems of human body silhouettes. We obtain such invariant features via R transformation on depth silhouettes. Furthermore, in R transforming depth silhouettes, shape information of human body reflected in depth values is encoded into the features. In R transformation, 2D feature maps are computed first through Radon transform of each depth silhouette followed by computing 1D feature profile through R transform to get the translation and scaling invariant features. Then, we apply Principle Component Analysis (PCA) for dimension reduction and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) to make the features more prominent, compact and robust. Finally, Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are used to train and recognize different human activities. Our proposed system shows superior recognition rate over the conventional approaches, reaching up to the mean recognition rate of 93.16% for six typical human activities whereas the conventional PC and IC-based depth silhouettes achieved only 74.83% and 86.33% ,while binary silhouettes-based R transformation approach achieved 67.08% respectively. Our experimental results show that the proposed method is robust, reliable, and efficient in recognizing the daily human activities. View full abstract»

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  • Fast rate control algorithm in frame-layer for H.264/AVC video coding

    Page(s): 872 - 879
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (608 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose a fast rate control algorithm in frame-layer of H.264/AVC video coding standard. We derive a statistical relation between quantization parameter (QP) and encoded bits of inter-coded blocks. In addition, new complexity estimation is defined to determine weight of complexity of current frame. Using the statistical property and the complexity updating function, we determine the amount of bits as a function of quantization parameter, so that computational cost of rate control is significantly reduced with coding gain improvement and stable buffer management. Experimental results demonstrate the capability of the proposed algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • Multi-directional spatial error concealment using adaptive edge thresholding

    Page(s): 880 - 885
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (606 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a new method for spatial concealment of missing areas in image and video signals transmitted over error prone infrastructures, is presented. The concealment process is performed in three steps. First, a novel technique is used to estimate the significant edges of missing areas after performing a directional edge analysis on the correctly received neighboring blocks of the missing areas. This technique uses the moments of the neighboring edge magnitudes to obtain an adaptive threshold for rejecting non-significant directions. Second, based on the predicted significant directions, an approximation is obtained for each missing pixel. Finally, for each pixel, we compute a weighted average by using two edge correspondence measures as weighting factors. Moreover, the adaptive thresholding of the edges let us include as many edges as necessary in the interpolation process. Experiments show that the proposed method outperforms the previous state of the art methods based on both subjective and objective measures. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The main focus for the IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics is the engineering and research aspects of the theory, design, construction, manufacture or end use of mass market electronics, systems, software and services for consumers.

 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
R. Simon Sherratt, IEEE Fellow
Professor of Consumer Electronics
School of Systems Engineering
The University of Reading
Reading, Berkshire RG6 6AY  U.K.
r.s.sherratt@reading.ac.uk; sherratt@ieee.org
Phone:+44 (0) 118 3788588