IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics

Issue 4 • July-Aug. 1988

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Displaying Results 1 - 18 of 18
  • Software optimization using user models

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):552 - 560
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (919 KB)

    As interactive computing has developed, a more comprehensive design methodology is required to produce high-performance software. To achieve this goal, consideration of user performance must be included as an integrated part of the development process. An approach that allows a software engineer to integrate user performance as a design dimension in interactive software system design is presented.... View full abstract»

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  • A theory of dialogue structures to help manage human-computer interaction

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):567 - 574
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1010 KB)

    The authors hypothesize the human-computer interaction can be significantly improved by using human-human communication protocols at the interface. These human communication principles are presented for a system built as a natural-language interface to an airline information and reservation system called simulated airline reservation agent (SARA). In particular, they present an extension to human ... View full abstract»

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  • Transfer of training as analogical mapping

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):592 - 600
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (854 KB)

    Research was conducted to clarify the role of similarity in transfer of training. Subjects learned a procedure for operating a simulated device and were asked to transfer the knowledge of the procedure to a new device. Two factors were varied: (1) the systematicity of the original device model (i.e. whether the subjects were given a coherent causal model or simply a set of operating procedures); a... View full abstract»

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  • Typing with a two-hand chord keyboard: will the QWERTY become obsolete?

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):601 - 609
    Cited by:  Papers (19)  |  Patents (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1079 KB)

    The cognitive and motor difficulties of acquiring a touch-typing skill are analyzed. It is proposed that poor cognitive structure is a main source difficulty in the acquisition of typing skills. Experiments are described with a two-hand chord keyboard designed to provide an efficient alternative to the existing standard QWERTY keyboard. The system is based on simpler and more powerful cognitive an... View full abstract»

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  • OFMspert: inference of operator intentions in supervisory control using a blackboard architecture

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):618 - 637
    Cited by:  Papers (69)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2126 KB)

    The authors proposes an architecture for an expert system that can function as an operator's associate in the supervisory control of a complex dynamic system. Called OFMspert (operator function model (OFM) expert system), the architecture uses the operator function modeling methodology as the basis for the design. The authors put emphasis on the understanding capabilities, i.e. the intent referenc... View full abstract»

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  • Mental workload dynamics in adaptive interface design

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):647 - 658
    Cited by:  Papers (43)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1369 KB)

    In examining the role of time in mental workload, the authors present a different perspective from which to view the problem of assessment. Mental workload is plotted in three dimensions, whose axes represent effective time for action, perceived distance from desired goal state, level of effort required to achieve the time-constrained goal. This representation allows the generation of isodynamic w... View full abstract»

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  • Diagnosing problems with the user interface for a strategic planning fuzzy DSS

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):638 - 646
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (900 KB)

    Stratassist, a prototype fuzzy decision-support system (DSS) for strategic planning, was tested using the research hypothesis that subjects performing a task with the help of a DSS would produce better strategy statements than the control groups. Results supported this hypothesis. Two-factor analysis of variance revealed interaction effects between the treatment levels and the subject work experie... View full abstract»

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  • An interactive knowledge-based system for group problem solving

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):610 - 617
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (716 KB)

    A distributed system is described for human-computer interaction based on a network of computers. It aids group problem solving by enabling the participants to share in a construct elicitation process based on repertory grid techniques. The application of these techniques in education, management, and expert-system development is discussed View full abstract»

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  • Graphical interactions with an automatic programming system

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):575 - 591
    Cited by:  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1628 KB)

    ISFI, an automatic programming system, accepts a nonprocedural specification of the desired behavior of a computer program. This specification is augmented by ISFI until computations to accomplish this behavior can be derived, and then compilable code is generated. ISFI's graphical interface (IGI) permits input, modification, and exploration of the specification, including the part added by ISFI i... View full abstract»

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  • Deep-reasoning fault diagnosis: an aid and a model

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):659 - 676
    Cited by:  Papers (25)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1816 KB)

    The design and evaluation are presented for the knowledge-based assistance of a human operator who must diagnose a novel fault in a dynamic, physical system. A computer aid based on a qualitative model of the system was built to help the operators overcome some of their cognitive limitations. This aid differs from most expert systems in that it operates at several levels of interaction that are be... View full abstract»

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  • Development of mental models by display augmentation

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):506 - 513
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (716 KB)

    An important consideration in the design of any user interface is the relationship between the displayed information and the mental model that results after interaction with the interface. This relationship was investigated in a previous set of eight experiments for a second-order tracking task. Mental models for the task were determined through transfer experiments that forced the operators to ap... View full abstract»

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  • The role of practice in videodisc-based procedural instructions

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):487 - 496
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (980 KB)

    The author reports a procedure for developing multimedia instructions that are `optimized' according to certain criteria. She describes the design of interactive videodisc-based assembly instruction using IBM's Info Window system. Research comparing interactive videodisc-based assembly instructions and passive videotape instructions is presented. Performance in building from memory an 80-piece obj... View full abstract»

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  • A user interface for a knowledge-based planning and scheduling system

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):514 - 521
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (632 KB)

    The objective of EMPRESS (expert mission planning and replanning scheduling system) is to support the planning and scheduling required to prepare science and application payloads for flight aboard the US Space Shuttle. EMPRESS was designed and implemented in Zetalisp on a 3600 series Symbolics LISP machine. Initially, EMPRESS was built as a concept demonstration system. The system has since been m... View full abstract»

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  • Disentangling application and presentation in distributed computing: architecture and protocol to enable a flexible, common user interface

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):561 - 566
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (460 KB)

    The author describes an architecture and a protocol to solve a number of problems that may arise in a distributed computing setting, including incompatible hardware and software environments, incompatible user interfaces, and customization requirements. The focus is on providing an enabling environment for flexible user interface specification that can provide both common functionality and, if nee... View full abstract»

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  • Level of abstraction structured text

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):497 - 505
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (868 KB)

    Computer users' negative reactions to printed computer documentation are attributed to the linear nature of the print medium, coupled with the varied information needs of different classes of users. A document system, called LAST (level of abstraction structured text), that meets the requirements of nonlinear traversal and automatic adjustment to users' requirements for type of information and lev... View full abstract»

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  • Bus automata, brains, and mental models

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):522 - 531
    Cited by:  Papers (62)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1028 KB)

    The author suggests that bus automata (BAs) may serve as better brain models than sequential computers of cellular automata. He proposes to view self-simulationability, together with the use of status flags and the like, as a primitive model of self-consciousness, analogous to viewing a regulator as exhibiting rudimentary purposive behavior. A discussion of what meanings might be ascribed in a BA ... View full abstract»

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  • A conceptual framework for person-computer interaction in complex systems

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):532 - 541
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (784 KB)

    The author presents a conceptual framework for complex systems of computers and people. Distinctions between technology and people, and between computers and nonprogrammed technology, are analyzed. This analysis is used to show how various forms of analogy and abstraction may be used to derive design principles for person-computer interaction. The analysis is extended to include relations between ... View full abstract»

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  • Real-time capture of experiential knowledge

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):542 - 551
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (968 KB)

    The author examines the real-time capture of experiential knowledge, based on formal modeling of human perception by presenting algorithms for the recognition and labeling of behavioral patterns. The nature of human perceptual models is discussed and the features of the FDS (formal description schema) model of human perception are presented. Real-time algorithms for recognition and labeling of beh... View full abstract»

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