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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 10 • Date Oct. 2012

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Displaying Results 1 - 22 of 22
  • Front cover

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): C1
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  • Proceedings of the IEEE publication information

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): C2
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  • Table of Contents

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2785 - 2786
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  • The Solution Looking for a Problem [Point of View]

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2787 - 2793
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  • Remote Sensing of Natural Disasters [Scanning the Issue]

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2794 - 2797
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  • ASTER Satellite Observations for International Disaster Management

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2798 - 2811
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1775 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    When lives are threatened or lost due to catastrophic disasters, and when massive financial impacts are experienced, international emergency response teams rapidly mobilize to provide urgently required support. Satellite observations of affected areas often provide essential insight into the magnitude and details of the impacts. The large cost and high complexity of developing and operating satellite flight and ground systems encourages international collaboration in acquiring imagery for such significant global events in order to speed delivery of critical information to help those affected, and optimize spectral, spatial, and temporal coverage of the areas of interest. The International Charter-Space and Major Disasters was established to enable such collaboration in sensor tasking during times of crisis and is often activated in response to calls for assistance from authorized users. Insight is provided from a U.S. perspective into sensor support for Charter activations and other disaster events through a description of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), which has been used to support emergency situations for over a decade through its expedited tasking and near real-time data delivery capabilities. Examples of successes achieved and challenges encountered in international collaboration to develop related systems and fulfill tasking requests suggest operational considerations for new missions as well as areas for future enhancements. View full abstract»

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  • Human Sensor Networks for Improved Modeling of Natural Disasters

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2812 - 2823
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1739 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present a novel approach that views social media (SM) data as a human sensor network. These data can serve as a low-cost augmentation to an observing system, which can be incorporated into geophysical models together with other scientific data such as satellite observations and sensor measurements. As a use case scenario, we analyze the Deepwater Horizon oil spill disaster. We gather SM data that mention sightings of oil from Flickr, geolocate them, and use them as boundary forcings in the General NOAA Oil Modeling Environment (GNOME) software for oil spill predictions. We show how SM data can be incorporated into the GNOME model to obtain improved estimates of the model parameters such as rates of oil spill, couplings between surface winds and ocean currents, diffusion coefficient, and other model parameters. View full abstract»

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  • Remote Sensing Contributions to Prediction and Risk Assessment of Natural Disasters Caused by Large-Scale Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2824 - 2834
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1477 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Remotely sensed vegetation measurements for the last 30 years combined with other climate data sets such as rainfall and sea surface temperatures have come to play an important role in the study of the ecology of arthropod-borne diseases. We show that epidemics and epizootics of previously unpredictable Rift Valley fever (RVF) are directly influenced by large-scale flooding associated with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). This flooding affects the ecology of disease transmitting arthropod vectors through vegetation development and other bioclimatic factors. This information is now utilized to monitor, model, and map areas of potential RVF outbreaks and is used as an early warning system for risk reduction of outbreaks to human and animal health, trade, and associated economic impacts. The continuation of such satellite measurements is critical to anticipating, preventing, and managing disease epidemics and epizootics and other climate-related disasters. View full abstract»

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  • Mapping Geo-Hazard by Satellite Radar Interferometry

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2835 - 2850
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4040 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes the application examples of satellite interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) in exploring potential geo-hazards and mapping geo-related disasters, including earthquakes, landslides, and land subsidence, triggered by natural forces and/or human activities. Satellite images were acquired from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA's) ALOS-PALSAR satellite, the Euroeapn Space Agency's (ESA's) Envisat-ASAR satellite, and the German Aerospace Center's (DLR's) TerraSAR-X satellite, covering frequency bands of L, C, and X, respectively. The study areas include Taiwan and Vietnam because both regions are prone to greater risks of geo-hazards and natural disasters. A series of C-band and L-band both ascending and descending mode SAR imagery data were used to map the deformation and subsidence of the environmentally sensitive areas. With the historical information and fast updated data sets, long-term and short-term subsidence patterns can be effectively and efficiently obtained. Excellent agreements were obtained as compared with Global Positioning System (GPS) and leveling measurements. Stacking of dual-beam mode as ascending and descending mode could extract the vertical displacement more easily and reduce the influence from the horizontal displacement. In summary, the advance of satellite radar interferometry provides a vital mapping to detect and identify geo-hazard and potential geo-disaster in general. View full abstract»

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  • Disaster Monitoring by Fully Polarimetric SAR Data Acquired With ALOS-PALSAR

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2851 - 2860
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2133 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents scattering power decomposition images of fully polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data for disaster monitoring. Utilization of fully polarimetric data can derive full color images with red-green-blue color coding, red for the double-bounce power, green for the volume scattering power, and blue for the surface scattering power, for which each color brightness corresponds to the magnitude. Since disaster events cause the changes of each scattering power, it becomes straightforward for everyone to recognize the changes of the color in the polarimetric decomposed images provided time series data sets are made available. After applying the four-component scattering power decomposition to fully polarimetric image data sets acquired with the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased-Array-type L-band SAR (PALSAR), several images are presented for natural disaster monitoring of volcanic activity, snow accumulation, landslides, and tsunami effects caused by great earthquakes. It is seen in the polarimetric decomposition images that the surface scattering power becomes predominant in most disaster areas compared to those in normal situations. View full abstract»

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  • Polarimetric SAR Analysis of Tsunami Damage Following the March 11, 2011 East Japan Earthquake

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2861 - 2875
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3500 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The earthquake and tsunami of March 11, 2011 killed more than 15 000 people in Eastern Japan. The importance of remote sensing in understanding the damage caused by natural disasters is quite significant, and many data sets were acquired after the events. In this paper, we demonstrate the importance and the potential of full polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images for damage assessment. Full polarimetric SAR images acquired by the spaceborne ALOS/PALSAR system from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) on November 21, 2010 and April 8, 2011 and acquired by the airborne Pi-SAR2 system from the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) on March 12 and 18, 2011 are used for this analysis. Model-based decomposition is applied and clearly shows the scattering mechanism changes at the seriously damaged downtown of Ishinomaki city and the flooded areas near the main stream of the Kitakami River. Polarization orientation angle is estimated to provide additional information to understand the damage effect in the built-up areas. Eigenvalue-eigenvector-based decomposition analysis is also employed to further confirm the scattering mechanism changes of the flooded areas. ALOS/PALSAR does not have fine enough resolution; however, the difference of the scattering mechanisms is sufficient to identify the damaged and flooded areas. In addition, the Pi-SAR2 data sets are used to analyze the flooded paddy fields in Natori city. The relative backscattering values are compared with the multitemporal images and the cross-polarization component (HV) is observed to be more sensitive to the flooded boundary. The automatically detected flooding maps using the cross-polarization component were found to provide relatively accurate results. View full abstract»

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  • Remote Sensing and Earthquake Damage Assessment: Experiences, Limits, and Perspectives

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2876 - 2890
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1292 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a survey of the techniques and data sets used to evaluate earthquake damages using remote sensing data is presented. After a few preliminary definitions about earthquake damage, their evaluation scale, and the difference between identification of damage “extent” and identification of damage “level,” the advantages and limits of different remote sensing data sets are presented. Furthermore, a survey of proposed algorithms for data interpretation and earthquake damage extraction is presented, and two examples of these algorithms and their results are discussed. According to the outcome of this survey, some open issues are finally presented and discussed, identifying possible research lines as well as working solutions. View full abstract»

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  • GEOSS-Based Thermal Parameters Analysis for Earthquake Anomaly Recognition

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2891 - 2907
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4116 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Although earthquakes are difficult to be predicted because of the complexity of the Earth system and the uncertainty of seismogenic processes, GEOSS provides multiple sources of observation data and brings a possibility to extract a thermal anomaly that would have a significant effect on earthquake prediction. Referring to the analysis on the lithosphere-coversphere-atmosphere (LCA) coupling due to stress enhancement in seismogenic zone, six thermal parameters, including surface latent heat flux (SLHF), thermal infrared radiation (TIR), outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), diurnal temperature range (DTR), atmospheric temperature, and skin temperature, are selected for GEOSS-based earthquake anomaly recognition (EAR). The inherent relations between the six thermal parameters are preliminarily introduced in consideration of possible LCA coupling. With overquantity, quasi-synchronism, and geo-consistency being defined as three rules for data mining, a deviation-time-space-thermal (DTS-T) EAR method as well as its procedures are developed in this paper. With 2008 M7.3 Yutian earthquake, China, 2008 M8.0 Wenchuan earthquake, China, and 2010 M7.1 Christchurch earthquake, New Zealand, being examples of tectonic earthquakes, the technical procedures of DTS-T method are demonstrated, which show that the obtained compositive thermal anomaly has a significant effect on earthquake prediction. View full abstract»

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  • Remote Sensing of Volcanic Hazards and Their Precursors

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2908 - 2930
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4397 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Ash, tephra, and gas ejected during explosive eruptions pose a major far-reaching threat to population, health, and air traffic. Lava flows, lahars, and floods from ice-capped volcanos, as well as landslides that have a potential for tsunami generation if they reach into sea or lakes, can also have a major influence. Remote sensing contributes to the mitigation of these hazards through the use of synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) and spectroradiometry. In the case of InSAR, displacements of a volcano's surface can be interpreted in terms of magma movement beneath the ground. Thus, the technique can be used to identify precursors to eruptions and to track the evolution of eruptions. Recent advances in algorithm development enable relative displacements over many kilometers to be measured with an accuracy of only a few millimeters. Spectroradiometry on the other hand allows monitoring of a volcanic eruption through the detection of hot spots, and monitoring and quantification of the ash and SO2 emitted by volcanos into the atmosphere. The tracking of ash plumes during eruptions assists in the identification of areas that should be avoided by aircraft. Here we present a review of these two remote sensing techniques, and their application to volcanic hazards. View full abstract»

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  • Remote Sensing of Ocean Oil-Spill Pollution

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2931 - 2945
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3009 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Oil spills on the sea surface are observed relatively often. Pollution due to either accidents or deliberate oily discharges from ships represents a serious threat to the marine environment. Operational oil spill monitoring is currently done using a combination of satellite monitoring and aircraft surveillance. The combined use of satellite-based synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images and aircraft surveillance flights is a cost-effective way to monitor oil spills in large ocean areas and catch the polluters. SAR images enable covering large areas, but aircraft observations are needed to prosecute the polluter, and in certain cases to verity the oil spill. Traditionally, oil spill detection is based on single polarization SAR images. Oil spills can be discriminated from look-alikes based on a set of features describing the contrast, shape, homogeneity, source, and surroundings of the slick. Good performance is reported for single-polarization oil spill detection, but in certain cases the oil slicks cannot be discriminated from biogenic films. In the recent years, a number of studies have shown that polarimetric SAR can improve the discrimination between oil slicks and biogenic films. Several features computed from dual-pol or quad-pol images have been proposed. These include both quad-pol features like polarimetric entropy and anisotropy, mean scattering angle, polarimetric span, conformity coefficient, as well as the dual-pol features standard deviation of the copolarized phase difference and the copolarized correlation coefficient. As dual-pol SAR imagery is now available on a regular basis from Cosmo Skymed and TerraSAR-X, and quad-pol data are available from RADARSAT-2, polarimetric SAR can now be utilized on a more regular basis. Optical data from sensors like Aqua MODIS and ENVISAT MERIS can be a useful supplement under certain cloud-free conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Information Extraction From Remote Sensing Images for Flood Monitoring and Damage Evaluation

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2946 - 2970
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3622 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Satellite remote sensing missions devoted to Earth observation (EO) currently offer a unique capability to monitor the evolution of the Earth's surface by providing temporally repetitive views at the desired (global, regional, or local) spatial scale. This wealth of remote sensing data conveys a huge potential for preventing, monitoring, and managing natural or man-made disasters. Specifically focusing on flood risk, a successful exploitation of this potential requires not only accurate and reliable image-analysis methods to extract the desired thematic information, but also the ability to combine this information with physically based models of the observed processes. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach combining remote sensing with geophysical sciences, such as, in this case, hydrometeorology, is fundamental. This combination of expertise allows, in particular, satellite data to be exploited within the different phases of flood risk reduction: risk assessment, prevention, mitigation, monitoring, and management. In this paper, we investigate the key issues involved in the exploitation of satellite data with special focus on the phases of the emergency and post-disaster damage assessment. To this end, the challenges and the methodological approaches involved in the multidisciplinary combination of image analysis and hydrometeorology are discussed with the purpose of guiding and optimizing the process of information extraction from satellite data according to the requirements of civil protection from floods. Experimental examples of a few relevant case studies are also presented. View full abstract»

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  • Proceedings of the IEEE Through 100 Years: 1990-1999 [Scanning Our Past]

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2971 - 2984
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    Discusses significant historical papers that were part of the Proceedings of the IEEE from 1990 through 1999. View full abstract»

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  • Future Special Issues/Special Sections of the Proceedings

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2985
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  • IEEE Xplore Digital Library [advertisement]

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2986
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  • IEEE Copyright Form

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2987 - 2988
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  • IEEE Global History Network [advertisement]

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): C3
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  • [Back cover]

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): C4
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North Carolina State University