By Topic

Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 10 • Date Oct. 2012

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 33
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): C1 - 2601
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (50 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement publication information

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): C2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (43 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Special Section on the Second IEEE International Workshop on Applied Measurements for Power Systems

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2602 - 2603
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (91 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Applications of Wavelet Transform for Analysis of Harmonic Distortion in Power Systems: A Review

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2604 - 2611
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (358 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wavelet transform (WT) is one of the most useful digital signal processing tools for time-frequency analysis of power quality disturbances in power systems. This paper presents an extensive bibliographic review of applications of WTs in the measurement and analysis of harmonic distortion in power systems, discussing the performance of the different methods proposed in the technical literature. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Evaluation of Time Gateways for Synchronization of Substation Automation Systems

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2612 - 2621
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (920 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 61850 standard is widely used in substation automation system (SAS), even if some aspects related to the network-based time synchronization are still under investigation. The latest version of the IEC 61850 standard introduces IEEE 1588 Precision Time Protocol (PTP) for distributing time in the station and process buses, in addition to the previously used Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP). Some time synchronization problems may arise when mixing old and new IEC 61850 devices in the same system; the IEEE 1588 PTP and SNTP technologies have somewhat different time representations and synchronization schemes, requiring time gateways for smooth integration. This paper introduces and compares the performance of some compact time gateways with different implementation architectures. All the examined gateways have the same external structure: They are transparent two-port devices which are inserted in the last network link between the switch and the end device, in order to perform the time conversion from IEEE 1588 PTP to SNTP. The time gateways are built using the same hardware platform based on a Field Programmable Gate Array that enables the creation of real embedded prototypes. The experimental results show that all the considered time gateways are applicable to SAS, but some of them have better performance than others in terms of synchronization accuracy. Moreover, the authors identify the bottleneck in the SNTP implementation of the time gateway architecture. A careful analysis of the behavior of SNTP is proposed, and useful suggestions for trading off between synchronization accuracy and time gateway complexity are given. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Unbalance Definition for Electrical Power Systems in the Presence of Harmonics and Interharmonics

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2622 - 2631
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new definition that can be used to evaluate the unbalance in electrical power systems in the presence of harmonic and interharmonic distortion is presented. A new unique transformation matrix that is capable of suitably extracting the balanced, first unbalanced, and second unbalanced components suitable for all of the harmonic and interharmonic orders is introduced. This new decomposition method overcomes the limitation of a similar method previously presented in the literature, a method that is not in agreement with Fortescue transformation and does not to take into account the presence of interharmonic components. The decomposition presented makes it possible to evaluate the quantities defined in the IEEE Standard 1459-2010, taking into account the unbalances produced by harmonics and interharmonics and extending some important definitions to signals characterized by interharmonic distortion. Numerous numerical case studies and experimental results show the applicability of the proposed method and its usefulness. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A Simple Photovoltaic Panel Model: Characterization Procedure and Evaluation of the Role of Environmental Measurements

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2632 - 2641
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1302 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The growing number of installed photovoltaic (PV) plants is making the simulation of their behavior and their effects on the power network more and more relevant. In this context, an accurate yet simple model of the panels is beneficial for evaluating the power production as well as the system efficiency in off-line and on-line analysis. In the preliminary design stages of large plants, this kind of model can support design and decision making, allowing for the simulation of the entire plant and the testing of various power architectures. During the operation, such models may support monitoring, diagnostic, and control functions. In this paper, a model of PV panel, suitable for the aforementioned applications, is presented together with a simple procedure for the identification of its parameters. The critical issues related to the measurement and the estimation of the required environmental quantities are analyzed together with their main metrological requirements. Finally, the experimental validation of the proposed model and algorithms is presented using as a case study the estimation of the energy production of a domestic solar plant. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Oil-Filled MV/LV Power-Transformer Behavior in Narrow-Band Power-Line Communication Systems

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2642 - 2652
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1866 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The aim of this paper is to characterize oil-filled power transformers in the narrow-band power-line communication (PLC) frequency range of 50-150 kHz. A new model is proposed for such type of a transformer, in the aforementioned frequency range of interest, in order to study its influence on the signal transmission and to investigate the possibility that the PLC signal can cross the power transformer itself. The new model is simpler than those previously proposed in literature, and it can be used in the whole frequency range available for NB PLC according to the CENELEC EN 50065-1 A-band. In order to validate the model, simulation and measurement results are compared for four oil-filled power transformers with different rated power values. A complete PLC system in the case of a medium-voltage (MV) power network is also simulated, in order to perform a preliminary evaluation of the influence of power transformers on the communication system. The MV overhead power line, the oil-filled power transformers, the MV signal coupling network, and two ST7540 frequency shift keying (FSK) power-line transceivers are included in the simulated system. The performances of the complete PLC communication system are evaluated in the case of both MV to low voltage (LV) and LV to MV transmissions. The analysis is carried out by evaluating the signal attenuation, which is computed as the ratio between the received and transmitted voltage signals, in the case of different line lengths and carrier frequency values. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Accuracy Analysis and Enhancement of DFT-Based Synchrophasor Estimators in Off-Nominal Conditions

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2653 - 2664
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (418 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Synchrophasor estimation accuracy is a well-known critical issue in systems for smart grid monitoring and control. This paper deals with an in-depth analysis of the effect of both steady-state and dynamic disturbances on single-cycle and multicycle windowed discrete Fourier transform (DFT)-based synchrophasor estimators. Unlike other qualitative or simulation-based results found in the literature, this work provides two accurate and easy-to-use analytical expressions that can be used to determine the worst case range of variation of the total vector error (TVE) due to off-nominal frequency deviations. In such conditions, estimation accuracy is limited by two factors, i.e., the infiltration caused by the input signal image frequency and the scalloping loss associated with the spectrum main lobe of the chosen window. Starting from the aforementioned general analysis, a new two-term window minimizing the detrimental effects of image frequency tone is proposed. The accuracy of the related DFT-based synchrophasor estimator is evaluated under both static and dynamic conditions, which is the most interesting scenario for future smart grids. Moreover, the effect of waveform frequency measurement uncertainty on scalloping loss compensation is quantified. Several simulation results (including the effects of noise, harmonic distortion, and amplitude and phase modulation) confirm that the proposed window can significantly improve the accuracy achievable with a simple single-cycle DFT estimator. Indeed, TVE values much smaller than 1% can be achieved even in the worst case conditions reported in the standard IEEE C37.118.1-2011, when the frequency waveform deviations are within ±4% of the nominal value. In addition, the proposed solution could be useful to improve the performance of more complex dynamic phasor estimators, e.g., those in which the first- and second-order terms of the phasor Taylor series expansion result from the differences of consecutive DFT-based phas- r estimates. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Fast Adaptive 3-D Nonstationary Electrical Impedance Tomography Based on Reduced-Order Modeling

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2665 - 2681
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1296 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Computational cost of image reconstruction in electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is generally very high. Time consumption of data processing can be prohibitive particularly in systems intended for continuous monitoring of time-varying targets in various applications. Recently, two promising approximate computational approaches have been proposed to reduce the computational cost of image reconstruction. These approaches are based on reduced-order approximation of the associated computational models. In this paper, we utilize these techniques to reduce the computational cost of 3-D nonstationary EIT imaging when high image reconstruction rate is required due to rapid changes or instabilities in the target of interest. The feasibility of the proposed reduced-order approach is evaluated in simulation and experimental studies. The results show that computational cost in nonstationary image reconstruction can be decreased significantly with reduced-order modeling, and in addition, with an appropriate reduced-order representation of the system state, the effects on the accuracy are very small. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Frequency Response Function Measurements Using Concatenated Subrecords With Arbitrary Length

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2682 - 2688
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a nonparametric method to measure the frequency response function of a linear dynamic system that allows a series of subrecords with arbitrary length to be concatenated in one long data record without suffering from the leakage and transient errors. The method combines data blocks (of different lengths) into a single record, resulting in an increased frequency resolution. The analysis is based on the recent insight that leakage errors in the frequency domain have a smooth nature that is completely similar to that of initial transients in the time domain. The method is applicable to both single-input-single-output and multiple-input-multiple-output systems. The results are illustrated on simulations and experimental data. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Sequential Estimation of Timebase Corrections for an Arbitrarily Long Waveform

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2689 - 2694
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (451 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a procedure for correcting the timebase distortion (TBD) and jitter of temporal waveforms of arbitrary lengths. This is achieved by estimating the TBD and jitter sequentially with overlapping measurements and using the information in the overlapping portion to adjust the results. We use eye diagrams to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Analysis of Metrological Requirements for Electrical Measurement of HVDC Station Losses

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2695 - 2700
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (144 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Losses of HVDC converter stations need to be accurately measured and/or estimated in order to support the evaluation of bids for such systems and to underpin efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The challenge of measurement has risen with modern converters where insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT) are used at high switching frequency. The theoretical bases for measurement errors are studied, both for measurement on the IGBT as a component and on complete converter stations. The study shows that electrical measurements are difficult to augment to an accuracy level sufficient for the needs and that a supplemental method such as calorimetric measurement may be needed. In certain cases, there will be a possibility to make temporary connections to permit two converters to operate in back-to-back mode, permitting a direct measurement of losses. The achievable accuracy is studied and estimated. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • Diagnosis of Local Spot Defects in Analog Circuits

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2701 - 2712
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (720 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a method for diagnosing local spot defects in analog circuits. The method aims to identify a subset of defects that are likely to have occurred and suggests to give them priority in a classical failure analysis. For this purpose, the method relies on a combination of multiclass classifiers that are trained using data from fault simulation. The method is demonstrated on an industrial large-scale case study. The device under consideration is a controller area network transceiver used in automobile systems. This device demands high-quality control due to the reliability requirements of the application wherein it is deployed. The diagnosis problem is discussed by taking into consideration the realities of this case study. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Effects of the Speed Loop on the Diagnosis of Rotor Faults in Induction Machines

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2713 - 2722
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (970 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The development of high-performance static converters and advanced control techniques has led to a widespread diffusion of asynchronous drive systems in industrial plants. One of the strong points of the induction machines is their reliability; however, an unexpected failure may still result in a considerable economic loss. This fact has stimulated a prolific research activity concerning the continuous monitoring of the wear status of induction machines. The knowledge of their condition allows implementing condition-based maintenance techniques, which have proven to be very effective in critical processes. In previous papers, the authors have focused their attention on the detection of broken rotor bars in inverter-fed induction machines. Two indexes have been defined: Both of them are simple methods to estimate the same fault indicator, namely, the ratio between the amplitude of the power oscillation and the average power draw of the drive system. However, this fault indicator exhibits a noticeable dependence on the mechanical load as well as on the speed loop parameters. In this paper, a deep investigation about these dependences is provided. The study suggests introducing a new fault indicator which is much less sensitive with respect to the torque developed by the motor. Furthermore, the analysis allows predicting how the speed loop affects the fault detection techniques. The results of the study and the effectiveness of the new fault indicator have been first verified by means of numerical simulations and then validated through an experimental activity. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Defocus Polar rOse Estimation Method (POEM): A Fast Defocus Estimation Method for STEM

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2723 - 2730
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (868 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The defocus Polar rOse Estimation Method (POEM) has been introduced recently as an alternative method for defocus estimation in scanning transmission electron microscopy. Its principle of operation is expanded here to include more realistic image models. The details of the expansion are discussed in depth along with the results of new simulation-based performance tests that take into account the effect of measurement noise. The results clearly show that the defocus POEM has the potential to be fast and accurate. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Dielectrophoretic Mobility: An Approach for Measuring Electrical Properties of a Single Microbead in Aqueous Medium

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2731 - 2738
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (642 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An approach to measure the permittivity and conductivity of a small neutral particle in an aqueous conductive medium by utilizing dielectrophoretic mobility is presented. Particle mobility is caused by the dielectrophoretic force set off by the particle polarization in a linearly decreasing electric field. Polystyrene carboxylate microbeads of various sizes are used as particles, conductive potassium chloride (KCl) dilution is used as their carrier fluid, and a transparent hyperbolic quadrupole electrode setup is used to produce the linear field gradient. The setup and method are characterized by determining the permittivity and the conductivity of the microbeads in three different KCl concentrations of differing conductivities. The effects of carrier fluid conductivity and particle size on the acquired permittivity and conductivity values are examined. According to the results, low particle concentration combined with practical carrier conductivity (≫ 1 mS/m) provides repeatable permittivity values for the microbeads, irrespective of their size as far as the field strength is high enough to overcome the uncertainty caused by the Brownian motion. Microbead conductivities show strong dependence on the carrier fluid conductivity, thus providing a potential method for monitoring the relative conductivity variations of the carrier fluid. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Feasibility Study and Optimal Design of an Experimental Bench for Identification of Liquid Thermal Diffusivity

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2739 - 2748
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1550 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Expertise of innovative materials by nondestructive techniques is a key goal in process engineering development. In this context, if identification of thermal diffusivity of liquid is a crucial requirement to develop a reliable mathematical model of knowledge, it is essential to propose a complete and valid methodology. Based on the analysis of thermal wave propagation (generated by a periodic excitation), an experimentation is developed in order to avoid the implementation of a pyroelectric sensor required in usual photopyroelectric techniques. The proposed approach is investigated in a trilayer system. Theoretical aspects of the identification of thermal parameters in the frequency domain are presented. A feasibility study is discussed in order to justify this approach for liquids. A sensitivity analysis is implemented in a particular case to provide an optimal experimental bench. Finally, experimental results for several liquids are presented and discussed. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Long-Range Channel Measurements on Small Terminal Antennas Using Optics

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2749 - 2758
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1438 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, details are given on a novel measurement device for radio propagation-channel measurements. To avoid measurement errors due to the conductive cables on small terminal antennas, as well as to improve the handling of the prototypes under investigation, an optical measurement device has been developed. It utilizes thin, light, and flexible glass fibers as opposed to heavy, stiff, and conductive coaxial cables. This paper looks at the various system parameters such as overall gain, noise figure, and dynamic range and compares the solution to other methods. An estimate of the device accuracy is also given. Selected parts of the circuitry are given in more detail. Typical measurement results are also shown. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Stirred-Mode Operation of Reverberation Chambers for EMC Testing

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2759 - 2764
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (683 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Continuous stirred-mode operation of a mechanically tuned reverberation chamber provides an alternative to stepped-mode operation that is both more cost effective and more robust in many electromagnetic compatibility testing applications. An experimental investigation shows that the spectral information available within the chamber is the same for both the stepped and the stirred operation and is independent of the tuner speed provided that the chamber transient time is small compared to the rate at which the fields change inside the chamber due to the tuner rotation. This is further confirmed for stirred operation at additional frequencies. However, the field must be properly sampled to ensure that all independent field configurations available at the test point within the chamber are included in the spectral analysis. Optimal sampling is obtained when sampling at the same tuner angular position increment over a single tuner rotation at any tuner speed. Equipment under test may be exposed to all available field configurations available within the chamber using stirred operation with a single rotation of the tuner, giving a more robust test than the minimum 12 steps that are used with the stepped operation. Testing time is also reduced. The exposure time to a particular field configuration can be controlled with knowledge of the number of independent samples available in the chamber and by changing the tuner rotational speed. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Measurement and Evaluation of Power Analysis Attacks on Asynchronous S-Box

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2765 - 2775
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1340 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper demonstrates the hardware implementation of a recently proposed low-power asynchronous Advanced Encryption Standard substitution box (S-Box) design that is capable of being resistant to side channel attack (SCA). A specified SCA standard evaluation field-programmable gate array (FPGA) board (SASEBO-GII) is used to implement both synchronous and asynchronous S-Box designs. This asynchronous S-Box is based on self-time logic referred to as null convention logic (NCL), which supports a few beneficial properties for resisting SCAs: clock free, dual-rail encoding, and monotonic transitions. These beneficial properties make it difficult for an attacker to decipher secret keys embedded within the cryptographic circuit of the FPGA board. Comparisons on the resistance to SCAs of both the original and proposed S-Box design are presented, using differential power analysis (DPA) and correlation power analysis (CPA) attacks. The power measurement results showed that the NCL S-Box had 22%-26% lower total power consumption than the original and was effective against DPA and CPA attacks. An important factor of successfully implementing DPA or CPA attacks, which is the number of power traces, is also analyzed in this paper. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The Tube: A Rapidly Deployable Wireless Sensor Platform for Supervising Pollution of Emergency Work

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2776 - 2786
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1303 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Natural disasters, such as severe storms and earthquakes, often cause bridge collapses and road damage. To ensure public safety, governments must repair damage as soon as possible. The jackhammers, dozers, and piling machines used in emergency work always generate significant amounts of pollution, including noise and vibration, and thus, pollution levels should be monitored in an effort to protect the local environment. We propose the Tube, a wireless sensor network platform that can be easily and rapidly deployed for monitoring pollution at multiple emergency work locations. Users may install Tubes in multiple locations to monitor pollution simultaneously without having to worry about the issues affecting traditional wireless communication. We designed and implemented this platform to monitor pollution at an actual site of emergency work; the results verify this system meets all expected goals and can offer valuable information for local authorities to control pollution effectively on emergency work sites. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Novel Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks for Machine Condition Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2787 - 2798
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1507 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a novel industrial wireless sensor network (IWSN) for industrial machine condition monitoring and fault diagnosis. In this paper, the induction motor is taken as an example of monitored industrial equipment due to its wide use in industrial processes. Motor stator current and vibration signals are measured for further processing and analysis. On-sensor node feature extraction and on-sensor fault diagnosis using neural networks are then investigated to address the tension between the higher system requirements of IWSNs and the resource-constrained characteristics of sensor nodes. A two-step classifier fusion approach using Dempster-Shafer theory is also explored to increase diagnosis result quality. Four motor operating conditions-normal without load, normal with load, loose feet, and mass imbalance-are monitored to evaluate the proposed system. Experimental results show that, compared with raw data transmission, on-sensor fault diagnosis could reduce payload transmission data by 99%, decrease node energy consumption by 97%, and prolong node lifetime from 106 to 150 h, an increase of 43%. The final fault diagnosis results using the proposed classifier fusion approach give a result certainty of at least 97.5%. To leverage the advantages of on-sensor fault diagnosis, another system operating mode is explored, which only transmits the fault diagnosis result when a fault happens or at a fixed interval. For this mode, the node lifetime reaches 73 days if sensor nodes transmit diagnosis results once per hour. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Application of Embedded Dual-Loaded Modulated Scatterer Technique (MST) to Multilayer Structures

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2799 - 2806
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (451 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Health monitoring of infrastructure and other critical components composed of complex composite materials is an important ongoing concern. The embedded modulated scatterer technique (MST) has shown potential for evaluating electrical (i.e., complex dielectric) properties of bulk materials. This paper investigates its potential utility for evaluating properties of layered composite structures. The approach is based on irradiating an MST probe with an electromagnetic wave. This incident wave induces a current along the length of the thin dipole probe as a function of its load impedance and the material surrounding it, including boundaries within a layered structure. Consequently, the MST sensor may be placed at a specific location or boundary such that the probe response can be monitored over time for critical changes in the geometrical or the material property of the structure. In order to use MST for evaluating important characteristics of layered structures, this application must be fully investigated, and its limitations established. This paper presents an inclusive study of the application of MST for the evaluation of layered materials through pertinent electromagnetic simulations as well as experimental corroboration of the simulation results. The experimental results show that embedded MST is capable of detecting boundaries between layers within a layered structure and is also sensitive to the distance to the boundary. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Compact Ka-Band One-Port Vector Reflectometer Using a Wideband Electronically Controlled Phase Shifter

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2807 - 2816
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2139 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the design and implementation of a compact one-port Ka-band (26.5-40 GHz) vector reflectometer or network analyzer (VNA), operating in full Ka-band frequency range, are presented. The design follows that of a recently developed VNA but with the goal of producing a wideband version. The most critical component of this design is a wideband electronically controlled phase shifter, designed using nonuniformly spaced p-i-n diode-loaded slots incorporated in the broad wall of a rectangular waveguide. Nonuniform placement of the slots is shown to significantly reduce unwanted resonances within the operating bandwidth. Also, the new design provides the possibility of using a more accurate three-port S -parameter characterization instead of the previously used two-port approach. The design foundation and measurement results are presented. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

Aims & Scope

Papers are sought that address innovative solutions to the development and use of electrical and electronic instruments and equipment to measure, monitor and/or record physical phenomena for the purpose of advancing measurement science, methods, functionality and applications.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Prof. Alessandro Ferrero
Dipartimento di Elettrotecnica
Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32
Politecnico di Milano
Milano 20133 Italy
alessandro.ferrero@polimi.it
Phone: 39-02-2399-3751
Fax: 39-02-2399-3703