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Power Electronics, IET

Issue 6 • Date July 2012

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 29
  • Experimental verification of multilevel inverter-based standalone power supply for low-voltage and low-power applications

    Page(s): 635 - 643
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1108 KB)  

    Multilevel inverters are being preferred over conventional two-level voltage source inverters in medium-voltage high-power applications. The cascaded H-bridge configuration of multilevel inverters is widely used because of its ability to generate near sinusoidal output waveforms, modular structure, simple power circuit and high reliability. The cascaded H-bridge inverter is an ideal choice for systems where isolated DC sources are readily available. The objective of this study is to extend the attractive features of the cascaded H-bridge voltage source invertes (VSI) to low-voltage and low-power applications. The details of the design of a power supply for distribution voltage levels are presented. The design is verified through simulation and experiments. A laboratory prototype of a 15-level MOSFET-based cascaded H-bridge inverter is designed and the experimental results are presented. The proposed inverter configuration is capable of generating low distortion, near-sinusoid stepped output voltage even with fundamental frequency switching. The total harmonic distortion (THD), switching losses, fault-tolerant feature of the proposed multilevel inverter-based power supply is compared with that of the conventional two-level inverter-based power supplies. The comparative results demonstrate the advantages of the proposed system over the conventional system. View full abstract»

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  • Elimination of one dc voltage source in stacked multicell converters

    Page(s): 644 - 658
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1564 KB)  

    This study presents a novel configuration for stacked multicell (SM) converters. The main advantage of the proposed converter, in comparison with the conventional one, is that the number of required dc voltage sources is reduced from two to one in the proposed topology which results in decreasing the cost and size of the converter. This progress is achieved by adding four low-frequency switches to the conventional configuration of SM converter whereas the number and voltage rating of high-frequency switches and clamping capacitors as well as the number of high-frequency switchings during a full cycle are kept constant. This converter is controlled by phase shifted carrier-sinusoidal pulse width modulation technique; therefore the self-balancing phenomenon of clamping capacitors' voltages is maintained. This study also presents a state-space representation model to analyse the dynamic of clamping capacitor's self-balancing phenomenon in the proposed SM converter by obtaining the switching instants of the pulse width modulation in terms of the Kapteyn series. Numerical solution of obtained state-space representation model of the proposed converter and simulation results as well as measurements taken from an experimental set-up are presented in order to validate the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed configuration as well as its control strategy and state-space model. View full abstract»

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  • Control of indirect matrix converter with bidirectional output stage for micro-turbine

    Page(s): 659 - 668
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (742 KB)  

    In this study, a new AC-DC-AC matrix converter is developed. This matrix converter is designed to connect a micro-turbine to the grid, to replace the traditional system used in micro-turbines, which is based on an inverter-rectifier system (VSR/VSI) with energy storage elements. A specific power circuit is introduced. The circuit consists of two stages, where the second stage is bidirectional. Also, a new switching technique is presented for the circuit mentioned above, which works with two voltage space vectors. The first vector corresponds to the input voltages (variable frequency) and second one to the output voltages (fixed frequency). This technique switching allowing to replace the VSR/VSI regarding operational concerns, with less loss, at lower cost and lower weight. For verifying the control algorithm, a laboratory prototype has been developed, using among other elements a Spectrum Digital eZdspTM TMS320F2812 card. In addition, the model predictive control (MPC) is used to control the electrical power of the micro-turbine generator by manipulating the fuel flow. The suggested method provided the optimal functioning not only for the small step changes but also for large random step changes. View full abstract»

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  • Robust repetitive control scheme for three-phase constant-voltage-constant-frequency pulse-widthmodulated inverters

    Page(s): 669 - 677
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1063 KB)  

    In this study, a robust repetitive control (RRC) scheme that combines robust optimal feedback controller (RFC) with repetitive controller is proposed for three-phase constant-voltage-constant-frequency (CVCF) pulse-width-modulated (PWM) inverters. The proposed control scheme inherits the advantages from both RFC and repetitive controller - fast dynamic response, good robustness and high tracking accuracy. The RRC design procedure is presented in detail. An RRC-controlled inverter can produce high-quality output voltages with certain good robustness in the presence of non-linear loads and parameter uncertainties. Experiments are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed RRC scheme. View full abstract»

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  • Gain scheduling control scheme for improved transient response of DC/DC converters

    Page(s): 678 - 692
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1683 KB)  

    In this study, a gain scheduling control scheme for DC/DC converters is proposed to improve the transient response to load current step inputs with high slew rate. The proposed control scheme is designed with pole-zero cancellation method to adaptively auto-tuning parameters of the compensator for efficiently improving the output transient response. The adaptive voltage position (AVP) function is also included in multiphase buck converter for voltage regulator (VR) application to verify the proposed gain scheduling scheme. Owing to the improved transient response, output capacitance can be significantly reduced with the proposed scheme. The proposed gain scheduling scheme is implemented on single-phase and multiphase DC/DC synchronous buck converter by 12 V input, 1.2 V output, individually. Simulation and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. View full abstract»

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  • Multi-port voltage-subtracting circuit based on resonant switched-capacitor

    Page(s): 693 - 701
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1267 KB)  

    This study presents a novel multi-port power convert circuit. In order to facilitate description, the circuit is introduced as a multi-input voltage-subtracting converter. The multiple input sources are shared on a common neutral, and the output voltage is the subtraction operation of the multiple inputs. The converter is only composed by switches, diodes, capacitors and small resonant inductor. All switches only need a pair of complementary fixed frequency pulse signal with fixed duty ratio to control. The detailed circuit analysis of three-input voltage-subtracting circuits, the structure variation and characteristics of multi-input voltage-subtracting converter are summarised in the study. First, the basic switching-capacitor cell of this converter is presented; the converters with different input sources therefore can be easily designed. The small resonant inductors are used to facilitate zero-current switching, and their sizes therefore are very small and do not affect the size of circuit. At the end of this study, an energy distribution system and a multi-colour light modulation circuit based on this circuit are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Modelling and control of a boost converter for irregular input sources

    Page(s): 702 - 709
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (652 KB)  

    In this study, the authors present the analysis and development of a boost-type switching converter for efficient power conversion from a source with an arbitrary low-frequency voltage waveform to a DC storage medium such as a battery. This type of energy transfer is of great interest in energy conversion systems involving low-frequency, time-varying input sources such as vibration energy harvesting and marine wave energy conversion. Motivated by these applications, a modelling and feedback control scheme is developed for a pulse-width-modulated (PWM) boost converter. In particular, conditions under which the converter would act as a `pseudo-resistor` as seen by an arbitrary input voltage source are derived. Based on the pseudo-resistive relationship obtained between the input voltage and current, a feedback controller is developed that regulates the input resistance of the converter to a desired value; hence allowing purely active power conversion of an arbitrary band-limited input voltage source to a DC load. Numerical simulations and experimental results are presented that evaluate performance of the proposed modelling and feedback control scheme. An application involving energy conversion for a mechanical vibration system to act as a regenerative damper is considered. View full abstract»

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  • Zero-current switching resonant buck converters with small inductors

    Page(s): 710 - 718
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (648 KB)  

    In this study two new zero-current switching resonant buck converters as soft-switching DC-DC converters are presented. In the first topology, small inductors are implemented and thus it is appropriate for integrated circuits. In the second topology, an alternative structure is presented in which not only a switch is eliminated but also higher power can be delivered. Both converters enjoy a very simple control method. The converters are analysed in details and theoretical equations are presented. The presented experimental results from the implemented prototypes confirm the theoretical analyses. View full abstract»

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  • Automatic voltage regulator based on series voltage compensation with ac chopper

    Page(s): 719 - 725
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (603 KB)  

    This study proposes an automatic voltage regulator (AVR) based on series voltage compensation with an ac chopper. The proposed AVR is made up of a pulse-width-modulated (PWM) ac chopper and a transformer for series voltage compensation. In the ac chopper, the commutation problem is solved by switching patterns. The ac chopper provides direct ac-ac power conversion without energy storage elements, so the size and cost of the AVR are reduced. The ac chopper compensates for only the required voltage, so the switches have reduced ratings and stresses. Using bypass switches, the proposed AVR can compensate not only for the voltage sag but also for the voltage swell of the input voltage. Experimental results verify that the proposed AVR quickly compensates for the voltage sag and swell of the input voltage. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of modular multilevel converter capacitor voltage balancing based on phase voltage redundant states

    Page(s): 726 - 738
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1510 KB)  

    This study provides mathematical analysis for the pulse width modulation and capacitor voltage balancing of a three-level modular converter, using voltage phase redundant states. Simulation and experimentation validate the analysis presented and highlight the distinct features of the modulation and capacitor voltage balancing strategies used in terms of effective switching frequency per device, device current and voltage stresses compare to other methods in the literature. The study also presents a simple modulation strategy that can be used in conjunction with the presented capacitor voltage balancing strategy for modular multilevel converters with a large number of cells per arm. View full abstract»

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  • Cryogenic converter for superconducting coil control

    Page(s): 739 - 746
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (619 KB)  

    A two-stage conversion system is described for regulating the DC current in a superconducting coil, for example, the field winding of a superconducting synchronous machine. An ambient temperature converter provides a low, controlled current to a cryogenic converter, co-located with the superconductor, which steps up the current by over a hundred times to supply the superconducting coil. An array of parallel-connected metal oxide field effect transistors (MOSFETs) minimise losses in the cryogenic converter and a low-frequency, self-oscillating control technique is used for the DC link which minimises the capacitor requirements and ensures orderly switching conditions. Closed-loop control of the superconductor current is achieved through the ambient temperature converter, with current sensing power MOSFETs used at low temperature for current measurement. Practical results including measurements made on a superconducting machine are used to illustrate the system performance. View full abstract»

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  • Harmonic compensation of a six-pulse current source controlled converter using neural network-based shunt active power filter

    Page(s): 747 - 754
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (682 KB)  

    Active power filter (APF) performance is affected by the system delay introduced in the reference signals and/or the actual injected current. This study introduces an artificial intelligent-based technique using a neural network control strategy for a shunt APF. The proposed system is capable of mitigating specific harmonic orders and consequently achieves low harmonic factor and reduced current total harmonic distortion (THD). In addition, the delay time introduced when extracting the harmonic reference current and when controlling the filter current is minimised. The control technique presented in this study is assessed on a medium voltage 6-pulse current source converter where the mains current dominant harmonics (5th, 7th, 11th and 13th) are compensated. The proposed system is simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK. A prototype system is used to experimentally validate the proposed APF performance. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic analysis and control design of optocouplerisolated LLC series resonant converters with wide input and load variations

    Page(s): 755 - 764
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (313 KB)  

    Off-line power supplies for consumer or industrial electronics frequently encounter substantial changes in both input voltage range and load current requirement. This study presents theoretical and practical details involved with the dynamic analysis and control design of LLC series resonant dc-to-dc converters operating under wide input and load variations. The accuracy of dynamic analysis and validity of control design are confirmed with both computer simulations and experimental measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Automated system identification and controller tuning for digitally controlled dc-dc converters

    Page(s): 765 - 772
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (465 KB)  

    Digital controllers are often used in interleaved multi-phase dc-dc converters. System identification is desirable for precise frequency-domain characterisations and subsequent stability assessment and/or controller design. The digital nature of the feedback signal facilitates the communication between the converter and a processing unit, which is used here to estimate the system parameters by means of system identification in situ. The phase loss, zero-order-hold effect and asynchronised sampling of the digital controller are discussed. Design limitations and desired dynamic behaviours complicate the controller design process and necessitate automated tuning of the controller. Therefore a computer-generated auto-tuning framework is set forth that provides the required controller coefficients to meet desired time and frequency performance criteria. This is an offline optimisation-based process that minimises a cost function formulated using appropriate error terms. The identification results for single- and multi-phase dc-dc converters closely match those obtained from conventional network analysers. Also, the auto-tuning performance is verified in time and frequency domains using hardware measurements and numerical simulations. View full abstract»

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  • Fuzzy logic-based directional full-range tuning control of wireless power pickups

    Page(s): 773 - 781
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (492 KB)  

    A fuzzy logic-integrated directional full-range tuning controller (DTC) for the output voltage regulation of a contactless parallel-tuned inductor-capacitor (LC) power pickup by switching the parallel tuning capacitor of the pickup circuit to make the equivalent tuning capacitance variable has been explained. Unlike the classical DTC that varies the equivalent tuning capacitance by a fixed step-size through trial and error approach, the proposed controller uses fuzzy-based reasoning to automatically select the tuning step-size for the DTC. The effectiveness of the proposed power pickup control method and its applicability to general wireless power transfer applications under variations in magnetic coupling, circuit tuning and the load has been verified by both simulation and experimental results. The controller can effectively reduce the output voltage chattering and steady-state error with faster response compared with the classical directional tuning controller. View full abstract»

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  • Modified droop controller for paralleling of dc-dc converters in standalone dc system

    Page(s): 782 - 789
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (484 KB)  

    Dc systems are gaining popularity because of its high efficiency, high reliability and easy interconnection of renewable sources as compared to ac systems. In standalone dc system, parallel dc-dc converters are used to interconnect storage element and loads. Use of master-slave controller for paralleling is limited because of its high cost, low reliability and complexity. Although conventional droop controllers overcome these limitations, they cannot simultaneously ensure equal current sharing (in per unit) and low-voltage regulation. This is due to the error in measurement of voltage feedback signal. To address this limitation, modified droop controller is proposed in this study. Circulating current between converters is used to modify nominal voltages such that error between them is reduced. This improves current sharing among converters. The advantage of the proposed method is that, equal current sharing is achieved along with low-voltage regulation. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is verified through detailed simulation study. To confirm the viability of the scheme, experimental studies are carried out on a scaled-down laboratory prototype developed for the purpose and results are included in this study. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of a zero voltage switching DC/DC converter without output inductor

    Page(s): 790 - 800
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1408 KB)  

    This study presents the analysis, design and implementation of a DC/DC converter with two series-connected half-bridge converters without output inductor. In the high-voltage side, two half-bridge converters with the asymmetric pulse-width modulation (PWM) are adopted to achieve zero voltage switching (ZVS) for all switching devices. The voltage stress of power switch is clamped at one-half of input DC voltage. Thus, active switches with low-voltage stress can be used at high input voltage application. At low-voltage side, the secondary sides of two half-bridge converters are connected in parallel to share load current. As two half-bridge converters are operated with interleaved PWM, the ripple current at output capacitor is reduced. On the basis of the resonant behaviour by the output capacitance of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) and the resonant inductance, active switches can be turned on at ZVS during the transition interval. For each half-bridge converter, two transformers are connected in series at the primary and secondary sides. Each transformer can be operated as an inductor or a transformer. Therefore no output inductor is needed in each half-bridge converter. Finally, experiments based on a 960-W laboratory prototype are provided to demonstrate the performance of proposed converter. View full abstract»

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  • Optimum foil thickness of inductors conducting DC and non-sinusoidal periodic currents

    Page(s): 801 - 812
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1148 KB)  

    This study presents a derivation of an expression for the optimum thickness of foil inductors operating under DC and AC non-sinusoidal periodic currents. The exact equation for the DC winding power loss and approximated equations for the AC winding power loss are used to determine the optimum thickness of the foil for the single-layer and multi-layer inductors, operating with multi-harmonic AC currents superimposed on the DC component. The design procedure for inductors with minimum winding power loss is presented for a pulsewidth-modulated DC-DC buck converter operating in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM). The comparison of the total winding power loss of the designed inductor with optimum foil thickness to the total winding power loss of the inductor with non-optimised round conductor is also given. The theoretical predictions have been verified by measurements of inductors with three different foil thicknesses. View full abstract»

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  • Model-based methodology using modified sneak circuit analysis for power electronic converter fault diagnosis

    Page(s): 813 - 826
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (798 KB)  

    This study presents a novel research methodology and approach for diagnosing pertinent failures for power electronic converters. The concept of the generalised connection matrix for a sneak circuit analysis is used in this research. A novel modification to this process shown in this study produces a usable feature that provides unique signatures under fault scenarios and could be used to diagnose faults. The novelty lies in using component currents to form the generalised connection matrix. This study presents the results obtained using data collected from fault scenarios on a hardware set-up for the dc-dc buck converter. View full abstract»

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  • One-cycle controlled three-phase electronic load

    Page(s): 827 - 832
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (444 KB)  

    This study is concerned with application of the universal one-cycle control (OCC) technique to implement a three-phase AC electronic load. The proposed AC electronic load is able to emulate complex load behaviour. The study describes the principles of operation and the digital implementation of AC electronics load. To validate the approach, the start-up transient of an induction motor was successfully emulated. Both the simulation and experimental results are reported. View full abstract»

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  • Discrete-time control for DC-AC converters based on sliding mode design

    Page(s): 833 - 840
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (660 KB)  

    A discrete-time linear state-feedback controller with feedforward compensation is presented for the design of voltage source DC-AC converters. The proposed algorithm is based on duty-ratio control and is obtained by modifying an existing sliding mode design method. It does not introduce chattering in the output waveforms, and its robustness with respect to parameter variations is enhanced by introducing an integral action. An intuitive approach for the selection of the controller parameters is developed. The design criteria are illustrated with reference to a laboratory prototype by means of various experiments, intended to test both stationary and dynamic performance. View full abstract»

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  • Multi-loop linear resonant voltage source inverter controller design for distorted loads using the linear quadratic regulator method

    Page(s): 841 - 851
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1499 KB)  

    In this study, an optimal multi-loop linear resonant control structure for a voltage source inverter (VSI) coupled to an inductor-capacitor (LC) filter is proposed for supplying nonlinear loads. A resonant controller ensures that sinusoidal voltage references are properly tracked and sinusoidal current disturbances are rejected without steady-state error under stable conditions. A desired transient response, on the other hand, can only be obtained by properly setting the controller coefficients. Further challenges include the reduction of output total harmonic distortion (THD), improving the damping of the LC resonance frequency and preventing the generation of fast closed-loop modes, which surpass the bandwidth of the inverter. The proposed technique is an extension of the classic linear quadratic regulator (LQR) that addresses the optimal tracking problem and provides a simple and step-by-step problem solving without stability or robustness issues. Additionally, the study also presents an improved controller to further reduce the voltage distortions for applications requiring acute accuracy. The designed controller is simulated and experimentally tested. The results are presented, discussed and confirmed against analytical derivations. View full abstract»

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  • Selective harmonic elimination pulse-width modulation seven-level cascaded H-bridge converter with optimised DC voltage levels

    Page(s): 852 - 862
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1335 KB)  

    This study presents a novel formulation of multilevel selective harmonic elimination pulse width modulation (MSHE-PWM) technique with optimised DC voltage levels suitable for high-power voltage source converter-based applications. The study reformulates the problem in a way in which the levels of the DC voltage sources are made variables within certain constraints. Therefore the degrees of freedom for specifying the cost function are increased when compared to the existing family of selective harmonic elimination-based multilevel control for the same physical structure. Moreover, with the proposed approach, the solution of the switching angles can be sought for the entire range of the modulation index without affecting the number of harmonics being eliminated or the number of the output voltage levels. The effectiveness of the proposed method is investigated with various waveforms. The theoretical and simulation findings are validated through experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • Energy recovery snubber circuit for a dc-dc push-pull converter

    Page(s): 863 - 872
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (683 KB)  

    This study presents an active snubber recovery circuit for a dc-dc push-pull converter. Detailed waveform analysis and associated mathematical equations are presented, supported by PSpice simulations and experimentation. More importantly, unlike previous snubbers for the push-pull converter, the presented active recovery circuit remains fully functional over the complete duty cycle range. The proposed snubber technique is practically demonstrated on a 1-kW voltage-fed 48Vdc/560Vdc step-up push-pull converter. The experiments are conducted with a low-voltage and high-current source, typical of battery, supercapacitor, and photovoltaic source applications. View full abstract»

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  • Diode-capacitor voltage multipliers combined with boost-converters: topologies and characteristics

    Page(s): 873 - 884
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (506 KB)  

    Various topological modifications of diode-capacitor voltage multipliers are considered. All the topologies are based on two known schemes: Cockcroft-Walton and Dickson. These topologies are built combined with a boost-converter, operating at a high switching frequency. Such a solution allows reducing the values of the capacitors. The proposed topologies can also be used by feeding them directly from a three-phase network through the regular rectifier; in this case the influence of such circuits on a supply network is reduced. A number of novel modifications of multipliers, having their specific features, are obtained. The procedure of calculating the output voltage, depending on the capacitor values and load parameters is proposed and the design formulas for the output voltage of some of the schemes are developed. It is shown that a decrease in the output voltage is caused by some sort of internal resistance. The essentially similar operating modes of different topologies are characterised by a different value of such a resistance, and accordingly by a different internal voltage drop. Dynamic models for some of the proposed topologies are also developed. The computer simulation and the experimental results proved the theoretical expectations. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IET Power Electronics brings together five principal power electronics themes including: applications of power semiconductor technology; circuits; devices; techniques; and performance management.

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