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Mechatronics, IEEE/ASME Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date Dec. 2012

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Displaying Results 1 - 23 of 23
  • Table of Contents

    Page(s): C1 - C4
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  • IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Autonomous Oscillation Control Loop Design for Amplitude Controlled, Frequency Read-Out-Type Resonant Sensors

    Page(s): 1009 - 1020
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1037 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper suggests an autonomous oscillation control loop for frequency read-out-type resonant sensors that produces outputs of variable frequency depending on the input of an external physical quantity. The design goal of the oscillation loop is simultaneously to stabilize the resonance characteristics of the sensor and to automatically track the resonant frequency in order to guarantee highly reliable sensor performance. To this end, the concept of automatic gain control (AGC) is applied so that the loop is designed to maintain the oscillation amplitude as one control objective. The second control objective is to achieve resonance condition tracking even when external influences such as disturbance and noise exist. For the verification of the proposed control loop design, an example resonant sensor system is modeled, and a control loop and controller that accompany the system are also designed. Finally, the proposed loop performance was demonstrated via simulations which consider practical noise elements. The theoretical results were further verified via sensor's transient responses and noise analysis. View full abstract»

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  • Control of a Duct Flow Network for Wind Display in a Virtual Environment

    Page(s): 1021 - 1030
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    Control of flow in duct networks has a myriad of applications ranging from heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning to blood flow networks. The system considered here provides vent velocity inputs to a novel 3-D wind display device called the TreadPort Active Wind Tunnel. An error-based robust decentralized sliding-mode control method with nominal feedforward terms is developed for individual ducts while considering cross coupling between ducts and model uncertainty as external disturbances in the output. This approach is important due to limited measurements, geometric complexities, and turbulent flow conditions. Methods for resolving challenges such as turbulence, electrical noise, valve actuator design, and sensor placement are presented. The efficacy of the controller and the importance of feedforward terms are demonstrated with simulations based upon an experimentally validated lumped parameter model and experiments on the physical system. Results show significant improvement over traditional control methods and validate prior assertions regarding the importance of decentralized control in practice. View full abstract»

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  • Electromagnetic Synchronized Switch Damping for Vibration Control of Flexible Beams

    Page(s): 1031 - 1038
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (672 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An electromagnetic synchronized switch damper integrated with the receding horizon optimal control law was developed to enhance the damping characteristics of flexible beam structures subject to dynamic loads. The damper system consists of a magnet attached to an aluminum beam and a coil placed at the bottom of the magnet. Both ends of the coil were connected to the external switching circuit, which includes an electromagnetic transducer, a capacitor, a resistor, and a switcher designed for efficient energy dissipation to reduce structural vibration. Further, a coil-based self-sensing scheme without additional measurement of the displacement and the velocity was successfully applied to the present switching scheme without performance loss. The present results show that the electromagnetic synchronized switching scheme can be successfully employed to improve the electromagnetic damping of the flexible structures, resulting in the robust vibration control regardless of changes to the circuit parameters. View full abstract»

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  • Piezoelectric Tweezer-Type End Effector With Force- and Displacement-Sensing Capability

    Page(s): 1039 - 1048
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    This paper presents the design and development of robotic tweezers with a force- and displacement-sensing capability driven by piezoelectric stack actuators. In order to satisfy sufficient stroke and tip force for future medical operations, a rhombus strain amplification mechanism is adopted. One of the serially connected piezoelectric stack actuators nested in the end effector is used as a force sensor. The force-displacement characteristics at the outermost layer with respect to the forces of the innermost PZT actuators (i.e., forward model) is obtained from a lumped parameter model of the rhombus strain amplification mechanism and a Bernoulli-Euler beam model of the tweezer-style end effector. The end-effector tip force and displacement are measured using an inverse model of the nested multilayer structure relating these quantities to an induced voltage across the innermost PZT actuator. The prototype end effector has the size of 69 mm (length) × 14 mm (height) × 13 mm (width). The performance test shows that the prototype has 1.0-N force and 8.8-mm displacement at the tip. The sensing accuracy was also evaluated through experiments. The experimental results show that the prototype has mean error of 0.086 N for force and 0.39 mm for displacement, which are equivalent to 11% of their maximum measurable values. View full abstract»

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  • Improved Control Design Methods for Proximate Time-Optimal Servomechanisms

    Page(s): 1049 - 1058
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    It is well known that minimum time-optimal control for servomechanisms can generate chattering in the presence of measurement noises, feedback delays, or model uncertainties; thus, it is not practical in applications. Maybe, the most popular alternative approach is the so-called proximate time-optimal servomechanism (PTOS). This approach starts with a near-time-optimal controller and, then, switches to a linear controller when the system output is close to a given target. However, the chattering problem is avoided at the expense of a slower time response. In this paper, two methods for eliminating the conservatism present in the PTOS are proposed. The first method applies a dynamically damped controller that allows the so-called acceleration discount factor to be pushed arbitrarily close to 1. The second method applies a continuous nonlinear control law that makes use of no switching. Experimental results show that the proposed designs practically eliminate the conservatism in the traditional PTOS. View full abstract»

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  • Laser-Based Kinematic Calibration of Robot Manipulator Using Differential Kinematics

    Page(s): 1059 - 1067
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (639 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a novel systematic technique to estimate entire kinematic parameter errors of robot manipulator. Small errors always exist in link length and link twist for physical manipulators, which affect the precision in kinematic equations leading to calculate wrong joint angle values in inverse kinematic equations. In order to solve these problems, the proposed technique employs a structured laser module (SLM), a stationary camera, the Jacobian matrices, and an extended Kalman filter (EKF). The SLM is attached to the end-effector of the manipulator arm and the stationary camera is used to determine an accurate position where the laser comes out. Variances between actual and measured positions of laser beams are represented by the Jacobian matrices formulated from differential kinematics. Then, the EKF is used to estimate kinematic parameters. Effectiveness of the proposed technique is verified with 7 DOF humanoid manipulator arm by computer simulation and 4 DOF manipulator by actual experiment. View full abstract»

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  • Obstacle Avoidance Policies for Cluster Space Control of Nonholonomic Multirobot Systems

    Page(s): 1068 - 1079
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    The cluster space control technique promotes simplified specification and monitoring of the motion of mobile multirobot systems of limited size. In this publication, we summarize the definition of the cluster space framework and introduce a multirobot cluster space controller specific for unicycle-like nonholonomic mobile robots. The controller produces cluster commands that translate into valid robot-level motions. We then study the closed-loop system stability in the Lyapunov sense. Two different obstacle avoidance algorithms are proposed and the stability of the resulting systems is also addressed. Experimental tests with a three-robot system and simulation results with a ten-robot system verify the functionality of the proposed approaches. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling and Iron-Effect Analysis on Magnetic Field and Torque Output of Electromagnetic Spherical Actuators With Iron Stator

    Page(s): 1080 - 1087
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (620 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a three-degree-of-freedom permanent magnet (PM) spherical actuator with an iron stator. The major contribution of this paper is to study the effect of iron stator on the magnetic field and torque output of the electromagnetic spherical actuator quantitatively and qualitatively. It could be helpful for actuator design optimization. Based on the poles' arrangement and the iron boundary, the magnetic field of the PM-pole rotor and the actuator torque are formulated analytically. The effect of iron stator on the magnetic field and torque output is analyzed with respect to structural parameters. The result shows that the iron stator can increase the radial component of the flux density and thus the actuator torque output significantly. View full abstract»

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  • Motor Torque and Magnetic Levitation Force Generation in Bearingless Brushless Multipole Motors

    Page(s): 1088 - 1097
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    In this paper, the principles of motor torque and suspension force generation in bearingless brushless motors with high pole numbers are explained, graphically illustrated, and analyzed in detail. The necessary harmonic components of the flux density distribution in the air gap are calculated and it is visualized how these can be generated by superposition of harmonics depending on a specific rotor pole/stator slot ratio. Especially, for bearingless motors with a fractional pole/slot ratio, it is shown how superior and precise suspension performance and high rotational speeds can be achieved. A basic analytical model is introduced and the considerations are exemplified for a 26-pole/24-slot bearingless brushless single-layer motor with concentrated windings compared to alternative feasible configurations. Adequate performance criteria for the motor as well as the bearing comparison are defined. View full abstract»

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  • Nonlinear System Modeling, Optimal Cam Design, and Advanced System Control for an Electromechanical Engine Valve Drive

    Page(s): 1098 - 1110
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    A cam-based shear force-actuated electromechanical valve drive system offering variable valve timing in internal combustion engines was previously proposed and demonstrated. To transform this concept into a competitive commercial product, several major challenges need to addressed, including the reduction of power consumption, transition time, and size. As shown in this paper, by using nonlinear system modeling, optimizing cam design, and exploring different control strategies, the power consumption has been reduced from 140 to 49 W (65%), the transition time has been decreased from 3.3 to 2.7 ms (18%), and the actuator torque requirement has been cut from 1.33 to 0.30 N·m (77%). View full abstract»

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  • 3-D Active Sensing in Time-Critical Urban Search and Rescue Missions

    Page(s): 1111 - 1119
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (861 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Mobile robots are currently being developed to help rescue workers in urban disaster environments to search for survivors. Our research focuses on developing robust 3-D sensors that can be used in robotic rescue missions to map these unknown cluttered environments and determine the locations of victims. This paper presents the development of a new active 3-D sensory system for robotic search and rescue in unknown cluttered urban disaster environments. The sensory system can provide high resolution 2-D and 3-D information of a cluttered scene that can be used by a robot operator for real-time viewing as well as to develop a 3-D map of the disaster scene. The main advantage of the proposed sensory system is its robustness to cluttered, and dark and dimly lit environments found in disaster areas. Experimental results are presented to verify the performance of the sensory system in obtaining 3-D sensory information of rubble piles in Urban Search and Rescue like environments as well as the potential use of the sensor for 3-D mapping applications in these unknown environments. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Robust Repetitive Control of a New Parallel-Kinematic XY Piezostage for Micro/Nanomanipulation

    Page(s): 1120 - 1132
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    This paper presents mechanism and controller design procedures of a new piezoactuated flexure XY stage for micro-/nanomanipulation applications. The uniqueness of the proposed stage lies in that it possesses an integrated parallel, decoupled, and stacked kinematical structure, which owns such properties as identical dynamic behaviors in X and Y axes, decoupled input and output motion, single-input-single-output (SISO) control, high accuracy, and compact size. Finite element analysis (FEA) was conducted to predict static performance of the stage. An XY stage prototype was fabricated by wire electrical discharge machining (EDM) process from the alloy material Al7075. Based on the identified plant transfer function of the micropositioning system, an H robust control combined with a repetitive control (RC) was adopted to compensate for the unmodeled piezoelectric nonlinearity. The necessity of using such a combined control is also investigated. Experimental results demonstrate that the H plus RC scheme improves the tracking response by 67% and 28% compared to the stand-alone H for 1-D and 2-D periodic positioning tasks, respectively. Thus, the results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed mechanism design and control approach. View full abstract»

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  • Decoupling Control of Magnetically Suspended Rotor System in Control Moment Gyros Based on an Inverse System Method

    Page(s): 1133 - 1144
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    To radically eliminate the influence of gyroscopic effects on system stability and to improve the performances of high-precision, fast-response for the high-speed magnetically suspended rotor system in a control moment gyro, this paper proposes a control strategy that combines inverse system method and internal model control. The stability and robustness problems induced by current-mode linearization have been successfully solved by introducing phase-lead compensation and internal model controller. The effectiveness and superiority of the proposed strategy have been demonstrated by both simulation and experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • Impedance Modeling and Analysis for Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Systems

    Page(s): 1145 - 1157
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    In a piezoelectric energy harvesting (PEH) system, the dynamics and harvested power vary with different interface circuits connected. The impedance matching theory was regarded as the theoretical base for the harvested power optimization in the harmonically excited PEH systems. The previous literature started the impedance analyses based on the proposition that the harvested power is maximized when the output impedance of the piezoelectric transducer is matched by the input impedance of the harvesting circuit. Yet, retrospecting to the origin of the impedance matching theory, a philosophical problem is found with this proposition. Moreover, the definition, constraint, and composition of the equivalent impedance in the real (nonlinear) harvesting circuits were not clear as well. This paper clarifies these concepts and provides the impedance modeling and analysis for the PEH systems with different interface circuits, including standard energy harvesting, parallel synchronized switch harvesting on inductor, and series synchronized switch harvesting on inductor. The equivalent impedance network and corresponding mechanical schematics of a general PEH system are proposed. The difference between the PEH equivalent impedance network and the conventional impedance network is discussed. The harvested power is investigated based on this impedance analysis. The analytical results show good agreement with the experiments carried out on a base excited PEH device. View full abstract»

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  • Snake Robot Locomotion in Environments With Obstacles

    Page(s): 1158 - 1169
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    As a step toward enabling snake robots to move in cluttered environments, this paper proposes a control strategy that combines environment adaptation with directional control in order to achieve straight line path following control in environments with obstacles. Moreover, the paper presents the design of a mechanical snake robot with tactile sensing capabilities that allow the robot to sense its environment. Experimental results are presented where the snake robot is successfully propelled through different obstacle environments with the proposed control strategy. View full abstract»

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  • Design, Construction, and Modeling of a Flexible Rotor Active Magnetic Bearing Test Rig

    Page(s): 1170 - 1182
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    A successful industrial application of flexible rotors supported on active magnetic bearings (AMBs) requires careful attention not only to rotordynamic design aspects but also to electromagnetic and feedback control design aspects. Model-based control design provides the framework to ensure efficient, reliable, and safe operation of turbomachinery on AMBs. This paper describes in detail the design, construction, and modeling process for a high performance AMB test rig which typifies a small industrial super-critical centrifugal compressor. A unique aspect of the design are the two additional radial AMBs to allow the application of simulated destabilizing fluid or electromagnetic forces to the rotor. These forces are difficult to predict and can lead to rotordynamic instability of industrial machinery if not properly accounted for. This test rig provides a realistic platform to evaluate stabilizing control algorithms for high performance turbomachinery. A complete model of rotor, AMB actuators and accompanying electronics, is constructed from individually verified component models. Model validation is confirmed through the successful design and implementation of a μ-synthesis controller. View full abstract»

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  • Algorithms for Real-Time Estimation of Individual Wheel Tire-Road Friction Coefficients

    Page(s): 1183 - 1195
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    It is well recognized in the automotive research community that knowledge of the real-time tire-road friction coefficient can be extremely valuable for active safety applications, including traction control, yaw stability control and rollover prevention. Previous research results in literature have focused on the estimation of average tire-road friction coefficient for the entire vehicle. This paper explores the development of algorithms for reliable estimation of independent friction coefficients at each individual wheel of the vehicle. Three different observers are developed for the estimation of slip ratios and longitudinal tire forces, based on the types of sensors available. After estimation of slip ratio and tire force, the friction coefficient is identified using a recursive least-squares parameter identification formulation. The observers include one that utilizes engine torque, brake torque, and GPS measurements, one that utilizes torque measurements and an accelerometer and one that utilizes GPS measurements and an accelerometer. The developed algorithms are first evaluated in simulation and then evaluated experimentally on a Volvo XC90 sport utility vehicle. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of estimating friction coefficients at the individual wheels reliably and quickly. The sensitivities of the observers to changes in vehicle parameters are evaluated and comparisons of robustness of the observers are provided. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling and Control of a Nonuniform Vibrating String Under Spatiotemporally Varying Tension and Disturbance

    Page(s): 1196 - 1203
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    In this paper, robust adaptive boundary control is developed for a class of flexible string systems under unknown spatiotemporally varying distributed disturbance and time-varying boundary disturbance. The vibrating string is nonuniform since the spatiotemporally varying tension applied to the system. The nonuniform vibrating string system is represented by a nonlinear nonhomogeneous partial differential equation (PDE) and two ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Model-based control is first proposed at the right boundary of the string to suppress the vibration of the flexible nonuniform string system. To compensate for the system parametric uncertainties, robust adaptive boundary control is developed. With the proposed control, the uniformly ultimate boundness of the closed-loop system is demonstrated via Lyapunov's direct method. The state of the nonuniform string system is proven to converge to a small neighborhood of zero by appropriately choosing the design parameters. Simulations are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control. View full abstract»

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  • Have you visited lately? www.ieee.org

    Page(s): 1204
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  • 2012 Index IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics Vol. 17

    Page(s): 1205 - 1224
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  • IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics information for authors

    Page(s): C3
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Aims & Scope

IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics encompasses all practical aspects of the theory and methods of mechatronics, the synergetic integration of mechanical engineering with electronic and intelligent computer control in the design and manufacture of industrial products and processes.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Okyay Kaynak
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Bogazici University
34342 Istanbul, Turkey
okyay.kaynak@boun.edu.tr