Scheduled System Maintenance:
Some services will be unavailable Sunday, March 29th through Monday, March 30th. We apologize for the inconvenience.
By Topic

Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

Issue 5 • Date Sept.-Oct. 2012

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 22 of 22
  • Front Cover

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): C1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (201 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics publication information

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): C2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (38 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1525 - 1526
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (107 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Introduction to the Issue on Photonics for Environmental Sensing

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1527 - 1528
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (128 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Fiber-Optic Salinity Sensor Using Fiber-Optic Displacement Measurement With Flat and Concave Mirror

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1529 - 1533
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (404 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A simple intensity modulated displacement sensor is proposed for sensing salinity based on different concentration of sodium chloride (NaCl) in deionized water. The proposed sensor uses a 594-nm He-Ne laser as light source due to the high absorbance of NaCl within that wavelength. The peak voltage and its position of the displacement from both flat and concave mirror are studied. For a concentration change from 0% to 12%, the peak voltage decreases linearly from 2.46 to 1.48 mV, while its corresponding position from the flat mirror increases linearly from 1.00 to 1.35 mm with a linearity of more than 96% and 99%, respectively. Similarly, the peak voltage corresponding to the displacement with concave mirror decreases linearly from 3.67 to 3.57 mV, while its position increases linearly from 1.20 to 1.45 mm with a linearity of more than 98% and 95%, respectively. From the experimental results, it is concluded that as the concentration or density of NaCl increases, the peak voltage decreases proportionately. The stability, high sensitivity, simplicity of design, and low fabrication cost make this sensor suitable for chemical, pharmaceutical, biomedical, and process-control application. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Direct UV Written Optical Waveguides in Flexible Glass Flat Fiber Chips

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1534 - 1539
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (583 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A glass-based substrate technology that fills the gap between a truly flexible extended length distributed sensor medium and the multifunctionality of optical chips is demonstrated. Flat fiber chips will open further degrees of freedom to control the behavior of light via mechanical manipulation. A flexible flat format will also allow straightforward incorporation into smart structures. Coupled with low manufacturing costs, these flexichips can also be a key enabler to disposable high-end sensing devices or fully distributed point sensors. In this study, Bragg gratings were used to demonstrate the optical flatness of the flat fiber core layer. Furthermore, the effective index values obtained from the grating experiment were input into a dynamic model, subsequently proving the influence of the dumbbell-shaped flat fiber cross section on the resultant UV written waveguides. Evanescent field sensing was also demonstrated by adopting a stepped Bragg approach. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Superluminescent Diode-Based Multiple-Gas Sensor for NH _{\bf 3} and H _{\bf 2} O Vapor Monitoring

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1540 - 1546
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1480 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An approach of superluminescent light emitting diode (SLED)-based multiple-gas sensing (NH3 and H2O vapor) is proposed and demonstrated by using an absorption spectroscopy technique for emission monitoring (DeNOx process) applications. Such process normally occurs at temperature range of 250-400°C where significant interference effect due to H2O vapor is expected. Hence, measuring multiple gases and eliminating cross-interference effect is of great importance in sensing trace gases. In this study, an SLED-based sensor with center emission wavelength of 1530-nm region is chosen to measure the concentrations of pure NH3 and H2O vapor by probing its overtone and combination bands present in this region. Detection limit for the NH3 gas accounted in the case of aqua-ammonia (undiluted) is estimated to be 120 ppm ·m. A novel approach of introducing an open-space etalon in the path of the SLED beam is also proposed and demonstrated for adequate isolation from interfering species and improving the detection limit. By using an etalon with a free spectral range of 104 GHz and tuning it to appropriate wavelength, detection limit of about 22 ppm·m is attained for NH3 gas sensing in the presence of H2O vapor. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Dichloromethane Detection Based on Near-Infrared Absorptive Sensing

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1547 - 1552
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (373 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Dichloromethane (DCM), a clear and lipophilic liquid that has been primarily used in industrial applications, has caused organic poisoning upon inhalation during its wide use as a chlorinated organic solvent and in other industrial processes. In this paper, a biophotonic near-infrared sensor using a tunable fiber ring laser based on an absorption spectroscopic method has been demonstrated in order to perform DCM detection. A continuous wave near-infrared source operating in the C-band wavelength range has been developed and optically characterized. The principle of the Sagnac loop mirror, which operates as a saturable absorber to effectively narrow down the laser linewidth, has been reviewed. By forming a fiber-based interferometer loop with an unpumped erbium-doped fiber inserted, we could reduce the external noise and stabilize the laser frequency to achieve a narrow linewidth. The result shows an accuracy of 16 pm or 0.06 cm -1, which is much more precise than the previous results of 1 nm or 4 cm -1 using a method based on a broadband infrared light source. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Relative Humidity Sensor Based on an Agarose-Infiltrated Photonic Crystal Fiber Interferometer

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1553 - 1559
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (629 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We report a detailed study of a miniature optical relative humidity (RH) sensor based on a polymer-infiltrated photonic crystal fiber interferometer. The sensor shows a high sensitivity to RH variations with a change in its reflected power of about 12 dB for a humidity change of 84% RH. The sensor has the advantages of a very compact length of 1 mm, and an end-type probe configuration makes it suitable for monitoring humidity in microenvironments. The repeatability, long-term stability, measurement accuracy, and temperature dependence of the sensor are studied in this paper. The observed low thermal sensitivity of the sensor suggests that temperature compensation may not be needed if it is used in normal environments. The response time of the sensor is found to be 400 ms for a change in RH of ~ 30% RH. The fast response time suggests that the sensor can potentially be used as a human breath rate monitor in a clinical situation. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Photonic Bandgap Fiber for Infiltration-Free Refractive-Index Sensing

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1560 - 1565
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (557 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We report a novel photonic bandgap sensor, comprising a D-shaped fiber fabricated via side polishing. It takes advantage of measurand-elicited refractive-index profile changes upon exposure of its side-polished region to an ambient liquid. The bandgap shift can be induced by perturbations in close proximity to the fiber core, such as the change of refractive index in the surrounding. The side-polished all-solid photonic bandgap fiber utilized offers an infiltration-free sensing mechanism, which eliminates difficult air-hole infiltration and evacuation processes experienced by most photonic crystal fiber-based index sensors. Experimental results demonstrated the repeatability and linearity in refractive-index sensing from 1.31 to 1.43 with a sensitivity of 10 -5 refractive-index units (RIUs). Additional study was also conducted to identify the significance of polishing depths in relation to the sensor performance. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Fiber-Coupled Ozone Sensor Based on Tuning Fork-Enhanced Interferometric Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1566 - 1572
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (825 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a completely fiber-coupled ozone sensor based on tuning fork (TF)-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy is presented. Crystalline silicon micro-TFs are processed and characterized. Their photoacoustically induced motion is monitored by a compact intensity interferometer. An acoustic microresonator for this new type of TFs is optimized. A frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser is used as an excitation source. The sensor performance is assessed by calibration measurements. It reaches a detection limit of S = 2.13 ppm ± 0.02 ppm and a noise-equivalent absorption sensitivity of D = (1.27 × 10-9 ± 1.2 × 10-11) cm-1 W(Hz)-1/2. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Rare Events in Remote Dark-Field Spectroscopy: An Ecological Case Study of Insects

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1573 - 1582
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (849 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a novel detection scheme for the monitoring of insect ecosystems is presented. Our method is based on the remote acquisition of passive sunlight scattering by two insect species. Procedures to identify rare events in remote dark-field spectroscopy are explained. We further demonstrate how to reduce the spectral representation, and how to discriminate between sexes, using a hierarchical clustering analysis. One-day cycle showing the temporal activities of the two sexes as well as data on activity patterns in relation to temperature and wind is presented. We also give a few examples of the potential use of the technique for studying interactions between sexes on a time scale of milliseconds. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • TriPleX-Based Integrated Optical Ring Resonators for Lab-on-a-Chip and Environmental Detection

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1583 - 1596
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (961 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we report experimental results of integrated optics ring resonators (RRs) based on TriPleX waveguide technology. The RRs operate in the near infrared enabling the use of very cost effective VCSELs as a light source. The experimentally obtained response of the ring resontors is in good agreement with theory, while the measured through and drop responses show very low on-chip losses. The chips show good coupling efficiencies to external fibers due to integrated spotsize convertors. The corresponding signal-to-noise ratio enables for measurements of changes in refractive index (RI) smaller than 1 × 10-6 RIU. The RRs are combined with an 850-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) as a light source and prototype electronic equipment for signal processing. Several applications are described here, such as RI measurements in fluidic channels, label-free biochemical surface reactions, and gas detection in ambient atmosphere. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Chitosan-Coated Polarization Maintaining Fiber-Based Sagnac Interferometer for Relative Humidity Measurement

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1597 - 1604
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (598 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A relative humidity fiber sensor based on polarization maintaining (PM) fiber Sagnac interferometery configuration is presented. The proposed sensor is functionalized with a thin layer of a moisture-sensitive natural polymer chitosan, whose degree of swelling varies as a function of relative humidity. The sensing scheme used in this study is based on the strain effect induced on the PM fiber to modulate its birefringence property through the swelling effect of chitosan. To optimize the sensor's response, the experiments were first conducted to evaluate the effect of chitosan concentration on the PM fiber, followed by investigating effects of chemically etched PM fiber and analyzing modified chitosan sensing film effect on the sensor's performance. As observed from the results, the optimized sensor exhibits a sensitivity of 81 pm/%RH for the relative humidity ranging from 20% RH to 95% RH with an uncertainty of ±2.04% RH. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Room Temperature CW Operation of Mid-IR Distributed Feedback Quantum Cascade Lasers for \hbox {CO}_{2}, \hbox {N}_{2} O, and NO Gas Sensing

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1605 - 1612
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1659 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present the design and the performance of midinfrared distributed feedback (DFB) quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) made of strain balanced GaxIn1-xAs/AlyIn1-yAs material on InP substrates for sensing CO2, N2O, and NO in the middle wavelength range of mid-IR from 4 to 6 μm. We present the performances of our DFB QCLs at three different aspects: high power, low threshold power consumption, and wide wavelength coverage. We demonstrated a continuous wave (CW) DFB QCL with an output power of 220mW at 20°C, a CW DFB QCL with low threshold voltage of 8V and low-divergent far-field angles of 27.5° × 32.9° by reducing the number of quantum cascaded stages, a CW DFB QCL with a low threshold power consumption of 0.7W by reducing doping density in the active core, and DFB QCLs wide wavelength coverage of 325 cm-1, 16.9% of center wavelength at 5.2 μm, within one wafer by changing the grating period. 12 DFB QCL chips have being aged for 3000 h under 25°C and a constant quasi-CW current of 0.37 A. No decrease in power was observed. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Fiber Bragg Grating-Based Three-Dimensional Multipoint Ring-Mesh Sensing System With Robust Self-Healing Function

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1613 - 1620
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1230 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    By utilizing the cyclic filtering and free spectral range characteristics of an arrayed waveguide grating (AWG), we propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel 3-D ring-mesh sensing system with comprehensive self-healing function. The Bragg wavelengths of the employed fiber Bragg grating-based optical sensors are periodically assigned, with respect to the AWG. The proposed ring-mesh topology is constructed by 2 × 2 optical switches to link the ring-based subnets in a meshed architecture. Moreover, a simple and cost-effective signal sensing processor, provided by the AWG, is employed for classifying the sensing signals and monitoring the sensing elements. With the same constructional building block, the proposed sensing system can be easily scaled up which provides more self-healing paths in a self-reproduced manner. In addition, we also bring up a routing algorithm to seek for an optimal sensing path that has the least accumulated power loss to deal with any possible sensing point outage when the sensing system is scaling up. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Numerical simulation of optoelectronic devices

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1621
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (282 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Special issue on semiconductor lasers

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1622
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (479 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Special issue on graphene optoelectronics

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1623
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (90 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Special issue on optical modulators — technologies and applications

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1624
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (499 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics information for authors

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): C3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (29 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Blank - back cover]

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): C4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (5 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

Papers published in the IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics fall within the broad field of science and technology of quantum electronics of a device, subsystem, or system-oriented nature.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
John Cartledge
Queen's University