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Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4  Part 2 • Date Aug. 2012

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 48
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 1209 - 1211
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  • ANIMMA 2011 Conference Overview

    Page(s): 1212
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  • Comments by the Guest Editor

    Page(s): 1213
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  • Enhanced In-Pile Instrumentation at the Advanced Test Reactor

    Page(s): 1214 - 1223
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1482 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Many of the sensors deployed at materials and test reactors cannot withstand the high flux/high temperature test conditions often requested by users at U.S. test reactors, such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory. To address this issue, an instrumentation development effort was initiated as part of the ATR National Scientific User Facility in 2007 to support the development and deployment of enhanced in-pile sensors. This paper provides an update on this effort. Specifically, this paper identifies the types of sensors currently available to support in-pile irradiations and those sensors currently available to ATR users. Accomplishments from new sensor technology deployment efforts are highlighted by describing new temperature and thermal conductivity sensors now available to ATR users. Efforts to deploy enhanced in-pile sensors for detecting elongation and real-time flux detectors are also reported, and recently-initiated research to evaluate the viability of advanced technologies to provide enhanced accuracy for measuring key parameters during irradiation testing are noted. View full abstract»

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  • Magnetic Measuring Instrumentation With Radiation-Resistant Hall Sensors for Fusion Reactors: Experience of Testing at JET

    Page(s): 1224 - 1231
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    Research programs for the development and experimental estimation of diagnostics are under way at Joint European Torus (JET)—one of the largest operating fusion reactors. These diagnostics are relevant for solving diagnostic tasks of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The paper discusses the principles of designing the magnetic measurement instrumentation based on the application of steady-state radiation-resistant semiconductor Hall sensors. It also presents the results of the instrumentation's application for ex-vessel magnetic field measurement on JET reactor during the latest deuterium campaign, and the prospects of further enhancement in magnetic diagnostic accuracy and reliability. Since neutron fluxes are much larger on ITER, at ex-vessel sensor locations, than those achievable on JET, the sensors have been tested in ITER-relevant radiation environment in nuclear research reactors. View full abstract»

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  • PING for Nuclear Measurements: First Results

    Page(s): 1232 - 1236
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (558 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with a new generation of acquisition systems for nuclear instrumentation. This project, called PING aims at developing instrumentation devices in order to cover a wide range of nuclear measurements with single hardware architecture. More specifically, this device is well suited for neutron measurements. This system is based on a full digital signal processing free from any analog signal neither formatting nor processing. Digitized signals can then be processed for physical information extraction. The dedicated embedded signal processing software in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) allows us to achieve versatile passive or active neutron measurements, or gamma spectrometry. First experimental results are reported in this article. Both gamma and neutron measurements performance are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Inspection of Objects on the Sea Floor Utilizing 14 MeV Tagged Neutrons

    Page(s): 1237 - 1244
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    Variety of objects found on the sea floor need to be inspected for the presence of materials that represent threat to the environment and human safety. We have demonstrated that a sealed tube 14 MeV neutron generator, with the detection of associated alpha particles, can be used underwater when mounted inside a remotely operated vehicle equipped with hydraulic legs and a variety of sensors for the inspection of such objects for the presence of threat materials. View full abstract»

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  • Real-Time, Digital Pulse-Shape Discrimination in Non-Hazardous Fast Liquid Scintillation Detectors: Prospects for Safety and Security

    Page(s): 1245 - 1251
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (886 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) in fast, organic scintillation detectors is a long-established technique used to separate neutrons and $gamma$ rays in mixed radiation fields. In the analogue domain the method can achieve separation in real time, but all knowledge of the pulses themselves is lost thereby preventing the possibility of any post- or repeated analysis. Also, it is typically reliant on electronic systems that are largely obsolete and which require significant experience to set up. In the digital domain, PSD is often more flexible but significant post-processing has usually been necessary to obtain neutron/ $gamma$-ray separation. Moreover, the scintillation media on which the technique relies usually have a low flashpoint and are thus deemed hazardous. This complicates the ease with which they are used in industrial applications. In this paper, results obtained with a new portable digital pulse-shape discrimination instrument are described. This instrument provides real-time, digital neutron/ $gamma$-ray separation whilst preserving the synchronization with the time-of-arrival for each event, and realizing throughputs of $3 times 10^{6}$ events per second. Furthermore, this system has been tested with a scintillation medium that is non-flammable and not hazardous. View full abstract»

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  • Development of a High-Resolution Muon Tracking System Based on Micropattern Detectors

    Page(s): 1252 - 1258
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1304 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A muon tracking system consisting of four 9 cm $times,$10 cm sized bulk Micromegas detectors with 128 $mu{rm m}$ amplification-gap and two 10 cm $times,$10 cm triple GEM detectors is foreseen for high-precision tracking of 160 GeV muons at the H8 beamline at CERN with a readout rate above 10 kHz and an overall resolution below 20 $mu{rm m}$. Signal studies of both detector types have been performed by recording cosmic muon and 5.9 keV X-ray signals. The analysis of the complete signal-cycles allows for the determination of rise times, pulse heights, timing fluctuations and discrimination of background, resulting in a FWHM energy resolution of about 20% and detection efficiencies of 98% and more. Models for signal formation in both detector types will be presented. A single detector spatial resolution of 75 $mu{rm m}$ was measured for cosmic muons using a fast Gassiplex based strip readout with readout strips of 150 $mu{rm m}$ width and a pitch of 250 $mu{rm m}$. Multiple scattering of low energy cosmic muons deteriorates the observable spatial detector resolution by more than 20 $mu{rm m}$. Additionally, we report on the sensitivity to gamma- and neutron background and on the behavior of spatial resolution as a function of background rates. View full abstract»

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  • Influence of the Earth's Magnetic Field on Large Area Photomultipliers

    Page(s): 1259 - 1267
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2258 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The influence of the Earth's magnetic field on large area photomultipliers proposed for a future deep sea neutrino telescope was studied under the EU-funded KM3NeT design study. The aims were to evaluate variations in PMT performance in the Earth's magnetic field and to decide whether the use of magnetic shielding is necessary. Measurements were performed on three Hamamatsu PMTs: two 8-inch R5912 types, one of these with super bialkali photocathode, and a 10-inch R7081 type with a standard bialkali photocathode. The various characteristics of the PMTs were measured while varying the PMT orientations with respect to the Earth's magnetic field, both with and without a mu-metal cage as magnetic shield. In the 8-inch PMTs the impact of the magnetic field was found to be smaller than that on the 10-inch PMT. The increased quantum efficiency in the 8$^{primeprime}$ super bialkali PMT almost compensated its smaller detection surface compared to the 10$^{primeprime}$ PMT. No significant effects were measured upon transit time and the fraction of spurious pulses. View full abstract»

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  • Highly Lead-Loaded Red Plastic Scintillators as an X-Ray Imaging System for the Laser Méga Joule

    Page(s): 1268 - 1272
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (569 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The scope of this project intends to record spatially resolved images of core shape and size of a deuterium-tritium microballoon during inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments at Laser Méga Joule facility (LMJ). We need to develop an x-ray imaging system which can operate in the hard radiative background generated by an ignition shot of ICF. The scintillator is a part of the imaging system and has to gather a compromise of scintillating properties (scintillating efficiency, decay time, emission wavelength) so as to both operate in the hard radiative environment and to allow the acquisition of spatially resolved images. Inorganic scintillators cannot be used because no compromise can be found regarding the expected scintillating properties. Most of them are not fast enough and emit blue light. Organic scintillators are generally fast, but present low x-ray photoelectric absorption in the 10 to 40 keV range. This does not enable the acquisition of spatially resolved images. View full abstract»

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  • Support of Low-Level Instrument Background for HPGe Detectors

    Page(s): 1273 - 1277
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (638 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The development results are presented for high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors with low-level instrument background used in the Germanium Experiment on the measurement of Magnetic Moment of Antineutrino—GEMMA. Special design considerations for the cryostats have focused on mass reduction of materials surrounding the detector and the use of materials with very low radiation impurities. View full abstract»

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  • CALORIC: A Readout Chip for High Granularity Calorimeter

    Page(s): 1278 - 1281
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    A very-front-end electronics has been developed to fulfil requirements for the next generation of electromagnetic calorimeters. The compactness of this kind of detector and its large number of channels (up to several millions) impose a drastic limitation of the power consumption and an high level of integration. View full abstract»

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  • Quantization Effects in Radiation Spectroscopy Based on Digital Pulse Processing

    Page(s): 1282 - 1288
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (641 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Radiation spectra represent inherently quantized data in the form of stacked channels of equal width. The spectrum is an experimental measurement of the discrete probability density function (PDF) of the detector pulse heights. The quantization granularity of the spectra depends on the total number of channels covering the full range of pulse heights. In analog pulse processing the total number of channels is equal to the total number of digital values produced by a spectroscopy analog-to-digital converter (ADC). In digital pulse processing each detector pulse is sampled and quantized by a fast ADC producing a certain number of quantized numerical values. These digital values are linearly processed to obtain a digital quantity representing the peak of the digitally shaped pulse. Using digital pulse processing it is possible to acquire a spectrum with the total number of channels greater than the number of ADC values. Noise and sample averaging are important in the transformation of ADC quantized data into spectral quantized data. Analysis of this transformation is performed using an area sampling model of quantization. Spectrum differential nonlinearity (DNL) is shown to be related to the quantization at low noise levels and a small number of averaged samples. Theoretical analysis and experimental measurements are used to obtain the conditions to minimize the DNL due to quantization. View full abstract»

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  • Prompt and Delayed Parasitic Currents Induced in Typical Insulators of Coaxial Cables by Large 14 MeV Sub-Nanosecond Neutrons Flux

    Page(s): 1289 - 1295
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1329 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments performed on high-power laser facilities produce a high intensity short pulse of 14 MeV neutrons. The interaction of such an environment with coaxial cables widely used for signals transmission of diagnostic equipments induces parasitic transient currents. Depending on the magnitude and shape of those currents, measurement signals are likely to be altered and electric devices might be damaged. This paper reviews our knowledge about the generation of parasitic current in polyethylene (PE), PolyTetraFluorEthylene (PTFE) and PolyEtherEtherKetone (PEEK) insulators subjected to an ICF neutron pulse. It provides a clear evidence of the existence of a prompt neutron component and a very fast, nanosecond delayed radiation induced electromotive force (RIEMF) in insulator response to very short neutron pulses. View full abstract»

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  • A Paradigm Shift in Nuclear Spectrum Analysis

    Page(s): 1296 - 1299
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    An overview of the latest developments in quantitative spectrometry software is presented. New strategies and algorithms introduced are characterized by buzzwords “Physics, no numerology”, “Fuzzy logic” and “Repeated analyses”. With the implementation of these new ideas one arrives at software capabilities that were unreachable before and which are now realized in the GAMMA-W, SODIGAM and ALPS packages. View full abstract»

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  • Probability Density Function Transformation Using Seeded Localized Averaging

    Page(s): 1300 - 1308
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    Seeded Localized Averaging (SLA) is a spectrum acquisition method that averages pulse-heights in dynamic windows. SLA sharpens peaks in the acquired spectra. This work investigates the transformation of the original probability density function (PDF) in the process of applying the SLA procedure. We derive an analytical expression for the resulting probability density function after an application of SLA. In addition, we prove the following properties: 1) for symmetric distributions, SLA preserves both the mean and symmetry. 2) for unimodal symmetric distributions, SLA reduces variance, sharpening the distribution's peak. Our results are the first to prove these properties, reinforcing past experimental observations. Specifically, our results imply that in the typical case of a spectral peak with Gaussian PDF the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the transformed peak becomes narrower even with averaging of only two pulse-heights. While the Gaussian shape is no longer preserved, our results include an analytical expression for the resulting distribution. Examples of the transformation of other PDFs are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Simulation of a MGy Radiation Tolerant Signal Conditioning Circuit for Resistive Sensors in 0.7 \mu m CMOS

    Page(s): 1309 - 1316
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (628 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the design and simulation results of a radiation tolerant configurable discrete time CMOS signal conditioning circuit for use with resistive sensors like strain gauge pressure sensors. The circuit is intended to be used for remote handling in harsh environments in the International Thermonuclear Experimental fusion Reactor (ITER) (experimental validation still needs to be performed). The design features a 5 V differential preamplifier using a Correlated Double Sampling (CDS) architecture at a sample rate of 20 kHz and a 24 V discrete time post amplifier. The gain is digitally controllable between 27 and 400 in the preamplifier and between 1 and 8 in the post amplifier. The nominal input referred noise voltage is only 8.5 $mu {rm V}_{rm rms}$ while consuming only 1 mW. The circuit has a simulated radiation tolerance of more than 1 MGy. View full abstract»

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  • Integration of Optical Fibers in Megajoule Class Laser Environments: Advantages and Limitations

    Page(s): 1317 - 1322
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (530 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We review the advantages and limitations for the integration of optical fibers in the radiative environment associated with Megajoule class lasers as Laser Megajoule (LMJ) in France or National Ignition Facility (NIF) in the USA. Optical fibers present numerous advantages, like their electromagnetic immunity, for integration in these facilities devoted to the fusion by inertial confinement studies. Despite these advantages, it is also well-known that optical fibers suffer from a degradation of their macroscopic properties under irradiation, limiting their transmission capability. We studied the major mechanisms governing the amplitude of this degradation, focusing our discussion on the transient radiation-induced attenuation (RIA) phenomena that is often the limiting factor for LMJ applications. The amplitude and growth and decay kinetics of RIA are affected by different parameters related to the fibers themselves but also depend on the application and irradiation characteristics. We particularly investigated the fiber transient radiation responses when the optical links have to operate during the pulsed and mixed environment associated with ignition shots. Our study shows that, if the same parameters affect the fiber sensitivity for steady state and transient irradiations, the radiation tolerances of the different classes of waveguides strongly differ, implying dedicated experiments for LMJ facility needs. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of Fission Gas Release Kinetics by On-Line Mass Spectrometry

    Page(s): 1323 - 1334
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (589 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The release of fission gases (Xe and Kr) and helium out of nuclear fuel materials in normal operation of a nuclear power reactor can constitute a serious limitation of the fuel lifetime. Moreover, radioactive isotopes of Xe and Kr contribute significantly to the global radiological source term released in the primary coolant circuit in case of accidental situations accompanied by loss of fuel rod integrity. As a consequence, fission gas release investigation is of prime importance for the nuclear fuel cycle economy, and is the driving force for numerous R&D programs. In this domain, for understanding current fuel behavior issues, preparing the development of new fuels (e.g., for Gen IV power systems) and for improving modeling prediction capability, there is a marked need for innovations in the instrumentation field, mainly for: Quantification of very low fission gas concentrations, released from fuel sample and routed in sweeping lines, View full abstract»

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  • Neutronics Experimental Validation of the Jules Horowitz Reactor Fuel by Interpretation of the VALMONT Experimental Program—Transposition of the Uncertainties on the Reactivity of JHR With JEF2.2 and JEFF3.1.1

    Page(s): 1335 - 1343
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1024 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The new European material testing Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR), currently under construction in Cadarache center (CEA France), will use LEU (20% enrichment in $^{235}{rm U}$ ) fuels (${rm U}_{3}{rm Si}_{2}$ for the start up and UMoAl in the future) which are quite different from the industrial oxide fuel, for which an extensive neutronics experimental validation database has been established. View full abstract»

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  • Spectral Indices Measurements Using Miniature Fission Chambers at the MINERVE Zero-Power Reactor at CEA Using Calibration Data Obtained at the BR1 Reactor at SCK•CEN

    Page(s): 1344 - 1350
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    Spectral indices measurements performed in 2004 at the CEA MINERVE facility loaded with the ${rm R}1hbox{-}{rm UO}_{2}$ lattice , using calibration data acquired at the SCK•CEN BR1 facility in 2001 , resulted in ambivalent conclusions. On one hand, spectral indices involving only fissile isotopes gave consistent discrepancies between calculation and experiment. On the other hand, spectral indices involving both fissile and fertile isotopes, in particular the $^{238}{rm U}({rm n},{rm f})/^{235}{rm U}({rm n},{rm f})$ spectral index, showed inconsistent results depending on the type of calibration data used. For different reasons, no definitive explanation was given at that time. View full abstract»

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  • Assessment of the High Temperature Fission Chamber Technology for the French Fast Reactor Program

    Page(s): 1351 - 1359
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (608 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    High temperature fission chambers are key instruments for the control and protection of the sodium-cooled fast reactor. First, the developments of those neutron detectors, which are carried out either in France or abroad are reviewed. Second, the French realizations are assessed with the use of the technology readiness levels in order to identify tracks of improvement. View full abstract»

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IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science focuses on all aspects of the theory and applications of nuclear science and engineering, including instrumentation for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; particle accelerators and their controls; nuclear medicine and its application; effects of radiation on materials, components, and systems; reactor instrumentation and controls; and measurement of radiation in space.

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