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Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date August 2012

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 56
  • IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation Society

    Page(s): c2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Electrets and related phenomena

    Page(s): 1093
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Tailoring the performance of flexible electret loudspeakers by varying cell actuator formation

    Page(s): 1094 - 1100
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1703 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a design of electret-based soft cell actuators which can improve the performance of flexible electret loudspeakers. Electret loudspeakers have advantages over traditional speakers such being thin, lightweight and flexible. They have potential application to 4C products (e.g. computers, communication, consumer electronics, and cars). Flexible electret loudspeakers are composed of an array of small cell actuators. The first mode of each electret cell actuator greatly affects the low frequency of an electret loudspeaker. To tailor the bandwidth of an electret loudspeaker for different applications, the shape and size of each cell actuator can be varied according to the specific requirements. A finite element analysis (FEA) model was used to simulate a vibration mode. An AVIDTM (advanced vibrometer/interferometer device) system and ESPI (electronic speckle pattern interferometry) system were two non-destructive optical detection tools used to detect vibration and the corresponding vibration mode shape of the electret cell actuators, respectively. Our experimental results verified the simulated results. We showed that finite element analysis (FEA) can be used to design flexible loudspeakers. We can tailor the sound characteristics of an electret loudspeaker by varying the size and shape of cell actuators such that flexible electret loudspeaker performance can be dramatically improved. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental investigation on the role of electrodes in solid dielectric breakdown under nanosecond pulses

    Page(s): 1101 - 1107
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    Based on a nanosecond-pulse generator and dozens of polyethylene samples, the role of electrodes in dielectric breakdown under nanosecond pulses is experimentally investigated. The test factors include electrode material, electrode configuration, and pulse polarity. For the electrode material effect, metals of copper, stainless steel, aluminum, and tungsten are manufactured and investigated. The experimental results show that the larger the work function of the metal, the greater the electric breakdown strength (EBD). For the electrode configuration effect, electrodes with radius of 1 mm and 30 mm are respectively employed. By comparing the relevant experimental results, it is found that the smaller the radius of the electrode, the larger the EBD. The experimental results on pulse polarity show that there is a `weak' pulse polarity effect for the breakdown of PE, and the ratio of EBD under positive pulses to that under negative pulses is 0.8-0.9. All the experimental results reveal that the electrode plays a role of generating seed electrons/holes in dielectric breakdown in nanosecond time scale. In addition, based on the experimental results, a mechanism for solid dielectric breakdown under nanosecond pulses is also proposed in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • Charge storage and transport in oriented and non-oriented polytetrafluoroethylene films

    Page(s): 1108 - 1115
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    The charge storage and transport in oriented and non-oriented polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) films, charged by the corona method at room temperature, were investigated by isothermal decay and thermally stimulated discharge (TSD) techniques. The crystallinity of the PTFE films was determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results obtained from isothermal decay of the surface potential and the spectra of the TSD charge and current indicate that the thermal stability of both positive and negative charges in oriented PTFE films is significantly better than that of non-oriented PTFE films. This is probably due to the higher crystallinity in oriented PTFE films. The transport of the de-trapped positive charges in oriented PTFE films, which occurred due to thermal excitation, can be explained by a model that takes thermal ion emission into consideration. View full abstract»

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  • Laminated tubular-channel ferroelectret systems from low-density polyethylene films and from fluoroethylene- propylene copolymer films - A comparison

    Page(s): 1116 - 1123
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    A template-based lamination technique for the manufacture of ferroelectrets from uniform electret films was recently reported. In the present work, this technique is used to prepare similar ferroelectret structures from low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films and from fluoro-ethylene-propylene (FEP) copolymer films. A comparative analysis of the pressure-, temperature-, and frequency-dependent piezoelectric properties has been performed on the two ferroelectret systems. It is observed that the FEP ferroelectrets exhibit better piezoelectric responses and are thermally more stable. The difference between the piezoelectric d33 coefficients of the two ferroelectret systems is partially explained here by their different elastic moduli. The anti-resonance peaks of both structures have been investigated by means of dielectric resonance spectroscopy and electroacoustic sound-pressure measurements. A difference of more than 10 kHz is observed between the anti-resonance frequencies of the two ferroelectret systems. View full abstract»

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  • Surface charging of silicondioxide/silicon structures

    Page(s): 1124 - 1131
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    The surface of silicondioxide/silicon structures is charged with the tip of a cantilever in contact mode by application of a voltage. Then, the surface potential is measured contactless using the Kelvin option of an atomic force microscope. On the position of the charged domain a potential difference in relation to the uncharged region is found. It turns out that the height and the width of this potential difference depend on the charging time, on the height of the charging voltage, on the sample thickness, and on the doping of the siliconsubstrate. Furthermore, a time dependent spread and a decay of the surface potential are observed. For dry samples the decay is slower than for wetted samples. Due to this long-term stability at dry samples and the possibility to reverse the sign of the deposited charge by recharging in opposite direction it is thinkable to use the system as a surface charge memory device. View full abstract»

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  • Influence of gas media on the stability of corona charged polyethylenterephtalate films stored at low pressure

    Page(s): 1132 - 1136
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    The influence of the gas media in which electrets have been obtained on the electrets behaviour of samples stored at low pressures was investigated. Non-metalized samples of poly(ethylene terephtalate) (PET) films were studied. Initially the PET films were cleaned with alcohol in an ultrasonic bath for 4 minutes, washed in distilled water, and dried under room conditions. The samples were charged in corona discharge in different gas media by a trielectrode system. The used gases were O2, N2, Ar, CO2 and dry air. Negative or positive voltage of 5 kV was applied to the corona electrode, and negative or positive voltages of 800 V were applied to the grid. Electrets surface potential was measured by the method of a vibrating electrode with compensation. After charging the initial surface potential V0 was measured out of the chamber. Then the samples, together with their metal pads, were placed again into a vacuum chamber. Then the pressure was decreased step by step from 0.1 MPa to 10 Pa (1 bar to 0.1 mbar). At each pressure the samples were stored for 5 minutes. After each step the electrets were removed from the vacuum chamber, the surface potential V was measured again and the normalized surface potentials V/V0 were calculated. Charge thermally stimulated discharge method was also used to investigate the electrets obtained in the presence of different gas media. The surface potentials of two kinds of samples, before and after subjecting to low pressure, were measured. View full abstract»

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  • Penetration and stability of external electrostatic field of PP electret through rat skin

    Page(s): 1137 - 1142
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    The polypropylene (PP) was corona charged using different grid voltage to prepare varies electrets with different polarities. The penetration and stability of the external electrostatic field of the PP electret through the excised fresh, stratum corneum (SC) stripped and dehydrated rat skin and the surface potential decay at the dermis side of the rat skin were investigated after application of different PP electrets onto the skin samples. The results indicated that the PP electrets could change the polarized state of the fresh and SC stripped skin. The change of the polarized state of the skin was closely related to the polarity and magnitude of the potential of the PP electret. The external electric field of the PP electret could penetrate through all skin samples and showed good stability as well. Besides, the electrostatic field of the PP electret could also form a stable potential difference between both sides of the SC to regulate the polarized state of the SC. View full abstract»

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  • Significant suppression of surface charge accumulation on epoxy resin by direct fluorination

    Page(s): 1143 - 1150
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    Prepared epoxy sheets were surface fluorinated in a laboratory vessel using a F2/N2 mixture with 12.5% F2 by volume at 50 oC and 0.1 MPa (1000 mbar) for 10 min to suppress surface charge accumulation on the epoxy sheet. Attenuated total reflection infrared analyses indicate that the fluorination led to substantial changes in chemical composition and structure of the sheet surface layer. The thickness of the fluorinated layer was determined to be 0.42 μm by SEM observation of the cross-section of the fluorinated sheet, and its SEM image shows that the fluorination also resulted in an increase in surface roughness. As a result, the deposited corona charge cannot be stored on the fluorinated surface even at room temperature, compared with a stable surface charge of the nonfluorinated (original) epoxy sample which has deep surface charge traps as indicated by the open-circuit thermally stimulated discharge current measurement. The measurements of surface conductivity and contact angle and the calculation of surface energy reveal that the fluorination gave rise to dramatic increases in surface conductivity and surface wettability and polarity. A very likely substantial decrease in depth of charge traps in the fluorinated surface layer and the adsorbed water on the fluorinated surface are responsible for the high surface conductivity of the fluorinated epoxy sheet. Surface charging current measurements further show a large steady state current flowing along the fluorinated surface during corona charging, compared with the almost zero steady state current of the original sample. This therefore suggests a lower steady state surface potential and a smaller dynamic surface charge accumulation of the fluorinated sample during the charge. View full abstract»

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  • A complementary contribution to piezoelectricity from bone constituents

    Page(s): 1151 - 1157
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    In the light of the recent theoretic predictions and experimental evidences of piezoelectricity in synthetic hydroxyapatite, the analogue of the mineral component in bone, this study revisits the question of piezoelectricity in the two major constituents of bone: apatite and collagen. Structural and electromechanical properties have been studied at high lateral resolution on compact bovine femur, which has further been extracted to obtain the organic matrix (collagen fibres) and the inorganic matrix (apatite nanocrystals). X-ray data analyses by Rietveld method indicates the presence of piezoelectric phase in bone apatite. While piezoresponse has been detected in bone collagen and apatite, the response in bone apatite is still inconclusive. View full abstract»

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  • Semicrystalline polymers with high dielectric constant, melting temperature, and charge-discharge efficiency

    Page(s): 1158 - 1166
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    The dielectric properties of semicrystalline poly(tetrafluoroethylene-hexafluoropropylene-vinylidene fluoride) (THV) terpolymers with different compositions are investigated in a broad temperature range and under high voltage for potential applications in high energy density film capacitors with high thermal stability. It was found that the capacitor charge-discharge efficiency under high voltage (>;200 MV/m) and the melting temperature can be significantly improved by increasing the tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) content. Melting temperature above 220°C can be achieved in THV terpolymers with high TFE content. Although the THV terpolymers have lower dielectric constant than polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), their high melting temperature, low leakage current, and high charge-discharge efficiency represent significant advantages for capacitors operated under high charge-discharge repetition rate and at high ambient temperatures. View full abstract»

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  • Potassium ion transport through poly-para-xylylene films

    Page(s): 1167 - 1174
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    Bombardment of poly-para-xylylene films by a beam of potassium ions induces ion transport through the polymer material, which originally is an electrical insulator. The ion transport can easily be detected as neutralization current on an electrode at the back side of the film. The transport is accompanied by the formation of an electrodiffusion profile of potassium in the film as shown by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The potassium depth profiles can be rationalized by theoretical calculations based on numerical solving the Nernst-Planck-Poisson equations. The results may shed new light on the formation and dynamics of space charge zones in polymers and is thus potentially relevant for electret research. View full abstract»

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  • Nonlinear dielectric properties and polarization in thin ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) copolymer films

    Page(s): 1175 - 1180
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    Thin VDF-TrFE copolymer films of molar composition 70/30 and thickness from 25 nm to 175 nm have been prepared by spin coating on a glass substrate covered with an aluminum electrode. The linear, second and third order permittivities ε1, ε2 and ε3 of poled and unpoled samples have been studied versus temperature in heating and cooling cycles up to 120°C, i.e., above the Curie temperature. The polarization and its temperature dependence are derived from ε1 and ε2 . This allows a non-destructive readout of the polarization state. It is found that above the Curie temperature and after cooling to room temperature a non-switchable polarization remains. This nonswitchable polarization points from the bottom to the top electrode and is not influenced by the initial polarization direction. View full abstract»

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  • Influence of molecular dynamics on the dielectric properties of poly(9,9-di-n-octylfluorene-altbenzothiadiazole) -based devices

    Page(s): 1181 - 1185
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    This paper uses Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) techniques to study the molecular relaxations and phase transitions in poly(9,9-di-n-octylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT), which has been extensively studied as the active thin film in organic devices. Besides the identification of the glass transition, β relaxation and crystal-to-crystal phase transition, we correlate such phenomena with dielectric and transport mechanisms in diodes with F8BT as the active layer. The β relaxation has been assigned to a transition at about 210 K measured by 1H and 13C solid state NMR, and can be attributed to local motions in the side chains. The glass transition has been detected by DSC and 1H NMR. Dielectric spectroscopy (DS) carried out at low frequencies on diodes made from F8BT show two peaks which are coincident with the above transitions. This allowed us to correlate the electrical changes in the film with the onset of specific molecular motions. In addition, DS indicates a third peak related with a crystal-to-crystal phase transition. Finally, these transitions were correlated with changes in the carrier mobility recorded in thin films and published recently. View full abstract»

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  • High sensitivity scanning pyroelectric microscope: Interdigitated comb electrodes and advanced image processing

    Page(s): 1186 - 1190
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    To observe the pyroelectric response of bio-organic materials, several innovations have been proposed and implemented to push the sensitivity limits of a Scanning PyroElectric Microscope (SPEM). These include the use of noise reducing software, interdigitated comb electrodes instead of parallel plate electrodes and the use of rotating mirrors. Using these suggested techniques, the general performance of a SPEM measurement has been improved and allows the successful study of materials with a naturally weak spontaneous polarization and thus extremely low pyroelectric coefficients. View full abstract»

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  • Enhanced transdermal delivery of cyclosporine a by PP electret and ethyl oleate

    Page(s): 1191 - 1194
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    Transdermal delivery of high molecular weight compound is a great challenge due to the barrier function of the skin's outer stratum corneum (SC) layer. The aim of the present work was to characterize in vitro transdermal delivery of cyclosporine A through rat skin and the drug transdermal enhancing effect of PP electret applied individually and in combination with chemical enhancer. The permeated cumulative amount and steady state flux of the cyclosporine A were determined in following situations: (a) under application of PP electret, (b) after application of ethyl oleate, (c) combination PP electret and ethyl oleate. All the techniques could enhance cyclosporine A transdermal delivery. The combination of PP electret and ethyl oleate proved to be the most effective technique. View full abstract»

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  • Dielectric layers for RF-MEMS switches: Design and study of appropriate structures preventing electrostatic charging

    Page(s): 1195 - 1202
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    In this work we present results from an experimental study on the physico-chemical and electrical properties of thin dielectric layers (SiOxNy) deposited using a plasma assisted process. An application of those dielectric layers in RF-MEMS switches is aimed at. We look for a better understanding of dielectric charging phenomenon as it is known to be the main cause for the failure and low reliability in the actuation of RFMEMS switches. In order to improve the performance of dielectric layers used in RFMEMS we have tested a new concept: instead of elaborating new materials we assembled a dielectric multi-layer structure that gains from design rather than from composition. To achieve this we have started with a characterization of the mono-layers deposited singly. The multi-layer structure was found to be a promising candidate for suitable modulation of the conductive properties of the deposited dielectric layers for their use in RF-MEMS switches. View full abstract»

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  • Effects of Corona treatment on electrical and mechanical properties of a porous dielectric elastomer

    Page(s): 1203 - 1207
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (460 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The main problem of dielectric elastomer (DE) actuators is today represented by the high driving electric fields (orders of 10-100 V/μm) necessary for their activation. Although several attempts have been made in order to increase strains by enhancing the dielectric constant (ε') of such matrices and keeping low elastic moduli (Y) to control the ε/Y ratio, currently several challenges have still to be faced. In this work, a new approach is presented to enhance the electrical properties of DE elastomers. Soft elastomeric polyurethane (PU) matrices with foam structure were electrically modified via Corona process. Such matrices showed electret-like properties, possibly due to the presence of macro-dipoles established both at the matrix/pore surfaces and inside the bulk. Morphological (SEM, Bet), dielectric and dynamic-mechanical (DMA) analyses were performed in order to characterize the material. Results showed that Corona charging may represent a new promising route to obtain dielectric elastomers with improved dielectric properties, although ways to promote charge trapping and retention are still do be found. View full abstract»

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  • Behind space charge distribution measurements

    Page(s): 1208 - 1214
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    Through an analysis of different space charge measurement methods, the paper makes recommendations for ensuring optimal implementations and measurements. The thermal, pressure-wave-propagation and pulsed-electro-acoustic methods are considered. From the underlying physics of these methods, the effect of impedance mismatches and measurement conditions are discussed and simple signal treatments are presented taking into account the case of non uniform materials. View full abstract»

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  • Polyimide and FEP charging behavior under multienergetic electron-beam irradiation

    Page(s): 1215 - 1220
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (816 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Surface and internal charging of dielectric materials is a potential cause of surface discharges and satellite anomalies, due to the fluctuating irradiation levels induced by space environment. Understanding conduction mechanisms and reducing charging levels are therefore important industrial issues for satellite designers and manufacturers. Surface potential measurements under irradiation and after charging (potential decay) are the most significant laboratory tests to qualify and understand the charging and discharging behavior of insulating materials. We present here experimental results obtained using the SIRENE facility at ONERA. Kapton and Teflon FEP films respond differently when subjected to a 20 keV charging electron beam combined with a 400keV ionizing electron beam. The physics underlying these experimental results is discussed. A simple numerical model has been developed. It is shown that different combinations of mobility, trapping and recombination may explain the results on both materials. The complex behavior observed on Teflon FEP may be attributed to the progressive deep trapping of the negative charge, enhancing holes recombination. View full abstract»

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  • Distribution of relaxation times: An inverse problem

    Page(s): 1221 - 1225
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    This article is a slightly amended and extended version of a short paper presented at ISE14 2011. The details of inverse problem solving method developed by the author are presented with examples consisting in the distribution of relaxation times in the physics of dielectrics. Frequency and time domain dielectric responses were used from synthetic and experimental data respectively. The method can be applied to other problems related to response theory in other research fields. View full abstract»

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  • Study and application of free-form electret actuators

    Page(s): 1226 - 1233
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    In this paper, electret based actuators were developed to create a novel free-form loudspeaker. The flexible electret actuator sheet can be easily mass produced in roll or sheet form for good cost efficiency. Compared to the rigid structure of traditional electret actuators, this novel loudspeaker structure is not only thin, flexible, and lightweight at 685 grams/m2, but also it can be cut into any shape to fit various applications and requirements. The free-form electret loudspeaker is composed of centimeter-scale cell electret actuators which possess a bandwidth from 550 Hz to 55 kHz. To demonstrate the benefits of this new technology, a large area loudspeaker was created by joining by 350 pieces of B4-sized electret actuator sheets to create a projection screen 9 m (L) × 3.5 m (W) × 1.1 mm (H). The frequency response of the loudspeaker was measured to have a nearly flat response between 500 Hz and 4 kHz with less than 6% total harmonic distortion (THD) between 400 Hz and 6 kHz. The capacitance value (1.1 μF) of the loudspeaker was limited only by the current capability of the amplifier in the high frequency range. Another creation was a loudspeaker made of over 200 leaf-shaped electret actuator sheets. This unique flexible loudspeaker design was displayed and demonstrated at a year-long public exhibition. The sound level generated by these free form electret speakers were measured and are discussed in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • Covalently modified organic nanoplatelets and their use in polymer film capacitors with high dielectric breakdown and wide temperature operation

    Page(s): 1234 - 1238
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    Organic-inorganic nanoplatelets in the form of nanoscale titanium phenyl phosphonate (nano-Ti(PPA)2) were synthesized with dimensions of 100-250 nm by 5-10 nm. Upon incorporation into fluorene polyester (FPE) at low loadings (0.3 to 3 wt%), the resulting polymer nanocomposite film exhibited significant gains in breakdown field over the neat polymer film, with gains of 37% at 20°C, 39% at 150°C, and 18% at 275°C. The increase in breakdown field was much greater than expected based on previous literature reports for incorporation of spherical SiO2 or TiO2, and it is likely that these benefits arise from the high aspect ratio of the nano-Ti(PPA)2 and the inherent organic functionalization of the material. Dielectric constant was unchanged within experimental error, and loss tangent decreased slightly at higher temperatures, upon the addition of the filler. Material energy densities of the resulting nanocomposite film were calculated to range from 3.6 J/cm3 at 150°C to 1.6 J/cm3 at 275°C, which are the highest known values obtained for a polymer-based capacitor material that can operate at these high temperatures. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation contains topics concerned with dielectric phenomena and measurements with development and characterization of gaseous, vacuum, liquid and solid electrical insulating materials and systems.

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Editor-in-Chief
Reuben Hackam