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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 8 • Date Aug. 2012

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 45
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - C4
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  • IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Robust Passive Macro-Model Generation With Local Compensation

    Page(s): 2313 - 2328
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3179 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new passivity enforcement technique for linear time-invariant multiport systems generated from tabulated measured or simulated data. Traditional methods based on iterative eigenvalue/singular value perturbation do not guarantee convergence, and the error introduced is sometimes large due to the lack of explicit error control. The key to the new algorithm is to correct passivity violations locally with moderate increase of system size. Since all violations are fixed locally, the impact on system transfer function outside the passivity violating frequency range is minimized. Thus, the convergence issue is avoided and the accuracy degradation due to passivity enforcement can also be minimized. The proposed method is very efficient, as optimization procedures are not required. Experimental results demonstrate its performance. View full abstract»

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  • Variability Analysis of Multiport Systems Via Polynomial-Chaos Expansion

    Page(s): 2329 - 2338
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    We present a novel technique to perform variability analysis of multiport systems. The versatility of the proposed technique makes it suitable for the analysis of different types of modern electrical systems (e.g., interconnections, filters, connectors). The proposed method, based on the calculation of a set of univariate macromodels and on the use of the polynomial chaos expansion, produces a macromodel of the transfer function of the multiport system including its statistical properties. The accuracy and the significant speed up with respect to the classical Monte Carlo analysis are verified by means of two numerical examples. View full abstract»

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  • TLM Extension to Electromagnetic Field Analysis of Anisotropic and Dispersive Media: A Unified Field Equation

    Page(s): 2339 - 2351
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3378 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The transmission-line matrix (TLM) method, in time domain, is extended to account for the presence of anisotropic and dispersive media in electromagnetic structures or devices. The model is thoroughly constructed by using Maxwell's equations that make it a unified general TLM formulation. Numerical results are compared with experimental measurements; hence, in the case of ferrite-based structures, validating the model and showing the accuracy of the approach. View full abstract»

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  • On the Equivalence Between the Maxwell-Garnett Mixing Rule and the Debye Relaxation Formula

    Page(s): 2352 - 2358
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    This paper presents a closed-form noniterative transformation of the Maxwell-Garnett mixing rule for biphased mixtures to the triple-pole Debye relaxation formula. For the first time, it is formally proven that such a transformation is complete for conductive constituent materials. In other words, the Maxwell-Garnett representation of any biphased mixture of any conductive materials always has its formal equivalent in the Debye form with three poles at most. For specific aspect ratios of ellipsoidal inclusions, the number of poles reduces to one or two, which is formally proven herein, while in previous studies, a single-pole Debye model was arbitrarily assumed. The proposed transformation provides Debye parameters as an explicit function of a mixture composition, which is competitive to alternative techniques based on laborious curve-fitting algorithms. The newly proposed approach is of particular importance to time-domain modeling of dilute mixtures, where the Maxwell-Garnett mixing rule is usually approximated with available dispersive models. Computational examples given in this paper show advantages of the presented method over previous Maxwell-Garnett to Debye conversion algorithms, in terms of accuracy, robustness, and computational cost. View full abstract»

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  • A Spurious-Free Discontinuous Galerkin Time-Domain Method for the Accurate Modeling of Microwave Filters

    Page(s): 2359 - 2369
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    The simulation of highly resonant structures requires techniques that are accurate and free of spurious-mode contamination. Spurious modes can severely corrupt the solution of a physical problem, and their suppression is a must for any numerical scheme in the frequency or in the time domain (TD). In this paper, we present the application of a highly accurate spurious-free vector discontinuous Galerkin TD method to waveguide applications. We show that spurious solutions (which increase with the number of degrees of freedom of the problem) can be efficiently attenuated by using penalized fluxes. For validation, we apply our approach to the simulation of microwave filters since their highly resonant behavior is challenging for TD techniques. View full abstract»

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  • Independence of the Unloaded Q of a Planar Electromagnetic Resonator From Its Shape

    Page(s): 2370 - 2377
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    A figure of merit in characterizing resonance performance is the unloaded quality factor Q0. Classically, this figure is calculated for planar microwave resonators in the same manner it is calculated for any arbitrary structure, by finding the electromagnetic field equations of the resonant mode and substituting them into volume and surface integrals across the concerned resonating structure. It had been observed in the literature, however, that the calculation results for some planar cases would be “surprising” in that the fields' modal functions (which are governed by the structure's shape) had no bearing on the value of Q0. It is shown in this paper, using simple electromagnetic analysis, that any planar resonator that does not exhibit considerable power loss to radiation will have its Q0 independent from its shape, and that becomes a characteristic feature of such planar resonators. The paper presents the model predicting the Q0 for such resonators, and it shows that Q0 only depends on the resonant frequency, on the substrate materials height, and on losses in the materials used to construct the resonating structure. Only when significant power is allowed to radiate out of the structure does the Q0 become dependent on shape (as shape usually controls radiation). While radiation or housing power loss calculations are often complex to perform, this theory also provides a simple and accurate method of estimating such losses. In addition to its theoretical importance, this result carries an important feature for practical design as it offers flexibility in choosing shapes for planar resonators, to achieve a required value of Q0 at a certain frequency (wavelength) and using a given set of materials. View full abstract»

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  • Fast and Efficient Analysis of Transmission Lines With Arbitrary Nonuniformities of Sub-Wavelength Scale

    Page(s): 2378 - 2384
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    The Telegrapher's equations for a general nonuniform transmission line (NUTL) is analytically solved when the nonuniformities are of sub-wavelength scale. The proposed solution is based on an approximation of the chronological ordering operator for the Telegrapher's equations in an arbitrary NUTL. The proposed approximation is quite accurate when the transmission line has sub-wavelength nonuniformities. The scale of transmission line nonuniformity is assessed by using the concept of minimum resolvable length of nonuniformity (MRLN), which is based on the physically intuitive idea that electromagnetic waves are not affected by spectrally mild nonuniformities. The MRLN is inferred by using the spatial Fourier transform of the characteristics impedance of the NUTL. The proposed formulation is verified by using the measured scattering parameters of three different NUTLs. View full abstract»

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  • Generalized Lattice Network-Based Balanced Composite Right-/Left-Handed Transmission Lines

    Page(s): 2385 - 2393
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    Artificial transmission lines based on lattice network unit cells can mimic the behavior of actual metamaterial transmission lines without introducing any stopband, as opposite to their conventional counterparts based on T- or II-network unit cells, which can be balanced to suppress the stopbands in the transitions from left- to right-handed bands, but will always present stopbands in the right-handed-to left-handed-band transitions. The aim of this paper is twofold. First, the general properties of lattice network unit cells are discussed using simple circuit theory concepts. As a result, a systematic classification of all possible balanced lattice network-based artificial transmission line unit cells is described. Second, a novel multiband lattice network-based unit cell is presented. The proposed unit cell is made up of a coupled-microstrip section in a host microstrip and requires neither air bridges nor via-holes. Coupled lines have already been used to obtain composite right-/left-handed transmission lines, but a solution, based on wiggly lines, is given in this paper to the problem caused by the different even- and odd-mode phase velocities. As a result, the wideband capabilities of the artificial transmission line are fully exploited, as the theoretical and experimental results corroborate. View full abstract»

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  • Synthesis of Narrowband Reflection-Type Phasers With Arbitrary Prescribed Group Delay

    Page(s): 2394 - 2402
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    An exact closed-form synthesis method is proposed for the design of narrowband reflection-type (mono-port) phasers with arbitrary prescribed group-delay responses. The proposed synthesis technique consists in three steps. First, it transforms the phase problem from the bandpass domain to the low-pass domain using a one-port ladder network, where a mathematical synthesis is performed via a Hurwitz polynomial. Second, it transforms the synthesized low-pass network back to the bandpass domain for implementation in a specific technology. Third, it uses an iterative post-distortion correction technique to compensate for distributed effects over the broader bandwidth required. The proposed synthesis method is verified by both full-wave analysis and experiment where the synthesized bandpass network is realized in an iris-coupled waveguide configuration. View full abstract»

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  • Novel Dual-Band Out-of-Phase Power Divider With High Power-Handling Capability

    Page(s): 2403 - 2409
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    In this paper, we present a novel dual-band out-of- phase power divider with high power-handling capability. The proposed device consists of five ports including one input port, two output ports, and two extra ones, which are connected by the external isolation resistors. To obtain the out-of-phase feature between the two output ports, double-sided parallel-strip lines are employed, and a conductor plane is inserted in the middle of the substrate as a common ground. A set of closed-form design equations is developed for analysis of the novel design structure by using the rigorous even- and odd-mode analysis method. The analysis shows that the proposed power divider can operate at two frequencies of f1 and mf1 with a wide frequency ratio range at 1.62 <; m <; 3. Furthermore, the power operation analysis also illustrates that the new circuit is superior in high power-handling capability over the conventional dividers with internal isolation resistors. For verification, an example power divider with frequency ratios of 2.4:1 is implemented. Simulation and experimental results agree well, validating the proposed design methodology. View full abstract»

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  • A Fully Symmetrical Crossover and Its Dual-Frequency Application

    Page(s): 2410 - 2416
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    In this paper, a new fully symmetrical four-port microstrip crossover and its dual-frequency application are presented. The proposed single-band crossover has a simple structure and an easily controlled bandwidth; and its dual-frequency application can provide flexible frequency ratio between the two working frequencies. Moreover, analytical design equations are derived using the even-odd-mode method. The final explicit design equations are concise. To verify the design concepts, both a single-band crossover working at 1 GHz and a dual-frequency crossover working at 1/2.3 GHz are fabricated and tested. The measurement results agree well with the design theory. View full abstract»

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  • Design of Compact Quad-Frequency Impedance Transformer Using Two-Section Coupled Line

    Page(s): 2417 - 2423
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    This paper presents a compact quad-frequency impedance transformer that is composed of a two-section coupled line to achieve ideal impedance matching at three arbitrary frequencies and a related frequency. The exact closed-form equations and design procedures are given based on strict theoretical analysis. After demonstrating the bandwidth performance and symmetry properties of different impedance transform ratios, we fabricated a circuit to show the validity of practical applications. Good agreement between the measured data and anticipated results is achieved. View full abstract»

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  • Lumped-Element Realization of Absorptive Bandstop Filter With Anomalously High Spectral Isolation

    Page(s): 2424 - 2430
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    In this paper, we show a new absorptive banstop filter topology that is capable of creating large attenuation using low-Q small-size resonators. In addition, the implementation of a lumped-element absorptive bandstop filter is shown for the first time. Compared with the conventional absorptive filter structure, the new absorptive filter structure is smaller in size because there is no quarter-wavelength transmission line between two resonators and the resonators are lumped elements. For verification of the new topology, a lumped-element low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) bandstop filter with low-Q resonators has been designed and measured. Theory, simulation, and measurement showed good agreement between them, and the measurement showed 60-dB attenuation level at the center frequency. This attenuation level of the absorptive bandstop filter is 50 dB larger than the one obtained from the reflective bandstop filter with the same Q-factor and bandwidth. The small size and absorptive nature of the filter allow us to cascade the filters to create many different filter responses. It is shown that the lumped-element implementation makes the filter very amenable to realization of higher order responses in small form factors. View full abstract»

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  • A Three-Pole 1.2–2.6-GHz RF MEMS Tunable Notch Filter With 40-dB Rejection and Bandwidth Control

    Page(s): 2431 - 2438
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    This paper presents a high-performance three-pole tunable notch filter with frequency and bandwidth control. The filter is implemented using suspended-stripline resonators and planar 3-bit RF MEMS capacitive networks. A tuning range of 1.1-2.7 GHz with a 40-dB rejection bandwidth of 115±25 MHz is demonstrated with a passband insertion loss <; 0.8 dB. A 40-dB rejection bandwidth of 26-126 and 24-200 MHz is demonstrated at 1.6 and 2.0 GHz, respectively. The filter introduces no noticeable distortion of wideband code-division multiple-access (WCDMA) waveforms with a power of 25 dBm at frequencies corresponding to the 30-40 dB nulls and at the - 3-dB and - 6-dB passband frequencies. At the - 0.5-dB passband frequency, the filter can handle up to 30 dBm of WCDMA power with no measurable distortion. To our knowledge, this filter represents state-of-the-art tuning performance and power handling for planar notch filter designs. The application areas are in wideband cognitive radios with high interference levels. View full abstract»

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  • A High-Performance Continuously Tunable MEMS Bandpass Filter at 1 GHz

    Page(s): 2439 - 2447
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    This paper reports a continuously tunable lumped bandpass filter implemented in a third-order coupled resonator configuration. The filter is fabricated on a Borosilicate glass substrate using a surface micromachining technology that offers hightunable passive components. Continuous electrostatic tuning is achieved using three tunable capacitor banks, each consisting of one continuously tunable capacitor and three switched capacitors with pull-in voltage of less than 40 V. The center frequency of the filter is tuned from 1 GHz down to 600 MHz while maintaining a 3-dB bandwidth of 13%-14% and insertion loss of less than 4 dB. The maximum group delay is less than 10 ns across the entire tuning range. The temperature stability of the center frequency from -50°C to 50°C is better than 2%. The measured tuning speed of the filter is better than 80 s, and the is better than 20 dBm, which are in good agreement with simulations. The filter occupies a small size of less than 1.5 cm × 1.1 cm. The implemented filter shows the highest performance amongst the fully integrated microelectromechanical systems filters operating at sub-gigahertz range. View full abstract»

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  • A Temperature-Compensation Technique for Substrate Integrated Waveguide Cavities and Filters

    Page(s): 2448 - 2455
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    A new temperature compensation method is proposed and demonstrated in this paper for cavities and filters realized in substrate integrated waveguide (SIW). The SIW structures largely preserve the well-known advantages of conventional rectangular waveguide, namely, high Q and high power capacity, and have the advantages of microstrip lines, such as low profile, small volume, and light weight. In this paper, we demonstrate that by an adequate selection of substrate properties, SIW cavities can provide self-temperature drift compensation. The compensation is achieved by using an appropriate ratio between the coefficient of thermal expansion and the thermal coefficient of the permittivity. The theoretical prediction is confirmed by an experimental investigation using inductive post filters. Three commercially available substrates are used to design cavities at 10 GHz with the Roger TMM10 substrate providing a close fit to the required characteristics for temperature compensation. The results for the cavity show a stability of 2 ppm/°C in calculation and 8 ppm/°C in measurement. A SIW fourth-order Chebyshev filter, centered at 10 GHz with 1-GHz bandwidth, has also been designed. The measured frequency drift is 9.1 ppm/°C and the bandwidth variation is 0.13% over the temperature range of 40°C to 80°C. View full abstract»

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  • Development of Optically Transparent Ultrathin Microwave Absorber for Ultrahigh-Frequency RF Identification System

    Page(s): 2456 - 2464
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    The application of UHF radio-frequency identification (RFID) systems is rapidly increasing. However, the reliability of indoor telecommunication is adversely affected by multiple reflection interference. Consequently, to establish a highly reliable UHF-RFID system, it is essential to improve the multipath environment. This paper describes an ultrathin microwave absorber that is designed to improve the multipath environment of UHF-RFID systems. This absorber is optically transparent so that it does not create blind areas for surveillance cameras installed near an UHF-RFID system (e.g., at the entrance of an office or a warehouse). The improved tag identification probability using this absorber is demonstrated in an actual warehouse. View full abstract»

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  • Compact Tunable Reflection Phase Shifters Using Short Section of Coupled Lines

    Page(s): 2465 - 2472
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2062 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the design of reflection-type phase shifters, the coupler that represents the shifter's backbone is usually assumed to be a quarter-wavelength 3-dB coupler. In this paper, a derived theoretical model shows that, for certain values for the odd- and even-mode impedances, a coupled structure with a length that is less than one tenth of a wavelength is sufficient to build a high-performance reflection phase shifter. The presented analysis indicates that reflection phase shifters can be designed with a more compact size and larger phase range compared with the conventional method of using a quarter-wavelength 3-dB coupler. However, the required odd-mode impedance in the proposed design is low (≈10 Ω) , whereas the required even-mode impedance is high (≈200 Ω). To realize those impedances when using parallel-coupled lines, slotted ground and shunt chip capacitor are used. The proposed design is supported by full-wave electromagnetic simulations and measurements. The simulated results show that 0.085λ coupled structure achieves 255° phase range across 36% fractional bandwidth with less than 1-dB insertion loss and more than 10-dB return loss. In another design, a full-cycle phase range is obtained with less than 1.5-dB insertion loss across the same band by using two 0.076λ coupled sections. A manufactured prototype for a full-cycle phase range validates the simulation results and, thus, the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Analysis of Down-Conversion Gate/Base-Pumped Harmonic Mixers Using Novel Reduced-Size 180 ^\circ Hybrid With Different Input Frequencies

    Page(s): 2473 - 2485
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    In this paper, a novel 180°hybrid with different input frequencies is proposed to combine RF and local oscillator (LO) signals with different frequencies in a gate/base-pumped harmonic mixer. The detailed analysis and design procedures are presented in this paper. To further reduce the chip size, the multilayer metallization above the lossy silicon substrate is employed to implement the hybrid. A V-band down-converted 2× harmonic mixer in 90-nm CMOS process and a D-band down-converted 4× harmonic mixer in the 130-nm SiGe process are designed, fabricated, and measured to verify the concept. The 2× harmonic mixer possesses 0-dB conversion gain at 60 GHz with 0-dBm LO power with merely 2.4-mW dc power. The 4× harmonic mixer achieves 0.5-dB conversion gain at 120 GHz with 2-dBm LO power and 27.3-mW dc power. With the proposed reduced-size 180° hybrid, gate/base-pumped harmonic mixers are very attractive in transceivers demanding low LO frequency and power. View full abstract»

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  • A Low-Voltage, Low-Power, and Low-Noise UWB Mixer Using Bulk-Injection and Switched Biasing Techniques

    Page(s): 2486 - 2493
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    This paper presents a low-voltage, low-power, low-noise, and ultra-wideband (UWB) mixer using bulk-injection and switched biasing techniques. The bulk-injection technique is implemented for a low supply voltage, thus resulting in low power consumption. This technique also allows for a flat conversion gain over a wide range of frequencies covering the full UWB band; this is a result of the integration of the RF transconductance stage and the local oscillator switching stage into a single transistor that is able to eliminate parasitic effects. Moreover, since the bulk-injection transistors of the mixer are designed to operate in the subthreshold region, current dissipation is reduced. A switched biasing technique for the tail current source, in place of static biasing, is adopted to reduce noise. The effects of modulated input signals, such as AM and FM, are simulated and measured to demonstrate the robustness of the switched biasing technique. The proposed mixer offers a measured conversion gain from 7.6 to 9.9 dB, a noise figure from 11.7 to 13.9 dB, and input third-order intercept point from - 10 to - 15.5 dBm, over 2.4 to 11.9 GHz, while consuming only 0.88 mW from a 0.8-V supply voltage. The chip size including the test pads is 0.62×0.58 mm2 using a 0.18-μm RF CMOS process. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of the Locking Range of Rationally Synchronized Oscillators With High Reference Signal Power

    Page(s): 2494 - 2504
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    In this paper an in-depth study of the behavior of rationally synchronized oscillators (RSO) is presented. The circuit is optimized in order to achieve a broad synchronization bandwidth with low reference signal power through the selection of the adequate harmonic content. The nonlinear dynamics of the RSO is analyzed, focusing on the different bifurcation points which delimit the locking range when high reference signal power is considered. An RSO prototype with rational synchronization ratio r=3/5, autonomous frequency fo=3 GHz and reference signal frequency fr=5 GHz has been manufactured and experimentally characterized, demonstrating a good agreement with simulation results. View full abstract»

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  • Orthogonal E -Wall and H -Wall Tuning of Distributed Resonators: Using Concurrency for Continuous Ultra-Wideband Frequency Generation

    Page(s): 2505 - 2511
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    A technique to achieve ultra-wideband continuous frequency generation is introduced. It is based on orthogonal E-wall and H-wall tuning of distributed resonators, in standing-wave-mode configurations. The tuning scheme in fact serves dual purposes for generating concurrent tones, as well as wideband tuning operation. It is scalable and could be applied to any frequency band, but since it is designed around distributed resonators, it is more desirable for higher frequencies. In comparison with alternative methods, the technique requires less silicon space, lower power consumption, better phase noise, as well as a wider tuning range. A V-band voltage-controlled oscillator, with a continuous tuning range from 58 to 76.2 GHz, designed and validated in 65-nm CMOS technology, in accordance with this technique is illustrated, and a new figure of merit is reported. View full abstract»

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  • Parasitic-Insensitive Linearization Methods for 60-GHz 90-nm CMOS LNAs

    Page(s): 2512 - 2523
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    Two V-band low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) with excellent linearity and noise figure (NF) using 90-nm CMOS technology are demonstrated in this paper, employing parasitic-insensitive linearization topologies, i.e., cascode and common source, for comparative purposes. To improve the linearity without deteriorating the NF, the 54-69-GHz cascode LNA is linearized by the body-biased post-distortion, and the 58-65-GHz common-source LNA is linearized by the distributed derivative superposition. Using these parasitic-insensitive linearization methods at millimeter-wave frequency, the cascode LNA can achieve an IIP3 of 11 dBm and an NF of 3.78 dB at 68.5 GHz with a gain of 13.2 dB and 14.4-mW dc power. The common-source LNA has an IIP3 of 0 dBm and an NF of 4.1 dB at 64.5 GHz with a gain of 11.3 dB and 10.8-mW dc power. To the best of our knowledge, the proposed cascode LNA has up to 11-dBm IIP3 performance and the highest figure-of-merit of 156.2, among all reported V-band LNAs. View full abstract»

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The IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques focuses on that part of engineering and theory associated with microwave/millimeter-wave components, devices, circuits, and systems involving the generation, modulation, demodulation, control, transmission, and detection of microwave signals. This includes scientific, technical, and industrial, activities. Microwave theory and techniques relates to electromagnetic waves usually in the frequency region between a few MHz and a THz; other spectral regions and wave types are included within the scope of the Society whenever basic microwave theory and techniques can yield useful results. Generally, this occurs in the theory of wave propagation in structures with dimensions comparable to a wavelength, and in the related techniques for analysis and design..

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