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Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

Issue 10 • Date Oct. 2012

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 25
  • Front cover

    Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 1235 - 1236
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  • Balance Between Noise Fluxes in Free-Running Single-Mode Class-A Lasers

    Page(s): 1237 - 1242
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (480 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The fluctuation effect of laser pumping rate on the output noise fluxes of class-A lasers is investigated. The method is based on the role of cavity Langevin force as a fluctuating force in the absence of the atomic population inversion and dipole moment Langevin forces. The temporal fluctuations induced to the phase and amplitude of the cavity electric field and the atomic population inversion are calculated in both below and above threshold states. Our aim is to derive correlation functions for the fluctuating variables of the cavity electric field and the atomic population inversion to determine the noise fluxes emerging from the cavity mirrors and measured by an optical detector and those radiated in the form of a spontaneous emission in all spatial directions. We introduce a heuristic conservation relation that connects the noise flux generated by the laser pumping system with those distributed among the laser variables. Finally, the results are confirmed by demonstrating the energy conservation law. View full abstract»

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  • Barrier Selection Rules for Quantum Dots-in-a-Well Infrared Photodetector

    Page(s): 1243 - 1251
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1055 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We report on a systematic study of the effect of barriers on quantum dots-in-a-well infrared photodetectors. Four devices are fabricated and characterized with varying composition for barriers adjacent to quantum dots and away from quantum dots. Effects of these “proximity” and “remote” barriers are studied by comparing photoluminescence, responsivity, dark current, background-limited operating temperature, activation energy, and detectivity. The growth mechanism for a conformal coverage of quantum dots with proximity barriers is described and supported with reflection high-energy electron diffraction and transmission electron microscopy images. It is shown that proximity barriers and remote barriers influence the characteristics of the detector very differently, with increases in proximity barrier energy leading to higher responsivity and lower dark current, while remote barriers reduce the responsivity and dark currents simultaneously. It is demonstrated that confinement enhancing barriers as proximity barriers optimize the SNR at low bias range, suitable for focal plane array applications. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic Analysis of High-Order Laterally Coupled DFB Lasers Using Time-Domain Traveling-Wave Model

    Page(s): 1252 - 1258
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (728 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes the application of a time-domain modeling approach for a laterally coupled distributed feedback (LC-DFB) semiconductor laser for the first time. We numerically study the effect of the radiation modes on LC-DFB laser properties. We integrate the Streifer's coefficients, which represent the effects of radiation and evanescent modes into the time-domain coupled-wave equations. High-order corrugated gratings with λ/4 phase-shift are analyzed, where the degree of longitudinal spatial hole burning can be effectively reduced by means of fine tuning of the grating duty cycle. Additionally, we show a remarkably enhanced side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR). For example, for the third-order gratings with a 50% duty cycle, an SMSR as high as 45 dB can be predicted. View full abstract»

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  • SASE FEL Storage Ring

    Page(s): 1259 - 1264
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    We explore the possibility of operating a self-amplified spontaneous emission free electron laser with a storage ring. We use a semi-analytical model to obtain the evolution inside the undulator, by taking into account the interplay on the laser dynamics due to the induced energy spread and the radiation damping. We obtain the Renieri's limit for the stationary output power, and discuss the possibility of including in our model the effect of the beam instabilities. View full abstract»

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  • Amplified Spontaneous Emission in Discharge-Driven HF Chemical Lasers

    Page(s): 1265 - 1268
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (359 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) calculation model is established for the discharge-driven CW HF chemical gain module. By using a small signal gain coefficient and upper state population density, the ASE propagated outside the amplifier is calculated, where after, it is measured by experiment. The result of theory and experiment shows that the experimental results are consistent with the calculations from the simplified model. The difference between them is less than 15%. This simple model can effectively calculate the ASE in the amplifier of master oscillator-power amplifier configuration. View full abstract»

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  • Beam Quality Improvement in Broad-Area Semiconductor Lasers via Evanescent Spatial Filtering

    Page(s): 1269 - 1274
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    In semiconductor lasers, the unpumped cladding region outside the optical waveguide is nominally lossy. Since the evanescent tail of higher-order waveguide modes extends further into the waveguide cladding, the modal loss increases for high spatial frequency perturbations, creating a weak spatial filter. Increasing the effective laser cavity length in a broad-area laser enhances the effect of this spatial filter, resulting in improved beam quality. Simulations predict that by optimizing the lateral index step and output coupler reflectivity, a factor of two increases the beam brightness with only a 10% penalty in electrical-to-optical efficiency. View full abstract»

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  • Compton Mode Conversion of Laser Beat Wave-Driven Plasma Wave by an Electron Beam in a Plasma Channel

    Page(s): 1275 - 1281
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    A large amplitude plasma wave, driven by beating two lasers in a depressed density plasma channel, is shown to effectively couple to a mildly relativistic electron beam to produce terahertz (THz) radiation. The plasma wave parametrically couples the THz electromagnetic mode to a negative energy beam space charge mode, and both decay waves grow at the expense of the beam and the plasma wave. In the low beam current Compton regime, the growth rate scales to one-third power of beam current and two-thirds power of plasma wave amplitude. View full abstract»

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  • Analytical Framework for the Steady State Analysis of Wavelength-Dependent and Intensity-Dependent Interaction of Multiple Monochromatic Beams in Semiconductor Photonic Structures With Multiple Active and Passive Sections

    Page(s): 1282 - 1299
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (914 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The design, optimization, and parametric studies of photonic integrated circuits typically require steady state optical field profiles. Previously, a planewave-based eigenmode expansion and mode-matching analysis was shown to be an efficient method in calculating the steady-state optical field profile of a monochromatic beam in 2-D/3-D geometries with passive media. In this paper, we extend this approach for steady state analyses of photonic integrated circuits with both passive as well as active media, by enabling the interaction of multiple monochromatic beams with the medium via a self-consistent solution of the Maxwell's equations and a modified Bloch equations-based analytical framework. Through the Bloch equations-based framework, we treat the active medium as an ensemble of two-level Bloch atoms with varying density of states to characterize the bandstructure of semiconductors. This enables us to track carrier transitions between conduction and valence bands induced by the light-matter interaction over the entire bandwidth of excited carriers, and yield the correct quasi equilibrium Fermi-Dirac distributions. The numerical solution of obtaining the carrier distributions at each spatial location in active media is simplified by reducing the modified Bloch equations with multiple unknowns to a single equation with just one unknown, to enhance the computational efficiency of the approach. The calculated carrier distributions are then used to evaluate the spatial profile of the complex refractive index seen by each monochromatic beam along with its optical field profile. The applicability of the method to 2-D structures of complex geometry is demonstrated by obtaining the spatial profiles of refractive indices seen by two simultaneously interacting monochromatic beams along with their optical field profiles in a waveguide with multiple passive and active sections. View full abstract»

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  • High Energy Picosecond Optical Parametric Amplifier Pumped by the Second Harmonic of a Two-Stage Ti:sapphire Laser

    Page(s): 1300 - 1304
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (493 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We demonstrate a high energy picosecond optical parametric generation and amplification (OPA) system in the visible range based on two type-I phase matched β-barium borate crystals, in a walk-off compensating geometry. The second harmonic of a two-stage 60 ps Ti:sapphire laser amplifier at 10 Hz repetition rate serves as the pump. The signal is continuously tunable from 460 to 750 nm, which covers most of the visible range. The corresponding tuning range in the idler branch is from 0.86 to 3.07 μm. At a pumping energy of 110 mJ per pulse, the signal pulse energy is at 20 mJ class for most of the tuning wavelength in the OPA stage, and reaches a maximum of 33 mJ at 710 nm, corresponding to a conversion efficiency of ~ 30%. View full abstract»

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  • Solar-Blind p-i-n Photodetectors Formed on {\rm SiO}_{2} -Patterned n-GaN Templates

    Page(s): 1305 - 1309
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (426 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Al0.45Ga0.55N/GaN solar-blind p-i-n photodiodes (PDs), fabricated by selective growth on SiO2 patterned n-GaN templates, are demonstrated in this paper. This selective-area-regrowth technique could lead to a reduction of tensile strain in the Al0.45Ga0.55 N/GaN epitaxial layers, thus alleviating the formation of cracks and reducing the dark current. The dry etching process was not required to expose the underlying layer before the formation of ohmic contact electrodes, simplifying the process tremendously. Compared with conventional solar-blind AlGaN/GaN p-i-n PDs, the proposed devices had lower dark current and higher detectivity. The experimental PDs exhibited a typical zero-bias peak responsivity of around 180 mA/W at 250 nm. This corresponded to quantum efficiency of around 90%. In addition, a nearly flat spectral response at the short-wavelength regions (220-270 nm) was observed. The typical ultraviolet-to-visible (250/450 nm) spectral rejection ratio at zero-bias was over four orders of magnitude. Typical specific detectivity at an incident wavelength of 250 nm was approximately 1.4×1013 cm Hz1/2W-1. View full abstract»

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  • Anomalous Electro-Optic Effect in Polar Liquid Films

    Page(s): 1310 - 1313
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (822 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present an anomalous electro-optic effect in polar liquid films: liquids, usually considered to be isotropic, possess the linear electro-optic effect that occurs only in materials lacking inversion symmetry. Due to the observed large effect in the low-frequency range and slow response speed, this strange effect was thought to come from the field-induced orientation of large mass. Therefore, we brought forward a physical model that contributed to the interpretation of this phenomenon: field-induced pre-oriented, short-range orderly dipole clusters in liquid films break the macroscopic symmetry and results in this asymmetric effect. Finally, combined with spectral analysis, the formation of clusters induced by an electric pulse was proved. View full abstract»

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  • Field Coupling Method for the Direct Synthesis of 2-D Microring Resonator Networks

    Page(s): 1314 - 1321
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    We present an analytical method for designing coupled microring resonator (CMR) networks of general 2-D coupling topologies. The method is based on the “field coupling in space” formalism of microring resonators, which gives a more rigorous and accurate description of CMRs than formulations based on “energy coupling in time,” especially under strong coupling conditions. Given the discrete-time transfer functions of the optical filter, this method enables the field coupling matrix of the CMR network to be extracted, so that an optimum coupling topology and the field coupling coefficients between the microring resonators can be determined. View full abstract»

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  • How to Use Type II InAs/GaSb Superlattice Structure to Reach Detection Wavelength of 2–3 \mu{\rm m}

    Page(s): 1322 - 1326
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    The photoluminescence (PL) peak of an InAs/GaSb superlattice (SL) structure is found to be shifted from 5.8 to 4.0 \mu{\rm m} at 77 K, when the growth temperature is lowered from 380 to 340 ^{\circ}{\rm C} . The PL peak shift is related to In intermixing, thus some SL structures cannot reach a detection wavelength {< }{\rm 3}~\mu{\rm m} . Increasing the GaSb layer thickness in the SL structure is an effective way to reach a detection wavelength of 2–3 \mu{\rm m} . A p-i-n detector with a 50% cutoff wavelength at 2.56 \mu{\rm m} at 77 K is demonstrated. View full abstract»

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  • Optical Frequency Comb Generation Using Dual-Mode Injection-Locking of Quantum-Dash Mode-Locked Lasers: Properties and Applications

    Page(s): 1327 - 1338
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    In this paper, we describe generation and application of wide narrow linewidth optical frequency combs using dual-mode injection-locking of InP quantum-dash mode-locked lasers. First, the dependence of the RF locking-range on the device's absorber voltage is experimentally investigated. Under optimized absorber voltage, a continuous wide RF locking-range of {\approx }{\rm 400}~{\rm MHz} is achievable for lasers with 21 GHz repetition rate. The total RF locking-range of {\approx }{\rm 440}~{\rm MHz} is possible considering locking-range for positive and negative absorber voltages. This wide tuning {>}2{%} of the repetition rate, a record for a monolithic mode-locked laser, is reported from a two-section device without any additional passive section or extended-cavity for repetition rate tuning. It is shown that the effective RF locking-range in dual-mode injection corresponds to the optical locking-range and repetition rate tuning under CW injection, which is wider when the free-running mode-locking operation is “less stable.” The widest comb consists of 35 narrow lines within 10 dB of the peak, spanning {\approx }{\rm 0.7}~{\rm THz} and generating 3.7 ps pulses. Second, we show the first demonstration of multi pump phase-synchronization of two 10 Gb/s DPSK channels in a phase-sensitive amplifier using dual-mode injection-locking technique. The phase-sensitive amplifier based on the “black box” scheme shows more than 7 dB phase-sensitive gain and error free performance for both input channels with 1 dB penalty. View full abstract»

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  • Photonic Generation of Wideband Time-Delay-Signature-Eliminated Chaotic Signals Utilizing an Optically Injected Semiconductor Laser

    Page(s): 1339 - 1345
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    Photonic generation of wideband chaotic signals with time delay signature elimination is investigated experimentally and numerically based on a semiconductor laser (slave laser) with chaotic optical injection from a master laser. The master laser is subject to moderate optical feedback where the feedback strength and external-cavity length are fixed, while the slave laser stands alone. The experimental results show that wideband chaotic signals with successful time delay concealment can be generated in the slave laser by simply adjusting the coupling strength and frequency detuning between the two lasers. Furthermore, the numerical results are in accordance with the experimental observations. Finally, we propose a simple method for simultaneously generating multiple streams of high-quality chaotic signals using multichaotic lasers, where the time delay is effectively concealed in the autocorrelation function and delayed mutual information calculated from the chaotic time series. View full abstract»

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  • Integration of 1.3- \mu{\rm m} Quantum-Dot Lasers With {\rm Si}_{3}{\rm N}_{4} Waveguides for Single Mode Optical Interconnects

    Page(s): 1346 - 1351
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    A single mode photonic integrated circuit, consisting of a monolithically integrated quantum-dot laser and a suitably designed {\rm Si}_{3}{\rm N}_{4} waveguide, is demonstrated. The 1.3- \mu{\rm m} quantum-dot laser incorporates a superlattice barrier, p-doping, and tunnel injection in the active region, demonstrating operation up to 85 ^{\circ}{\rm C} with excellent temperature stability (high {\rm T}_{0} ). The two devices are optimally groove coupled to minimize the losses. Integration of the tapered waveguide with a quantum-dot cross laser is also demonstrated. View full abstract»

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  • Transition From Short-to-Long Cavity and From Self-Mixing to Chaos in a Delayed Optical Feedback Laser

    Page(s): 1352 - 1359
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1074 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We analyze the regime of strong perturbation in a laser diode subjected to delayed optical feedback (DOF) from an external reflector, and study the intermediate region between short and long cavities, using Lang and Kobayashi equations to follow the dynamic regimes of the DOF system. We find that well-known regimes of unperturbed oscillations, period one, multi-periodic, and chaos are dictated by interplay of coupling factor K, distance L, and phase $Phi ({rm mod}.2pi)$ of the external reflector, and linewidth enhancement factor $alpha$. We plot the boundaries of different regimes in the ${rm K}hbox{-}Phi$ plane for several values of L and $alpha$, and characterize them in the transition from very short cavity $({rm L}<0.01~{rm L}_{{rm fr}})$ with negligible high-level effects, to long cavity $({rm L}=0.5~{rm L}_{{rm fr}})$ where the ${rm K}hbox{-}Phi$ plane is almost completely filled with chaos. We show that chaos and periodicity regimes are only found at ${rm C}>1$, though for ${rm C}<1$ the DOF system is also subject to self-mixing perturbations. Self-mixing induced FM and AM of the optical signal are found in all regions of stable oscillations, and for ${rm C}>1$ frequency switching occurs at a certain $Phi$ for any K and L. Chaos develops at increased K and L in correspondence to loci of frequency switching. View full abstract»

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  • Exceptionally Narrow-Band Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetector

    Page(s): 1360 - 1366
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (864 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    InGaAlAs/InGaAs/InGaAlAs/InAs/InP quantum-dot structures have been investigated for the development of infrared photodetectors capable of generating photocurrent peaks exceptionally narrow for sharp wavelength discrimination. Our specially designed structure displays a photocurrent peak at 12 \mu{\rm m} with a full width at half maximum, limited by inhomogeneous broadening, of only 4.5 meV. In agreement with two independent energy level calculations, we attribute this peak to photon absorption between InAs quantum dot bound states, followed by a three step carrier extraction mechanism in which the coupling to the adjacent InGaAs quantum well is a key feature. The possible role played by intraband Auger scattering, multiphoton sequential absorption and tunneling in generating the observed current peak is also addressed. View full abstract»

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  • Correction to “Simulation and Analysis of Dynamic Regimes Involving Ground and Excited State Transitions in Quantum Dot Passively Mode-Locked Lasers” [Sep 12 1193-1202]

    Page(s): 1367
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    In the above titled paper (ibid., vol. 48, no. 9, pp. 1193-1202, Sep. 2012), the complete author list of reference [6] should have read: S. Breuer, M. Rossetti, W. Elsasser, L. Drzewietzki, P. Bardella, I. Montrosset, M. Krakowski, and M. Hopkinson. In reference [7], the complete author list should have read: S. Breuer, M. Rossetti, L. Drzewietzki, P. Bardella, I. Montrosset, and W. Elsasser. In reference [18], the complete author list should have read: D. B. Malins, A. Gomez-Iglesias, S. J. White, W. Sibbett, A. Miller, and E. U. Rafailov. View full abstract»

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  • Special issue on semiconductor lasers

    Page(s): 1368
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  • IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics information for authors

    Page(s): C3
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  • [Blank page - back cover]

    Page(s): C4
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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics is dedicated to the publication of manuscripts reporting novel experimental or theoretical results in the broad field of the science and technology of quantum electronics..

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Aaron R. Hawkins
Brigham Young University