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Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date July 2012

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 82
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): C1 - 1034
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery publication information

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): C2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Use of Standard 87T Differential Protection for Special Three-Phase Power Transformers—Part I: Theory

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1035 - 1040
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (260 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Power transformer differential protection 87T has been used for decades. With static or electromechanical 87T relays, external interposing current transformers are used in order to compensate for phase-angle shift and current magnitude variation between the two sides of the protected power transformer. With numerical differential relays, external interposing current transformers are not required. Necessary magnitude and phase-angle compensation are provided internally within the relay by software. However, special power transformers with nonstandard or variable phase-angle shift, such as converter transformers or phase shifting transformers, cannot be easily protected with classical 87T differential relays. By using modern numerical technology, it is now possible to make differential protection relay 87T, which can properly calculate differential currents for any power transformer, regardless of its fixed or variable phase-angle shift and current magnitude variations. View full abstract»

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  • Use of Standard 87T Differential Protection for Special Three-Phase Power Transformers—Part II: Application and Testing

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1041 - 1046
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1387 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Application of standard 87T differential relays for special power transformers is quite simple. In most cases, all necessary data are readily available on the rating plate of protected special transformers. The presented test cases are either disturbance data captured in actual installations of special power transformers or RTDS simulations based on actual data for a dual-core, symmetric, phase-shifting transformer. View full abstract»

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  • A Holistic Method for Conductor Ampacity and Sag Computation on an OHL Structure

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1047 - 1054
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1302 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The rating current (ampacity) of a conductor erected on a particular overhead line (OHL) structure installed at a specified location is influenced by the conductor, the OHL structure, as well as weather and operational parameters. Many studies have been carried out regarding calculating an aerial bare conductor's ampacity at a steady-state conductor temperature, but without considering the OHL structure as part of the system. In this paper, a holistic methodology for calculating the conductor's ampacity and sag at any temperature and power frequency, erected onto a prespecified OHL structure is developed, considering together the mechanical and electrical parameters of the overall system. This methodology incorporates the conductor's basic material properties allowing the calculations to be applied to newly developed high-temperature low-sag composite conductors. In this way, it becomes possible to identify, at the system level, the potential benefits that may result from the improved performance of these conductors as well as to indicate new sizes that may better fit a prespecified system, optimizing its performance. The methodology is also validated with a real system application, resulting in correct predictions of the performance of a four-span double-line system. View full abstract»

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  • Design of Adaptive Autoreclosure Schemes for 132 kV Network With High Penetration of Wind—Part I: Real-Time Modeling

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1055 - 1062
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (533 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper is the first of a series of publications detailing the development of an AI-based adaptive autoreclosing (AA) algorithm. In part 1, a detailed model of the Scottish 132 kV network has been constructed on a real-time digital simulator. The system model is discussed, including the network topology, line and source modeling, and the doubly fed induction generator-based wind farm model. An initial investigation on the penetration of harmonics from local wind farms is conducted using short circuit faults on two transmission lines in the network. This is necessary to ascertain to what extent wind farms may interfere with the AA scheme. Along with validating the model, the results suggest that penetration of harmonics is only significant on lines adjacent to the wind farms. View full abstract»

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  • Design of Adaptive Autoreclosure Schemes for 132 kV With High Penetration of Wind—Part II: Real-Time Development and Testing

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1063 - 1070
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1629 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Following part 1, this paper describes the development and real-time testing of an adaptive autoreclosing scheme for a 132-kV system with high penetration of wind generation. Having previously established the real-time system model, this second part concentrates on the hardware and software tools used to build the relay development platform, the algorithm itself, and the testing of this algorithm. A results section documents tests of the neural-network-based algorithm and is shown to be 100% reliable. Further successful tests on a 400-kV system suggest that the algorithm is robust to other system configurations. View full abstract»

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  • A Pattern-Recognition Approach for Detecting Power Islands Using Transient Signals—Part II: Performance Evaluation

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1071 - 1080
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1721 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Part I of this paper describes the design and implementation of an islanding detection method based on transient signals. The proposed method utilizes discrete wavelet transform to extract features from transient current and voltage signals. A decision-tree classifier uses the energy content in the wavelet coefficients to distinguish islanding events from other transient generating events. The verification tests performed in Part I, for a two generator test system having a synchronous generator and a wind farm, showed more than 98% classification accuracy with 95% confidence and a response time of less than two cycles. In Part II, the proposed methodology is applied to an extended test system with a voltage-source converter-based dc source. The proposed relay's performance is compared with the existing passive islanding detection methods under different scenarios. Furthermore, the effect of noise on the performance of the proposed method is studied. The transient-based islanding detection methodology exhibits very high reliability and fast response compared to all other passive islanding detection methods and shows that the relay can be designed with a zero nondetection zone for a particular system. View full abstract»

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  • Path Identification in a Power-Line Network Based on Channel Transfer Function Measurements

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1081 - 1089
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1054 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The development of very high data-rate power-line communication (PLC) systems requires an accurate knowledge of the transmission phenomena over the electrical network. In particular, the detection of the multiple propagation paths enables a compact description of the channel models, and gives an indication of the network topology, which may, in turn, be exploited to improve the communication techniques over PLC. In this paper, two high-resolution algorithms for the identification of the propagation paths are studied and adapted to the PLC channel characteristics, namely, the frequency-domain maximum-likelihood (FDML) algorithm and the Matrix Pencil (MP) algorithm. A parametric study is then detailed in order to analyze the performance of both algorithms in terms of resolution, computation time, and residual error. The study demonstrates that the MP algorithm provides a quicker convergence and a lower residual error when compared to the FDML algorithm. Finally, the MP algorithm is validated through its application on experimental network measurements. Results show a good agreement between the measurement and the synthetic channel recomposed from the detected paths. View full abstract»

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  • Influence of Modeling Methods on the Calculated Lightning Surge Overvoltages at a UHVDC Converter Station Due to Backflashover

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1090 - 1095
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (351 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The insulation coordination of the converter station is very important for the security and economy of the UHVDC power transmission system, and lightning surge overvoltages at the converter station should be calculated accurately. This paper mainly analyzes the influence of modeling methods on the lightning surge overvoltages caused by the backflashover of the incoming dc transmission lines by using the PSCAD program, such as the selection of lightning stroke current waveform, tower model, flashover criterion of the insulator, and so on. The simulation results show that modeling methods have a great influence on the backflashover lightning withstand level of the incoming dc transmission lines, but their influences on the lightning surge overvoltages of the equipment in the converter station are not so obvious. View full abstract»

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  • Wide-Area Robust Coordination Approach of HVDC and FACTS Controllers for Damping Multiple Interarea Oscillations

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1096 - 1105
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1529 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A robust coordination approach for the controller design of multiple high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) and flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS) wide-area controls (WACs) is presented in this paper and has the aim of stabilizing multiple interarea oscillation modes in large-scale power systems. The suitable wide-area control signals, which are given to HVDC and FACTS wide-area controllers, respectively, are chosen from a large number of candidate items. Then, a sequential robust design approach is planned for the wide-area controller coordination of HVDC and FACTS devices. This approach is based on the robust control theory and is formulated as a standard problem of multiobjective mixed H2/H output-feedback control with regional pole placement constraints. The linear matrix inequality (LMI) theory is applied to solve such a robust control problem. A case study on the 16-machine 5-area system, which is modified with one HVDC interconnected transmission, one shunt-FACTS device (SVC), and one series-FACTS device (TCSC), is performed to validate the robust performance in terms of multiple oscillations damping under various operating conditions. View full abstract»

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  • High Voltage Insulators Mechanical Load Limits—Part I: Overhead Line Load and Strength Requirements

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1106 - 1115
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1298 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reviews and discusses the mechanical loads that overhead lines experience as defined by applicable codes and the strength requirements for insulators that support the lines as described in ANSI, CSA, and IEC standards. Consideration of the probable occurrence of extreme weather conditions requires the insulator strength to be such that irreversible damage to the insulator does not occur at the maximum load considered. The inherent variation of the mechanical strength of the insulator dielectric material is discussed as a factor for its ultimate strength, and as a basis for limiting line loads below the damage limit for the insulator. Time-load tests suggest that reasonable damage limits for ceramic and composite insulator dielectric materials can be established. As discussed in a companion paper, the assignment of damage limits for specific insulators depends not only on the inherent mechanical strength of the dielectric, but also on the standard upon which the mechanical strength of the insulator is rated. Common line design requirements, coupled with insulator manufacturers' recommendations that the maximum load not exceed the routine proof test load each insulator is subjected to has, in general, given good field experience. View full abstract»

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  • Long Wire Antenna-Like Behavior of Uninsulated Overhead Distribution Cables

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1116 - 1123
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1225 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Uninsulated overhead distribution cables are evaluated in terms of their propagation and radiation behavior when excited by a partial-discharge (PD) pulse. Low attenuation levels at high frequency and a traveling-wave radiation pattern are observed for a single aluminum cable. The dominant radiated frequency components of surface discharge and dryband arcing are experimentally evaluated, and a high level of activity is observed in the 400-600-MHz and 900-1000-MHz bands. High directivity values at specific angles are also recorded at 400 and 900 MHz for single- and three-cable distribution systems. These findings show that a PD signal will travel for a significant distance along a cable and leak radiation predominantly in a specific direction, thus assisting the design of the RF-based discharge detection and localization system. View full abstract»

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  • A Classification Approach Using Support Vector Machines to Prevent Distance Relay Maloperation Under Power Swing and Voltage Instability

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1124 - 1133
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (598 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Distance relays, in the power transmission systems, are susceptible to the maloperation under certain system events, such as power swings and voltage instability, which drive the apparent impedance trajectories into the protection zones of the relay. Fast and reliable detection of the symmetrical faults, occurring during power swings, poses another challenge to operation of the distance relays. This paper introduces a new classification and protection scheme based on support vector machines (SVMs) for offering supervisory control to the operation of the conventional distance relays. The proposed scheme segregates the power system events into faults, power swings, and voltage instability. This paper also proposes a new index, called the relay ranking index, for identifying the relays most vulnerable to the maloperation due to power swings and voltage instability. The proposed SVM classifiers can work in unison with the conventional distance relay unit. The performance of the proposed scheme has been tested on a nine-bus WSCC system and 39-bus New England system. View full abstract»

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  • Adaline for Online Symmetrical Components and Phase-Angles Identification in Transmission Lines

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1134 - 1143
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (547 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new method for online symmetrical components and phase-angle extraction from high-voltage transmission-line faults. This method is based on the Adaline neural networks and the instantaneous power theory, also known as the p-q method. A new current decomposition is proposed in order to derive the direct, inverse, and homopolar current components. The average and oscillating terms of powers in the αβ frame are separated by using four Adaline neural networks. The Adalines use a cosine and sine as inputs in order to learn the linear combination of the powers. The resulting symmetrical components are used by three other Adalines for phase-angle estimation between direct and inverse current components. These phase angles permit classifying the fault types. The neural networks use an online learning process-based Widrow-Hoff algorithm and can adapt their weight parameters to the power-supply evolution. Simulation results show the performance and the robustness of this method and provide a perspective for protection relay improvement. View full abstract»

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  • Distribution Fault-Locating Algorithms Using Current Only

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1144 - 1153
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (507 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Traditional impedance-based fault-locating methods implemented in modern overcurrent protection relays require voltage and current measurements to provide reasonable fault-location estimates. Although they capture voltage and current, depending on field condition or due to equipment failure, relays may record current measurements only. Voltage measurements are thus missing or unavailable. The objective of this paper is to develop practical impedance-based fault-locating algorithms with current data (magnitude or phasors) as the only input and demonstrate the efficacy of the algorithms with simulated and actual field data. These algorithms use the circuit model of the distribution feeder and Kirchhoff's circuit laws in estimating the fault voltage at the relay location and then use impedance-based methods for fault location. Based on the analysis conducted on actual fault data, error in estimation is generally less than 0.5 mi from the actual location of the fault. View full abstract»

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  • Capacitor Voltage Balancing of Flying Capacitor Multilevel Converters by Space Vector PWM

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1154 - 1161
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (806 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Proper operation of a multilevel flying capacitor converter (FCC) necessitates a closed-loop voltage balancing strategy. This paper proposes a space vector modulation (SVM)-based approach that benefits from the switching state redundancy of an n-level FCC to implicitly carry out the voltage balancing task within the switching strategy. Based on the voltage deviations of the capacitor voltages, a cost function is defined and minimized to choose the proper redundant switching states among the available switching states. The performance of a grid-connected four-level FCC under the proposed SVM strategy for various operating conditions is studied and evaluated based on time-domain simulations in the PSCAD/EMTDC environment, and experimentally verified. The studies demonstrate the capability of the proposed SVM strategy to regulate the capacitor voltages at their nominal reference values. View full abstract»

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  • An Expert System Based on Adaptive Load Transfer Strategy for Abnormal Distribution System Under Heavy Load Condition

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1162 - 1171
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2069 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper designs and implements an expert system adopting a newly proposed adaptive load transfer strategy and inference methodology as an integrated problem-solving solution of determining an appropriate load transfer strategy when diverse events occur in a distribution system under heavy load or severe overload conditions. In particular, to enhance the efficiency of search, the proposed inference engine is designed so that a solution for the load balancing and a solution for the minimization of the outage load can be inferred at the same time by searching the goal nodes and the fail nodes based on the local minimum tree search method. View full abstract»

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  • Achieving High Data Rate in Multiband-OFDM UWB Over Power-Line Communication System

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1172 - 1177
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1089 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Theoretical studies indicate that a transmission data rate of up to gigabits per second can be achieved over low-voltage (LV) indoor power-line cables. Achieving a very high data rate (up to 480 Mb/s) is expected by applying WiMedia multiband-orthogonal frequency-divison multiplexing (MB-OFDM) standard for wireless ultra-wideband (UWB) communication over the power-line channel. However, the viability of this concept needs to be tested experimentally. This paper presents a novel design of demonstration system for the UWB over power-line communication technology. The demonstration system consists of an MB-OFDM UWB kit and is capable of transmitting very high data-rate signals over the LV power-line cables. It provides means to evaluate the performance of the UWB over power-line communication systems and analyze its viability in actual home networking scenarios. View full abstract»

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  • A New Algorithm to Avoid Maloperation of Transformer Differential Protection in Substations With an Inner Bridge Connection

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1178 - 1185
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (761 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In substations with an inner bridge connection, the two main transformers are generally connected in parallel. The differential protection of the transformer, under normal operating conditions, may maloperate when the other transformer is switching on through the bridge breaker after scheduled maintenance. This paper analyzes the factors that may lead to the maloperation of transformer differential protection and concludes that local transient saturation of the current transformer (CT) caused by the decaying dc component in the magnetizing inrush is the main cause of the maloperation of the transformer differential protection. By detecting the time difference between the instant of sudden changes occurring in the transformer wye-side current and the instant of the differential current increasing, a new algorithm based on the time differential method is proposed in this paper, which can prevent the maloperation of transformer differential protection in substations with an inner bridge connection. On the basis of detailed analysis and simulation work, the new algorithm is verified to be applicable under the conditions of sympathetic inrush and CT saturation. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Approach for Fault Location of Overhead Transmission Line With Noncontact Magnetic-Field Measurement

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1186 - 1195
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1250 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Prompt and accurate location of faults in a large- scale transmission system can accelerate system restoration, reduce outage time, and improve system reliability. Traditional approaches are categorized into traveling-wave-based and impedance-based measurement techniques. The traveling-wave-based approach requires detection devices to connect to the high-voltage transmission line, making the solution complex and costly. And the impedance-measurement-based approach is highly dependent on the quality of the signal and affected by fault resistance, ground resistance and non-homogeneity in line configuration. Hence, these approaches may cause a location error that is unacceptable in certain operation cases. In this paper, a novel approach based on noncontact magnetic-field measurement is proposed. With the magnetic field measured along the transmission line by using highly sensitive, broadband, and a low-cost magnetoresistive magnetic sensor, the fault span can be located. The collected data can be further used for identifying the fault type and location within the fault span. The overall system was designed and numerical simulations were performed on typical tower configurations. The simulated results verify the validity of the proposed scheme. View full abstract»

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  • Spatial Analysis of Thermal Aging of Overhead Transmission Conductors

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1196 - 1204
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (561 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper introduces a new methodology for spatial analysis of conductor thermal aging that can be performed at three different levels: point, line, and area. The methodology uses known characteristics of transmission conductors, along with load and weather data, to determine time series of conductor temperatures and corresponding thermal aging. Weather conditions can be obtained with high resolution, providing environmental conditions virtually at every point of a transmission system. This novel approach provides a complete spatiotemporal view of the thermal state of the system, bringing a whole new dimension to the research of thermal aging. All described types of aging analysis are important for effective transmission asset management, for scheduling of line maintenance or inspections, and for planning future transmission systems. View full abstract»

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  • Multiterminal HVDC With Thyristor Power-Flow Controller

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1205 - 1212
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (733 KB)  

    This paper presents the concept of a dc transmission controller integrated in a multiterminal HVDC system. The controller is based on a thyristor-based converter topology and it is inserted in series on a dc transmission line. A three-terminal voltage-source converter-based dc grid is modeled in PSCAD/EMTDC to demonstrate the operation and the stability of such a system. Simulation test cases include terminal loss and bidirectional ability of the thyristor power-flow controller. It is concluded that such a controller enhanced the performance and controllability of a dc grid. View full abstract»

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  • Overall Cost Comparison Between Cable and Overhead Lines Including the Costs for Repair After Random Failures

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1213 - 1222
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1698 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with the comparison between the overall whole-of-life costs of overhead lines (OHL) and those of underground insulated cables (UGC). Almost all the investigations published so far, when analyzing maintainability issues, take into account only the costs of planned/periodical maintenance; here, a method for assessing also the expenses sustained for repair after random failures is proposed. The number of random failure events for each kind of component over the entire service life of a transmission line can only be predicted on a probabilistic basis: its expected value is estimated by making use of the relevant mean failure rates from recent statistical surveys. The entire procedure is shown by carrying out a particular case study as an example; the break-even point between the OHL-UGC overall costs, corresponding to a typical rural land Italian market value wx = 26.9 Euros/m2, is identified. Nonetheless, the method may be widely applied to any type of OHL-UGC comparison. View full abstract»

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  • Quantitative Reliability Assessment of Various Automated Industrial Substations and Their Impacts on Distribution Reliability

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1223 - 1233
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1335 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Considering six common types of substation automation systems (SASs), this paper not only performs a quantitative reliability evaluation of different automated industrial substations, but also assesses the impacts of various automated substations on the distribution system reliability. The technique is based on the event-tree methodology, reliability block diagram approach, and the concept-of-expectation method. The proposed approach is applied to the eight basic industrial substation configurations, and quantitative assessment of reliability benefits from the utilization of substation automation is conducted through a range of studies. The results show the value of using a systematic quantitative approach for investigating the effects of automation systems on substation reliability. The main contributions of this paper are: 1) to give explicit formulas for reliability evaluations of the automated industrial substation with arbitrary time duration of the automatic switching operation; 2) to prove the SAS with a faster automatic switching operation has a higher degree of improvement in the substation reliability indices; 3) to provide an effective tool for ranking the most reliable industrial substation configurations in the presence of various SASs; and 4) to quantitatively evaluate the effects of the automated substation with various SASs on distribution reliability indices. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Installation and operation of apparatus, equipment, structures, materials and systems for the safe, reliable and economic generation, transmission, distribution, conversion, measurement and control of electric energy.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Wilsun Xu
Ph.D., P.Eng.
Dept. Electrical and Computer Eng.
University of Alberta
(9107 - 116 Street)
Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 Canada
wxu@ualberta.ca
Phone:780-492-5965
Fax:780-492-1811