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Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 10 • Date Oct. 2012

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 25
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics publication information

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 4179 - 4180
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  • Design Procedure for High-Frequency Operation of the Modified Series-Resonant APWM Converter to Reduce Size and Circulating Current

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 4181 - 4191
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1431 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a generalized analysis for the auxiliary network in a modified series-resonant asymmetrical pulse-width-modulated (APWM) converter is performed to produce a design procedure that ensures that zero voltage switching (ZVS) is achieved for any series-resonant APWM converter design. New equations that correctly predict the magnitude of auxiliary current are obtained by accounting for the trapezoidal nature of the waveforms associated with high-frequency operation, and the dead time between the switches in the half-bridge. A design example of a 48-V/1.2-V, 25-A converter operating at 1 MHz is chosen to highlight the validity of the proposed design and that superior results can be achieved if the resonant tank is designed in tandem with the auxiliary network. Experimental results verify that ZVS is achieved, and that the proposed design reduces the auxiliary inductor by close to a factor of 3. View full abstract»

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  • Signal-Powered Low-Drop-Diode Equivalent Circuit for Full-Wave Bridge Rectifier

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 4192 - 4201
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1807 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Piezoelectric-device-based vibration energy harvesting requires a rectifier for conversion of input ac to usable dc form. Power loss due to diode drop in rectifier is a significant fraction of the already low levels of harvested power. The proposed circuit is a low-drop-diode equivalent, which mimics a diode using linear region-operated MOSFET. The proposed diode equivalent is powered directly from input signal and requires no additional power supply for its control. Power used by the control circuit is kept at a bare minimum to have an overall output power improvement. Diode equivalent was used to replace the four diodes in a full-wave bridge rectifier, which is the basic full-wave rectifier and is a part of the more advanced rectifiers like switch-only and bias-flip rectifiers. Simulation in 130-nm technology and experiment with discrete components show that a bridge rectifier with the proposed diode provides a 30-169% increase in output power extracted from piezoelectric device, as compared to a bridge rectifier with diode-connected MOSFETs. The bridge rectifier with the proposed diode can extract 90% of the maximum available power from an ideal piezoelectric device-bridge rectifier circuit. Setting aside the constraint of power loss, simulations indicate that diode drop as low as 10 mV at 38 μA can be achieved. View full abstract»

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  • A Cross-Coupled Master–Slave Interleaving Method for Boundary Conduction Mode (BCM) PFC Converters

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 4202 - 4211
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1678 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a cross-coupled master-slave interleaving control method for boundary conduction mode (BCM) power factor correction (PFC) converters. The natural period of every switching cycle of each channel is measured and compared to adaptively determine the master and slave converters, where a converter with a longer natural period becomes master operating in BCM, while a converter with a shorter natural period becomes slave operating in discontinuous conduction mode. The proposed method compensates disturbances within one switching cycle, guaranteeing stable 180° out-of-phase interleaving operation against any transient and disturbance. The proposed method has been implemented and tested on a 400 W interleaved BCM boost PFC prototype converter with a dedicated control IC. View full abstract»

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  • Distortion Behavior Analysis of General Pulse-Width Modulated Zeta PFC Converter Operating in Continuous Conduction Mode

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 4212 - 4223
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1088 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For most actual power applications, power-factor correction (PFC) converters usually operate in the stable continuous conduction mode (CCM), but input current distortion will occur as long as these converters operate in oscillatory condition. This distortion usually manifests itself as a local oscillation within one line cycle. Typically, a Zeta PFC converter under the general pulse-width modulated (GPWM) control possesses high performance, and requires simpler control circuitry with fewer external components. However, due to the large-signal nonlinearity of the GPWM controller, the dynamic analysis and modeling of the input current distortion in its PFC converters remains vacant. In this paper, a large-signal average SPICE model is derived to capture the time-domain waveforms of the input current and output voltage. A power-balance approach for the PFC converter operating in CCM is developed, which can predict the steady-state values of the converters by using the Fourier series expansion. Analysis of the distortion behavior is provided in terms of the proposed model and the unbalanced power transfer mode. Experimental results are presented to verify the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Decoupled Interconnecting Method for Current-Source Converter-Based Offshore Wind Farms

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 4224 - 4233
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (821 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a novel interconnecting approach for the permanent-magnet synchronous generator-based offshore wind farm, where cascaded pulsewidth modulated (PWM) current-source converters (CSCs) are employed on both generator- and grid-side. The total numbers of cascaded PWM CSCs for the onshore grid connection are equal to the number of wind generators installed in the wind farm. The proposed interconnecting method enables simple configuration without the need for a bulky and costly offshore converter substation. Furthermore, a new decoupled control scheme for the independent active and reactive power control with variable dc-link current regulation is developed for the grid-side converters. The key feature of the control scheme is that the minimized dc-link current control is achieved without the use of a long-distance communication link. Both simulation and experimental results are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. View full abstract»

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  • Full Feedforward of Grid Voltage for Discrete State Feedback Controlled Grid-Connected Inverter With LCL Filter

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 4234 - 4247
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1565 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Due to multifeedback of state variables, a discrete state-space controller offers outstanding control bandwidth as well as control stability for popular LCL-type grid-connected inverters, while the grid current is still vulnerable to the grid-voltage harmonics. The feedforward of grid voltage, usually employed in continuous controllers to solve such a problem, is too complicated to be applied for the discrete state-space controller. By means of continuous transformation, a full grid-voltage feedforward (GVFF) decoupling strategy is successfully proposed in this paper to make the feedforward possible for the discrete state-space controller. Based on the transfer function analysis and comparison of discretized and continuous system, comprehensive verification is also provided to verify the effectiveness of the derivation of the GVFF path. Subsequently, the robustness analysis of the proposed strategy to the grid impedance is also performed. Moreover, a grid-voltage estimator instead of the measured voltage is employed for the full GVFF, which not only retains the important information of grid voltage but also eliminates the influence of accompanied noises. The distinct features of the proposed feedforward controller plus implementation strategy are the super steady waveform, dynamic response, and robustness to the variation of grid impedance. Besides, the complexity of the algorithm is moderate and the computational burden is not significantly increased. Finally, simulation and experimental results are provided to verify the feasibility and validity of the proposed strategy. View full abstract»

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  • An Adaptive Control System for Three-Phase Photovoltaic Inverters Working in a Polluted and Variable Frequency Electric Grid

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 4248 - 4261
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1737 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The proportional + resonant (PR) controller has been proposed in the past as a suitable method to control the current generated by the grid-connected photovoltaic voltage source inverters. Due to the fact that information regarding the frequency of the grid is needed to use this control technique, the synchronous reference frame phase-locked loop (SRF-PLL) is commonly used. To assure that the total harmonic distortion of the injected current (THDi) meets the appropriate standards, even if the grid voltage is polluted and its frequency varies, an adaptive control strategy is presented in this paper. This control strategy can improve the behavior of both, the conventional SRF-PLL and the conventional PR controller, when they are used in a polluted grid with a time varying frequency. The experimental results obtained by means of a digitally controlled 10-kVA inverter, show up that the THDi of the injected current is improved when the proposed adaptive control strategy replaces the conventional one. View full abstract»

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  • Control Scheme for Photovoltaic Three-Phase Inverters to Minimize Peak Currents During Unbalanced Grid-Voltage Sags

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 4262 - 4271
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1667 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Nowadays, the majority of the photovoltaic (PV) power sources are connected to the public grid. One of the main connection problems occurs when voltage sags appear in the grid due to short circuits, lightning, etc. International standards regulate the grid connection of PV systems, forcing the source to remain connected during short-time grid-voltage faults. As a consequence, during the voltage sag, the source should operate with increasing converter currents to maintain the injection of the generated power. This abnormal operation may result in nondesired system disconnections due to overcurrents. This paper proposes a controller for a PV three-phase inverter that ensures minimum peak values in the grid-injected currents, as compared with conventional controllers. From the system analysis, a design method is presented in order to set the parameters of the control scheme. Selected experimental results are reported in order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control. View full abstract»

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  • An Autonomous Power Supply System Supporting Low-Power Wireless Sensors

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 4272 - 4280
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1461 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a complete autonomous power supply generation system which can find application in a wireless sensor network. Every part of the system is powered only by the energy harvested by an electromagnetic transducer. Besides the transducer, the system comprehends an integrated electronic interface working as step-up ac/dc converter, a high-efficiency step-down dc/dc voltage regulator, and, finally, a load which closely replicates the characteristics of the Analog Devices ADF7242 2.4-GHz low-power transceiver, Texas Instruments MSP430 16-bit microcontroller, and Analog Devices AD7814 temperature sensor with 10-bit digital output. The core of the autonomous power supply system is the transducer's dedicated electronic interface which is designed for transferring the harvested energy to a storage capacitor and is able to process every voltage pulse coming from the transducer, providing the supply voltage for itself and the rest of the circuitry. The system will be analyzed and experimental results demonstrating the possibility of supporting a wireless communication with the harvested energy will be presented for two situations: in the first one the transducer is driven at its mechanical resonance frequency, and in the second one the same transducer is activated through the body movements of a person. View full abstract»

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  • Leakage Current Reduction in a Single-Phase Bidirectional AC–DC Full-Bridge Inverter

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 4281 - 4291
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1135 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The leakage current in grid-interface converter systems presents a considerable issue in regard to safety and efficiency. The full-bridge inverter is a well-accepted topology in single-phase power conversion applications. The high-frequency pulsewidth modulation (PWM) modulation schemes are normally applied to the full-bridge topology for smaller ac filter size, which, however, generates a high-frequency dc-side leakage current, resulting in an enormous negative impact on dc components, such as photovoltaic panels and energy storage elements. In this paper, a modified full-bridge inverter topology to reduce the dc-side leakage current as well as to mitigate the ac-side common-mode electromagnetic interference noise is presented. Several considerations are discussed, such as the PWM modulation and filter design. Compared to the other existing methods, the proposed solution provides a reliable performance for bidirectional operation, minimum additional components, low cost, and a simple design process. View full abstract»

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  • Poynting Vector Flow Analysis for Contactless Energy Transfer in Magnetic Systems

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 4292 - 4300
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (801 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Most problems related to contactless energy transfer are usually dealt within the framework of transformer theory, employing equivalent electric circuits as a tool for their analysis. Here, however, a physics approach based on the Maxwell equations is followed. Electric and magnetic fields are utilized to evaluate the Poynting vector, which defines the direction and power density carried by the electromagnetic field. The concepts of magnetic voltage and magnetic flux are utilized to define the instantaneous power guided within the magnetic transmitter. Contactless energy transfer requires two separate parts, a transmitter and a receiver circuit. In this paper, we pay attention to the electromagnetic field guided and emitted by the transmitter; internal skin effect (eddy currents losses) is accounted for; electromagnetic energy leaving the transmitter is evaluated using short-dipole antenna theory. This paper does not offer a new practical application of contactless energy transfer. Its scope is rather different; its aim is to provide a fresh look on contactless energy transfer in the context of an electromagnetics framework. View full abstract»

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  • A Ripple-Based Constant On-Time Control With Virtual Inductor Current and Offset Cancellation for DC Power Converters

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 4301 - 4310
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1170 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In recent years, there has been a growing trend of mandating high-power conversion efficiency, for not only the heavy-load but also the light-load conditions. To achieve this purpose, a ripple-based constant on-time (RBCOT) control for dc-dc converters has received wide attentions because of its natural characteristic of switching frequency reduction under the light-load condition. However, a RBCOT control suffers from an output-voltage offset problem and a subharmonic instability problem. In this paper, a modified RBCOT buck converter circuit is proposed to solve both problems. The circuit uses the concept of virtual inductor current to stabilize the feedback, and an offset-cancellation circuit to eliminate the output dc offset. The modified circuit can be fabricated into an integrated circuit (IC) without adding any pin compared to conventional circuits. A control model based on describing function is developed for the modified converter. The small-signal characteristics and design criteria to meet stability are derived. From the model, it is also found out that it is much easier to accomplish adaptive voltage positioning using the proposed modified RBCOT scheme compared to a conventional constant-frequency controller. Simulation and experimental results are given to verify the proposed scheme. View full abstract»

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  • Saliency-based sensorless predictive torque control with reduced torque ripple

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 4311 - 4320
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1564 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The proposed sensorless predictive torque control (PTC) scheme relies on the anisotropy of the inductance, assuming a continuous presence of a slight current ripple. At high speed, this condition is fulfilled inherently, while at low speed it has to be ensured by an arbitrary voltage injection. Eliminating injection at high speed enables this saliency-based scheme to reach full speed. The main contribution of this paper is a general approach to estimate the extended mean admittance under arbitrary voltages. As a result, the sensorless technique becomes applicable to variable switching time PTC schemes, which cause significantly less noise and torque ripple. Experimental results demonstrate a very good dynamics, full speed range capability, machine parameter independence, and distinct noise and loss reduction achieved by the proposed sensorless PTC method. View full abstract»

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  • A Loss-Adaptive Self-Oscillating Buck Converter for LED Driving

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 4321 - 4328
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1292 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A loss-adaptive self-oscillating buck converter is proposed for high-efficiency and low-cost LED driving. It consists of a self-oscillating unit composed of bipolar junction transistors (BJTs)-type self-oscillating unit, a loss-adaptive BJT driving unit, and a low-loss peak-current sensing unit. In this paper, its operation principle including a loss-adaptive BJT-driving scheme and a low-loss peak-current sensing method is introduced. For experimental verification, a prototype LED driver was implemented with some cheap components and devices for a 24-V lighting system to drive up to six LEDs. The test results show that the prototype LED driver could successfully start up itself and operate highly efficiently in steady state. In order to improve the performance of the proposed buck converter, a useful pulse-width modulation (PWM) LED dimming function is discussed for the future study. View full abstract»

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  • Tapped-Inductor Buck HB-LED AC–DC Driver Operating in Boundary Conduction Mode for Replacing Incandescent Bulb Lamps

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 4329 - 4337
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (961 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    High-brightness light-emitting diodes (HB-LEDs) are recognized as being potential successors of incandescent bulb lamps due to their high luminous efficiency and long lifespan. To achieve these advantages, HB-LED ballast must be durable and efficient. Furthermore, for this specific application, ac-dc HB-LED ballast requires a high-step-down ratio, high power factor and low cost. This paper presents a tapped-inductor buck power factor corrector (PFC) operating in boundary conduction mode design for replacing incandescent bulb lamps. This low-cost solution presents a suitable high-step-down ratio without galvanic isolation in order to produce an output voltage of about 20 V from line voltage. In addition, the tapped-inductor buck PFC maintains high efficiency in comparison to other one stage solutions widely used to design low-cost ac-dc HB-LED drivers (e.g., flyback PFCs). Static analysis, input current distortion analysis, and an average small signal model of the tapped-inductor buck PFC have been implemented in this paper both to check the validity of the proposed solution and to provide a suitable design procedure of the ac-dc HB-LED driver. Finally, a 12-W experimental prototype was developed to validate the theoretical results presented. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling, Simulation, and Validation of a Power SiC BJT

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 4338 - 4346
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (951 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a physics-based model of a silicon carbide bipolar junction transistor and verification of its validity through experimental testing. The Fourier series solution is used to solve the ambipolar diffusion equation in the transistor collector region. The model is realized using MATLAB and Simulink. The experimental results of static operation and also the simulated and experimental results of switching waveforms are given. View full abstract»

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  • A 50-MHz Fully Integrated Low-Swing Buck Converter Using Packaging Inductors

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 4347 - 4356
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2117 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Implementation of on-chip passive elements and efficient regulation schemes are key aspects of fully integrated dc-dc converter design. This paper presents a 50-MHz fully integrated buck converter equipped with packaging inductors. These inductors include parasitic inductances of the bonding wires and lead frames in the package. They have significantly better Q factors than the best on-chip inductors implemented on silicon. This paper also presents full-swing and low-swing gate drivers for efficient regulation of high-frequency switching converters. The low-swing driver uses the drop voltage of a diode-connected transistor and is applied in a fabricated converter to reduce the gate driving loss caused by the high switching operation. The proposed converter is designed and fabricated using a 0.13-μm 1-poly 6-metal CMOS process. The fully integrated buck converter achieves 68.7% and 76.8 % efficiency for 3.3 V/2.0 V and 2.5 V/1.8 V conversions, respectively, while providing a load current of 250 mA. View full abstract»

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  • Correction to "High Performance Digital Resonant Controllers Implemented With Two Integrators" [Feb 11 563-576]

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 4357
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (323 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the above titled paper (ibid., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 563-576, Feb. 2011), there were errors in Figs. 3 and 9. The correct figures are presented here. Note that now the adder signs in the resonant poles correction are not always positive, as they were in the original paper, but alternatively positive and negative, in accordance to (9) from this paper, which is reproduced here. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics information for authors

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 4358 - 4359
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  • IEEE Xplore Digital Library [advertisement]

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 4360
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  • IEEE Power Electronics Society Information

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): C3
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  • [Blank page]

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): C4
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics covers fundamental technologies used in the control and conversion of electric power.

Full Aims & Scope