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Nanobiotechnology, IET

Issue 2 • Date June 2012

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Displaying Results 1 - 9 of 9
  • Microfluidic approach to genotyping human platelet antigens

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 33 - 39
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (333 KB)  

    Centralised laboratories routinely determine blood types by serological and molecular methods. Current practices have limitations in terms of cost, time and accessibility. Miniaturised microfluidic platforms offer an alternative to conventional genotyping methods, since they consume fewer reagents, provide faster analysis and allow for complete integration and automation. As these `lab-on-a-chip` devices have been used for bacterial and viral detection, the authors investigated blood group genotyping as a novel application of microfluidic technology. To demonstrate the feasibility of microfluidic chip-based genotyping, the authors compared human platelet antigen 1 (HPA-1) genotype results from conventional and chip-based analysis for 19 blood donor specimens. DNA purification was performed with ChargeSwitch` magnetic beads, DNA amplification (PCR), restriction length polymorphism (RFLP) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) for identification of the DNA on microfluidic chips. It was found that nine donors were HPA-1a/1a and ten were HPA-1a/1b. Concordance between the conventional and on-chip methods was achieved for all but one sample. All the steps were demonstrated for complete blood group genotyping analysis of patient whole blood specimens on separate microfluidic chips. Future work will focus on integration of all the genotyping protocols on a single microfluidic chip. View full abstract»

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  • Effects of dry ice on gas permeability of nano-silverimpregnated Populus nigra and Fagus orientalis

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 40 - 44
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (258 KB)  

    Effects of dry-ice treatment (frozen CO2 at -78.5-C) on gas permeability of untreated and nano-silver-impregnated poplar and beech specimens were studied here on the basis of their biological structure and woody mass as well as their vessel element types. A 200-ppm aqueous dispersion of silver nano-particles was used for impregnation; the size range of silver nano-particles was 20-80-nm. Dry-ice treatment increased gas permeability by 87 and 45- in poplar and beech, respectively. Nano-silver impregnation also increased gas permeability by 190 and 89- in poplar and beech, respectively. Dry-ice treatment on nano-silver-impregnated specimens increased gas permeability even more (31- increase in poplar but only 0.96- in beech). It may be concluded that dry-ice treatment on solid woods may be used as a practical method to increase permeability in species that because of their biological structures are impermeable; since this method alters the biological structure slightly and consequently decreases mechanical strength of solid woods insignificantly, it may substitute methods such as incising to increase permeability. View full abstract»

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  • Mimicking the biological olfactory system: a Portable electronic Mucosa

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 45 - 51
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (602 KB)  

    In this study the authors report on the development of a new type of electronic nose (e-nose) instrument, which the authors refer to as the Portable electronic Mucosa (PeM) as a continuation of previous research. It is designed to mimic the human nose by taking significant biological features and replicating them electronically. The term electronic mucosa or simply e-mucosa was used because our e-nose emulates the nasal chromatographic effect discovered in the olfactory epithelium, located within the upper turbinate. The e-mucosa generates spatio-temporal information that the authors believe could lead to improved odour discrimination. The PeM comprises three large sensor arrays each containing a total of 576 sensors, with 24 different coatings, to increase the odour selectivity. The nasal chromatographic effect provides temporal information in the human olfactory system, and is mimicked here using two-coated retentive channels. These channels are coated with polar and non-polar compounds to enhance the selectivity of the instrument. Thus, for an unknown sample, the authors have both the spatial information (as with a traditional e-nose) and the temporal information. The authors believe that this PeM may offer a way forward in developing a new range of low-cost e-noses with superior odour specificity. View full abstract»

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  • Immobilisation of heparin on bacterial cellulosechitosan nano-fibres surfaces via the cross-linking technique

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 52 - 57
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (700 KB)  

    In recent years, bacterial cellulose (BC) has been fabricated in tubular shape as scaffold for vascular tissue engineering. However, in order to improve the blood compatibility and regenerative ability of BC, BC nano-fibres should be cross-linked with some materials which can prevent the formation of blood clot. In this work, a novel BC-chitosan (CS)/heparin (Hep) composite was prepared. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to analyse the obtained samples. It is observed by SEM and TEM that the obtained composites remain the three-dimensional (3D) network and porous structure. The results of XRD reveal that the curve of BC-CS/Hep composite assumes the characteristic absorption peaks of BC, CS and Hep. The FTIR results also confirm the presence of CS and Hep on the surface of BC nano-fibres. In conclusion, BC-CS/Hep composites were obtained by the co-synthesis technique and the cross-linking method, respectively. Furthermore, the MC3T3-E1 cells were seeded on the obtained samples to test the cell compatibility. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide results indicated that the BC-CS/Hep composites were suitable for cell proliferation and ingrowth. View full abstract»

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  • Biosynthesis of bismuth nanoparticles using serratia marcescens isolated from the Caspian Sea and their characterisation

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 58 - 62
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (360 KB)  

    Today, synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) using micro-organisms has been receiving increasing attention. In this investigation, a bismuth-reducing bacterium was isolated from the Caspian Sea in Northern Iran and was used for intracellular biosynthesis of elemental bismuth NPs. This isolate was identified as non-pigmented Serratia marcescens using conventional identification assays and the 16s rDNA fragment amplification method and used to prepare bismuth NPs. The biogenic bismuth NPs were released by liquid nitrogen and highly purified using an n-octanol water two-phase extraction system. Different characterisations of the purified NPs such as particle shapes, size and purity were carried out with different instruments. The energy-dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns demonstrated that the purified NPs consisted of only bismuth and are amorphous. In addition, the transmission electron micrograph showed that the small NPs formed larger aggregated NPs around <;150 nm. Although the chemical syntheses of elemental bismuth NPs have been reported in the literature, the biological synthesis of elemental bismuth NPs has not been published yet. This is the first report to demonstrate a biological method for synthesising bismuth NPs and their purification with a simple solvent partitioning method. View full abstract»

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  • Nanochannels: biological channel analogues

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 63 - 70
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (243 KB)  

    The flux of ions across the biological membrane is a central activity to many cellular processes, from conduction of nerve impulse to the apoptosis. Traffic of ions or molecules across the membrane and organelles is governed by natural machines of great precision; ion channels, a special class of proteins, reside in the biological membranes. Recent studies in the field of nanoscience have concentrated on to precisely mimic the physical and chemical properties of these pores that make them increasingly attractive in this field. Synthetic nanoporous materials have a great deal of medical applications, including biosensing, biosorting, immune-isolation and drug delivery. In this review, the authors briefly describe the interesting synthetic channels that are extensively studied, and also attempt to furnish a precise overview of recent advances in this arena. View full abstract»

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  • Design of a bioprocess to produce silver nanoparticles

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 71 - 75
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (437 KB)  

    The development of reliable processes for the synthesis of silver nanomaterials is an important aspect of current nanotechnology research. In this work, silver nanoparticles were produced in a bioreactor by Escherichia coli (E. coli). For this purpose, a process was designed and silver nanoparticles at a scale larger than laboratorial scale were produced by considering optimum conditions and using E. coli. This research for the first time was carried out at a scale larger than laboratory scale indicating ability to produce nanoparticles at a large scale using microorganisms. In addition, UV-vis spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), transitional electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) were employed to investigate characterisation of nanoparticles. View full abstract»

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  • Fmoc-Cl fluorescent determination for amino groups of nanomaterial science

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 76 - 80
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (339 KB)  

    With the wide application of nanomaterials, the quantification of functional groups on nanomaterial surface becomes more and more necessary. A heterogeneous 9-fluorenylmethoxy carbonyl chloride (Fmoc-Cl) fluorescent method using an aqueous solution was established to determinate amino groups on nanomaterial surface. The effect factors of determination were investigated and the assay was optimised. The Fmoc fluorescent method is 200-fold more sensitive than the current UV assay using an organic solvent, and compared with chemical ninhydrin method and physical elemental analysis. Heterogeneous Fmoc-Cl fluorescent method can be used to determine amino groups on nanomaterials with big size, which is difficult to undergo a direct detection. View full abstract»

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  • Preparation of linoleic acid-capped silver nanoparticles and their antimicrobial effect

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 81 - 85
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB)  

    Silver nanoparticles have been prepared through the chemical reduction of silver ions by ethanol using linoleic acid as a stabilising agent. This colloidal solution shows an absorption band in the visible range with an absorption peak at 421 nm. The peaks in the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern matches well with the standard values of the face-centred-cubic form of metallic silver. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) micrograph shows a nearly uniform distribution of the particles with an average size of 8 nm. This linoleic acid-capped silver nanoparticles show antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IET Nanobiotechnology covers all aspects of research and emerging technologies including fundamental theories and concepts applied to biomedical-related devices and methods at the micro- and nano-scale.

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