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Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems, IEEE Journal on

Issue 1 • Date March 2012

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Displaying Results 1 - 17 of 17
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Journal on Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems publication information

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): C2
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  • Guest Editorial Emerging Circuits and Systems Techniques for Ultra-Low Power Body Sensor Networks

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 3
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  • Exploiting Channel Periodicity in Body Sensor Networks

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 4 - 13
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1842 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper models the periodic characteristics of body sensor network (BSN) wireless channels measured using custom hardware in the 900-MHz and 2.4-GHz bands. The hardware logs received signal strength indication (RSSI) values of both bands simultaneously at a sample rate of 1.3 kS/s. Results from a measurement campaign of BSNs are shown and distilled to reveal characteristics of BSN channels that can be exploited for reducing the power of wireless communication. A new channel model is introduced to add periodicity to existing 802.15.6 WBAN path loss equations. New parameters, activity factor and location factor, are introduced to estimate the model parameters. Finally, a strategy for exploiting the periodic characteristics of the BSN channel is presented as an example, along with the power savings from using this strategy. View full abstract»

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  • Low-Invasive Implantable Devices of Low-Power Consumption Using High-Efficiency Antennas for Cloud Health Care

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 14 - 23
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1031 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents low-invasive and low-power implantable biomedical devices based on a novel high-efficiency antenna for cloud health care. The proposed simple architecture was applied to fulfill a low-power consumption implantable system, including a readout circuit, an oscillator, a power management circuit, and an implantable antenna. This paper proposes a novel compact antenna for teeth implanting to attach on a low-invasive biomedical device to monitor human health conditions. A low-power consumption oscillator was connected directly to the antenna without any additional power amplifier. A hybrid of Archimedean spirals and Hilbert-based curve 3-D folded antenna was designed and fabricated on ceramic denture (ZrO2) in Medical Radio (MedRadio) band. A compact, high gain, and large bandwidth antenna was achieved. In addition, such simple architecture also performs a high precise measurement, demonstrated by the temperature sensing of basal body temperature (BBT), indicating the conditions of female endocrine abnormalities. High sensitivity was enhanced by a negative resistance sample amplifier, and the biological BBT signals were transmitted by a frequency-modulation transmitter. The wireless measurement results indicate a small error of ±0.058°C at a distance of 60 cm indoors, and satisfy the BBT resolution requirement of 0.1 °C. View full abstract»

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  • Design Optimization and Implementation for RF Energy Harvesting Circuits

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 24 - 33
    Cited by:  Papers (40)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (998 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new design for an energy harvesting device is proposed in this paper, which enables scavenging energy from radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic waves. Compared to common alternative energy sources like solar and wind, RF harvesting has the least energy density. The existing state-of-the-art solutions are effective only over narrow frequency ranges, are limited in efficiency response, and require higher levels of input power. This paper has a twofold contribution. First, we propose a dual-stage energy harvesting circuit composed of a seven-stage and ten-stage design, the former being more receptive in the low input power regions, while the latter is more suitable for higher power range. Each stage here is a modified voltage multiplier, arranged in series and our design provides guidelines on component choice and precise selection of the crossover operational point for these two stages between the high (20 dBm) and low power (-20 dBm) extremities. Second, we fabricate our design on a printed circuit board to demonstrate how such a circuit can run a commercial Mica2 sensor mote, with accompanying simulations on both ideal and non-ideal conditions for identifying the upper bound on achievable efficiency. With a simple yet optimal dual-stage design, experiments and characterization plots reveal approximately 100% improvement over other existing designs in the power range of -20 to 7 dBm. View full abstract»

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  • Ultra Low Power CMOS-Based Sensor for On-Body Radiation Dose Measurements

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 34 - 41
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1103 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For the first time, a dosimeter employing two floating gate radiation field effect transistors (FGRADFET) and operating at mere 0.1 V is presented. The novel dosimeter requires no power during irradiation and consumes only 1 during readout. Besides the low power operation, structural changes at the device level have enhanced the sensitivity of the dosimeter considerably as compared to previous designs. The dosimeter is integrated with a wireless transmitter chip, thus eliminating all unwanted communication and power cables. It has been realized monolithically in DALSA's 0.8 complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process and characterized with X-ray and γ-ray sources. A maximum sensitivity of 5 mV/rad for X-rays and 1.1 mV/rad for -rays have been achieved in measurements. Due to its small size, low-power, and wireless operation, the design is highly suitable for miniaturized, wearable, and battery operated dosimeters intended for radiotherapy and space applications. View full abstract»

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  • Probabilistically Programmed STT-MRAM

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 42 - 51
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1701 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Novel memory programming methods and corresponding memory structures are presented in this paper. Unlike conventional memory programming, this programming technique does not require deterministic switching of memory elements. This technique explicitly exploits the probabilistic switching characteristics of memory elements such as spin-transfer torque magnetic tunnel junction (STT-MTJ) to reduce programming power and delay. This technique also allows multilevel cell (MLC) spin-transfer torque magnetoresistive random access memory (STT-MRAM) to be fabricated with existing STT-MTJ fabrication processes, thus making high capacity STT-MRAM chips readily achievable. The optimal STT-MTJ switching probabilities are given in this paper for reaching minimum programming delay, power, and iteration. Moreover, this paper proves, by applying probabilistic programming to existing STT-MTJs, both programming delay and power can be reduced to levels beyond the reach of conventional deterministic programming. Furthermore arbitrarily small programming bit error rate (BER) can be accomplished in theory using probabilistic programming without much penalty on average programming delay and power. On the contrary, deterministic programming always presents finite programming BER, which is expensive to reduce in terms of programming power and delay. The MLC capability of STT-MTJ clusters has also been confirmed using fabricated STT-MTJ devices. The major circuitries for implementing probabilistically programmed MLC STT-MRAM are also presented in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • VLSI Friendly ECG QRS Complex Detector for Body Sensor Networks

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 52 - 59
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (898 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper aims to present a very-large-scale integration (VLSI) friendly electrocardiogram (ECG) QRS detector for body sensor networks. Baseline wandering and background noise are removed from original ECG signal by a mathematical morphological method. Then the multipixel modulus accumulation is employed to act as a low-pass filter to enhance the QRS complex and improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated with standard MIT-BIH arrhythmia database and wearable exercise ECG Data. Corresponding power and area efficient VLSI architecture is designed and implemented on a commercial nano-FPGA. High detection rate and high speed demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed detector. View full abstract»

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  • An Ultra-Low Power ECG Acquisition and Monitoring ASIC System for WBAN Applications

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 60 - 70
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2055 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a power and area efficient electrocardiogram (ECG) acquisition and signal processing application sensor node for wireless body area networks (WBAN). This sensor node can accurately record and detect the QRS peaks of ECG waveform with high-frequency noise suppression. The proposed system is implemented in 0.18-μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology with two chips: analog front end integrated circuit (IC) and digital application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), where the analog IC consumes only 79.6 μW with area of 4.25 mm2 and digital ASIC consumes 9 μW at 32 kHz with 1.2 mm2. Therefore, this ECG sensor node is convenient for long-term monitoring of cardiovascular condition of patients, and is very suitable for on-body WBAN applications. View full abstract»

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  • Robust Quantized Approach to Fuzzy Networked Control Systems

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 71 - 81
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (579 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper investigates the problem of robust H control for uncertain discrete-time Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy networked control systems (NCSs) with state quantization. A new model of network-based control with simultaneous consideration of network induced delays and packet dropouts is proposed. Using fuzzy Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, we derive a less conservative delay-dependent stability condition for the closed NCSs. Robust H fuzzy controller is developed for the asymptotic stabilization of the NCSs and expressed in linear matrix inequality-based conditions. Numerical simulation examples show the feasibility applications of the developed technique. View full abstract»

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  • A Receiver Architecture for Devices in Wireless Body Area Networks

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 82 - 95
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2115 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A receiver architecture suitable for devices in wireless body area networks is presented. Such devices require minimum physical size and power consumption. To achieve this the receiver should, therefore, be fully integrated in state-of-the-art complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology, and size and power consumption must be carefully considered at all levels of design. The chosen modulation is frequency shift keying, for which transmitters can be realized with high efficiency and low spurious emissions. A direct-conversion receiver architecture is used to achieve minimum power consumption and a modulation index equal to two is chosen, creating a midchannel notch in the modulated signal. A tailored demodulation structure has been designed to make the digital baseband compact and low power. To increase sensitivity it has been designed to interface with an analog decoder. Implementation in the analog domain minimizes the decoder power consumption. Antenna design and wave propagation are taken into account via simulations with phantoms. The 2.45-GHz ISM band was chosen as a good compromise between antenna size and link loss. An ultra-low power medium access scheme has been designed, which is used both for system evaluation and for assisting system design choices. Receiver blocks have been fabricated in 65-nm CMOS, and a radio-frequency front-end and an analog-to-digital converter have been measured. Simulations of the complete baseband have been performed, investigating impairments due to 1/f noise, frequency and time offsets. View full abstract»

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  • Novel Modulation Techniques and Circuits for Transceivers in Body Sensor Networks

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 96 - 108
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Novel energy-efficient modulation technique and circuits for transceivers operating in body sensor networks (BSNs) are described and investigated. They are obtained as a result of the development of differential binary phase shift keying (DBPSK) and named alternating quadratures DBPSK (AQ-DBPSK). While keeping the noise immunity and simplicity of synchronization and realization of DBPSK, AQ-DBPSK increases the efficiency of the transmitter power utilization by dB and radically improves tolerance to frequency offsets between the receivers and corresponding transmitters. The approach used in the development of AQ-DBPSK can also be used for developing novel spreading and despreading techniques and circuits. View full abstract»

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  • TAD-MAC: Traffic-Aware Dynamic MAC Protocol for Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 109 - 119
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (991 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A wireless body area sensor network (WBASN) demands ultra low power and energy efficient protocols. Medium access control (MAC) layer plays a pivotal role for energy management in WBASN. Moreover, idle listening is the dominant energy waste in most of the MAC protocols. WBASN exhibits wide range of traffic variations based on different physiological data emanating from the monitored patient. For example, electrocardiogram data rate is multiple times more in comparison with body temperature rate. In this context, we propose a novel energy efficient traffic-aware dynamic (TAD) MAC protocol for WBASN. The protocol relies on dynamic adaptation of wake-up interval based on a traffic status register bank. The proposed technique allows the wake-up interval to converge to a steady state for fixed and variable traffic rates, which results in optimized energy consumption. A comparison with other energy efficient protocols for three different widely used radio chips i.e., cc2420, cc1000, and amis52100 is presented. The results show that TAD-MAC outperforms all the other protocols under fixed and variable traffic rates. Finally, life- time of a WBASN was estimated and found to be 3-6 times better than other protocols. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE Journal on Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems information for authors

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 120
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  • IEEE Circuits and Systems Society Information

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): C3
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    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): C4
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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Journal on Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems publishes special issues covering the entire Field of Interest of the IEEE Circuits and Systems Society and with particular focus on emerging areas.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Manuel Delgado-Restituto
Instituto Nacional de Microelectrónica de Sevilla
IMSE-CNM (CSIC/Universidad de Sevilla)