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Robotics and Automation, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date Jun 1993

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Displaying Results 1 - 14 of 14
  • Stability and control of robotic manipulators during contact/noncontact task transition

    Page(s): 335 - 345
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    A control methodology that addresses the problem of control of robotic manipulators during a general class of task that requires the manipulator to make a transition from noncontact motion to contact motion and contact motion to noncontact motion is proposed. During noncontact motion, a control suitable for the noncontact phase of motion is applied; during contact, another control, suitable for contact motion, is applied. These different control schemes are applied to the manipulator in such a way that the overall control is discontinuous in nature. The following closed-loop behavior is achieved: (1) the closed-loop system exhibits global asymptotic stability; (2) asymptotic trajectory tracking of generalized force and position inputs is achieved; and, significantly, (3) upon inadvertent loss of contact by the manipulator, contact is reestablished and generalized forces and positions are again achieved asymptotically. Experimental results, performed on a two-degree-of-freedom direct-drive robot, support the theoretical claims View full abstract»

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  • Controlling the impact response of a one-link flexible robotic arm

    Page(s): 346 - 351
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    An open-loop control system is designed using frequency-domain techniques to compute a desired hub torque profile. The motion of the arm after tip impact, including hub actuation, is simulated. Simulation results are compared to experimental data. It is shown that the controller damps vibration caused by the impact and allows the steady-state tip deflection to be predetermined View full abstract»

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  • Position and force control for constrained manipulator motion: Lyapunov's direct method

    Page(s): 308 - 313
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    A design procedure for simultaneous position and force control is developed, using Lyapunov's direct method, for manipulators in contact with a rigid environment that can be described by holonomic constraints. Many manipulators that interact with their environment require taking into account the effects of these constraints in the control design. The forces of constraint play a critical role in constrained motion and are, along with displacements and velocities, to be regulated at specified values. Lyapunov's direct method is used to develop a class of position and force feedback controllers. The conditions for gain selection demonstrate the importance of the constraints. Force feedback has been shown not to be mandatory for closed-loop stabilization, but it is useful in improving certain closed-loop robustness properties View full abstract»

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  • Thermal tactile sensing

    Page(s): 313 - 318
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    The measurement of temperature change as an indication of a material's relative thermal conductivity has often been utilized as a means of tactile sensing. Unfortunately, the long time response of most thermal sensors makes such a technique too slow for normal industrial robotic uses. The authors consider human tactile performance with particular regard to temperature sensing and introduce a means by which a usable risetime may be achieved. Two methods, using devices hitherto not utilized for tactile sensing, are demonstrated View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic calibration and compensation of a 3D laser radar scanning system

    Page(s): 318 - 323
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    LIDAR (laser radar) is used to measure three-dimensional (3-D) object positions. It produces a range and an intensity image of the measured object and relies on the range image to determine the 3-D positions of the object. Because the range image is frequently corrupted with noise, a dynamic method to improve the LIDAR accuracy, based on a polynomial calibration model and an autoregressive moving-average calibration model, has been established. Experimental results show that the measurement errors of the LIDAR system have been reduced from 163 counts to 18 counts after compensation using the polynomial calibration model and that the errors have been further reduced to 11 counts with the ARMA model View full abstract»

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  • Representing and analyzing action plans as networks of concurrent processes

    Page(s): 241 - 256
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    The problem of constructing a plan representation that can deal with the complexity of representing and analyzing robot behavior in uncertain and dynamic environments is addressed. A concurrent-process based representation is developed which represents both the plan (or controller) and the uncertain and dynamic environment in which the plan operates. A methodology is outlined for analyzing the behavior of this interacting system of plan and world. This methodology is illustrated with a mixed-batch example from the domain of robotic kitting. To balance the theoretical work, a description of the implemented robot kitting cell is presented View full abstract»

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  • Control design of robot for compliant manipulation on dynamic environments

    Page(s): 286 - 296
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    The problem of designing the control for a robot that performs compliant manipulation on dynamic environments is studied. Compliant manipulation requires the controlled robot not only to follow the input trajectory exactly in free motion space, but also to manipulate adaptively on dynamic environments while making compliant contact with the environment's dynamic constrained space. An original model matching control approach for the control design is presented. The problems of selecting a reference model according to the environmental dynamics, its dynamic model uncertainty, the contact discontinuity and the robot actuator's output limitation are studied. The problem of how to implement such a reference model in a robot's control system is considered. In addition, adaptive algorithm for the robot manipulator are given to improve its performance when imposing compliant manipulation on a dynamic environment with parameter uncertainties. The effectiveness of this approach compared to the impedance control approach is illustrated through computer simulations and experiments View full abstract»

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  • Task translation and integration specification in intelligent machines

    Page(s): 257 - 271
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    Intelligent machines are defined to be hierarchically intelligent control systems composed of three levels: the organization level, the coordination level, and the execution level. The authors present an analytical model for the coordination level of intelligent machines, which, together with the established mathematical formulation for the organization level and the well-developed control theory for the execution level, completes the first step toward a mathematical theory for intelligent machines. The framework of the coordination level is a tree structure consisting of a dispatcher and a number of coordinators. A new type of transducer, Petri net transducers (PNTs), is introduced to serve as the basic module in the analytical model. The PNTs can be used to represent the concurrence and conflict among the individual processes within the dispatcher and coordinators. Coordination structures are introduced as a formalism for the specification of integration in the coordination level. The task precedence relationship in the coordination process is presented by the Petri nets derived from the coordination structures. A case study is presented View full abstract»

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  • Extending the DEVS-Scheme knowledge-based simulation environment for real-time event-based control

    Page(s): 351 - 356
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    An implementation of real-time simulation and control in DEVS-Scheme, a knowledge-based, discrete-event environment, is described. A methodology is illustrated in which the plant and its actuators and sensors are described by discrete-event models developed within the event-based control paradigm. A model of the controller is employed to validate its design in a plant/actuator/sensor experimental frame View full abstract»

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  • On the numerical kinematic analysis of general parallel robotic manipulators

    Page(s): 272 - 285
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    A systematic two-part approach for the numerical kinematic analysis of general parallel robotic manipulators, is presented. The first part deals with structural analysis. Based on graph theory and the depth first search algorithm, a method for identifying and orienting the dependent kinematic loops of the robot is developed. This method not only facilitates the assignment of the local coordinate systems attached to the robot, but also arranges them in the correct order to allow efficient recursive coordinate transformation. The second part deals with displacement analysis. A set of recursion formulas is developed for computing the forward coordinate transformations, and these formulas are then adopted in a two-phase computational algorithm to obtain the numerical solutions to the direct and inverse kinematics problems. The two-phase algorithm developed is not only insensitive to the initial approximation of the solution vector, but also converges rapidly. It is also useful for finding multiple solutions for the robot as well as for continuous trajectory planning, as shown by the numerical examples presented View full abstract»

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  • The Lie bracket condition as a test of stable, drift-free pseudoinverse trajectories

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    C. Klein and K. Kee (1989) showed numerically that pseudoinverse control, while generally being nonconservative, in some cases appears to give conservative results and described a numerical procedure for finding stable, drift-free trajectories. T. Shamir and Y. Yomdin (1988) discuss using the Lie bracket condition (LBC) as a test of the repeatability of redundant manipulator control. The present author examines the hypothesis that the above-mentioned stable trajectories, which are done numerically on a three-link, planar manipulator with relative joints, might be predicted by the LBC. He concludes that the stable trajectories are not contained in the LBC surfaces, but that their closeness suggests that the LBC is a useful analytical test for locating them View full abstract»

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  • Scheduling with alternative operations

    Page(s): 297 - 303
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    The incorporation of alternative operations in a scheduling system increases the utilization rate of resources and reduces the makespan of manufacturing products. A heuristic algorithm is developed for a scheduling problem with and without alternative operations. The effect of alternative operations on the performance of schedules generated are studied with five dispatching rules. The testing effort involves 240 scheduling problems obtained for randomly generated data. The computational results show that the most dissimilar resources (MDR) dispatching rule for the case with alternative operations performs best among the dispatching rules tested. The quality of schedules (makespan, utilization rate of resources) generated with any dispatching rule improves when alternative operations are used View full abstract»

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  • MARVEL: a system that recognizes world locations with stereo vision

    Page(s): 303 - 308
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    MARVEL is a system that supports autonomous navigation by building and maintaining its own models of world locations and using these models and stereo vision input to recognize its location in the world and its position and orientation within that location. The system emphasizes the use of simple, easily derivable features for recognition, whose aggregate identifies a location, instead of complex features that also require recognition. MARVEL is designed to be robust with respect to input errors and to respond to a gradually changing world by updating its world location models. In over 1000 recognition tests using real-world data, MARVEL yielded a false negative rate under 10% with zero false positives View full abstract»

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  • Regressor formulation of robot dynamics: computation and applications

    Page(s): 323 - 333
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    Two approaches to the evaluation of the manipulator regressor of a general n-degree-of-freedom (DOF) robot are presented. The first method is an energy-based approach using the Lagrangian formulation of robot dynamics as a starting point. A key fact used in deriving the solution is that the manipulator Lagrangian is linkwise additive. The second approach generates an iterative algorithm for efficient numerical evaluation of the regressor. It is obtained by reformulating the Newton-Euler recursion using vector analysis type techniques. In addition, a modified Slotine-Li algorithm for adaptive motion control is presented and is then applied in a simulation study to a 4-DOF PUMA-type robot, where the manipulator regressor is evaluated using the iterative algorithm proposed View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transactions ceased production in 2004. The current retitled publications areIEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering and IEEE Transactions on Robotics.

Full Aims & Scope