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Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date March-April 2012

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 37
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): C1 - 566
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications publication information

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): C2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Safety Analysis of Trailing Cables Used on 2400-V Continuous Mining Machines

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 567 - 574
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (754 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An analysis was performed to determine whether an increased shock hazard occurs with 2400-V continuous-miner trailing cables, as compared with those used with existing low- and medium-voltage systems. (It should be noted that the Code of Federal Regulations defines low, medium, and high voltages for mine power systems as 0-660, 661-1000, and >; 1000 V, respectively.) The study assumed that the Mine Safety and Health Administration's Proposed Rule for High-Voltage Continuous Mining Machines was implemented with the exception of the special cable-handling requirements. Two major differences between the high-voltage proposed rule and existing low- and medium-voltage regulations that are relevant to this study deal with ground-fault protection and include the following: 1) The maximum ground-fault current of the 2400-V system must be limited to 0.5 A, while low- and medium-voltage systems typically use a 15-A limit; and 2) the maximum ground-fault pickup of the 2400-V system must be set at 0.125 A with a maximum time delay of 0.05 s, whereas low- and medium-voltage systems require an instantaneous pickup set at, or below, 40% of the maximum ground-fault current (6 A for 15-A systems). Results of the study show that 2400-V trailing cables, in conjunction with the stricter ground-fault protection requirements and enhanced cable construction, provide a higher level of safety compared with trailing cables used on low- and medium-voltage continuous miners. View full abstract»

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  • Applying IEC 60909, Fault Current Calculations

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 575 - 580
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (523 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Rather than the short-circuit current that would occur in a specific instance, International Electrotechnical Commission 60909 derives the maximum and minimum prospective short-circuit currents in a system for each specific location and time. This is reported using a series of parameters which relate to the rated short-circuit current of equipment and the tests required on equipment to prove that rating. The influence of arc voltage on short-circuit currents is then discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Arc-Flash Testing of Typical 480-V Utility Equipment

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 581 - 592
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2283 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A test program was completed to measure arc-flash incident energy from actual 480-V utility equipment to determine the most appropriate flame resistant clothing for utility workers. The equipment tested included self-contained and current transformer-rated meters, pad-mounted transformer secondary cubicles, power panels, and network protectors. Testing was performed to determine the sustainability of low-voltage arcs in actual utility equipment, to find the most appropriate calculation method to predict the measured incident energy, and to identify any key variables that would effect both duration and heat from this type of equipment. View full abstract»

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  • Classification of Hazardous Areas Produced by Maintenance Interventions on N.G. Distribution Networks and in the Presence of Open Surface of Flammable Liquid

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 593 - 602
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1087 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The safety and protection of workers is a duty of their employer. In case of the presence of hazardous areas due to the risk of explosion, an area classification has to be performed to identify the shape and size of the locations where an explosion may happen. Two typical cases that can produce hazardous areas are gas emissions from a containment system, because of normal operation or because of a failure, and vapor emissions from an open surface pool of flammable liquid. In this paper, two studies are presented: the first deals with the problem of natural gas releases during maintenance work on the gas distribution network, and the second with vapor emissions from a pool of flammable liquid. In the first case, experimental measures have been performed to easily calculate the size of the hazardous area; in the second case, computer simulations are used to derive a simplified model to determine it. The results of the two studies presented are examined and commented in the light of the International and national Standards. View full abstract»

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  • Assessment of Core Losses in a Flux-Modulating Synchronous Machine

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 603 - 611
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1622 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the core losses that occur in a 4-kVA flux-modulating synchronous machine (SM) (FMSM) are investigated using 2-D finite-element analysis, and the results are supported by experiments. A method for reducing the core losses is also presented. The FMSM is a new type of multipole SM in which the stator field magnetomotive force is modulated by the air-gap permeance to generate the rotating field. A 2pa-pole three-phase armature winding and a 2pf-pole field winding are centrally wound around individual stator teeth, and a reluctance rotor with 2pr (= pa + pf) saliencies is used to provide a magnetic coupling between these windings. As a result of the investigation, it was found that, although the core losses occur in the rotor as well as in the stator, the rotor core loss can be effectively reduced by decreasing the height of the rotor poles. View full abstract»

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  • Different Arrangements for Dual-Rotor Dual-Output Radial-Flux Motors

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 612 - 622
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2127 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes different arrangements for a dual-rotor, radial-flux, and permanent-magnet brushless dc motor for application to variable-speed air conditioners. In conventional air conditioners, two motors of appropriate ratings are usually used to drive the condenser and evaporator separately. Alternatively, a motor with two output shafts may be employed, and this is studied here. The motor has inner and outer rotors with a stator in between which is toroidally wound or axially wound with inner and outer slotted stator surfaces. The power sharing on the two rotors is designed to meet the requirement of the condenser and evaporator. Finite element analysis (FEA) is employed to verify the designs. A prototype is made and tested to evaluate the performance. Alternative windings are investigated to assess the possibilities of decoupling the rotors so that they run independently. In the final section, a new and novel arrangement is proposed, where one three-phase winding set and one two-phase winding set (both toroidal) are wound on the same stator to control two rotors of different pole numbers. The two winding sets can be bifilar or share the same set of phase windings. This design simplifies the winding (because it is toroidal) and reduces the copper loss or amount of copper required. The design is tested using FEA solutions, and the initial results indicate that this machine could operate successfully. View full abstract»

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  • Magnetic Characteristics and Core Losses in Machine Laminations: High-Frequency Loss Prediction From Low-Frequency Measurements

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 623 - 629
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (851 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    To study the fundamental essence of core losses and to achieve an accurate core loss separation formula, a dynamic finite-element model for the nonlinear hysteresis loop of laminations has been established. In the model, Maxwell's equations are solved for the hysteresis character in the magnetic lamination, using the Galerkin finite-element method, where the hysteresis is represented by an energetic hysteresis model. Based on the simulation results, the magnetic characteristics, skin effect, time delay, and magnetic field distribution are discussed. Then, core losses, particularly excess losses, affected by the magnetic characteristics are carefully examined. It is concluded that excess current loss formula is only applicable for the cases where skin effect is negligible and the sum of hysteresis losses and eddy current losses can more generally represent total losses. View full abstract»

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  • Fractional-Slot Concentrated-Winding Axial-Flux Permanent-Magnet Machine With Core-Wound Coils

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 630 - 641
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1659 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the design, finite-element analysis (FEA), and experimental verification of a single-stator double-rotor fractional-slot concentrated-winding axial-flux permanent-magnet machine with core-wound coils. The advantages that are obtained by adopting such coil construction in terms of shorter end-winding connections higher fill factor, and mechanical robustness of the magnetic structure are highlighted. Machine performances both at no load and at rated load are analyzed through static FEA, and a simple index is introduced to compare induced losses in the permanent magnets for various machine configurations. Time-stepped transient FEA is used to validate the index. The construction and experimental testing of a full-scale prototype is described to confirm the expected performances and to characterize the prototype in terms of losses (both at no-load and in loaded conditions), cogging torque, and main machine parameters. View full abstract»

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  • Influence of Parallel Paths on Current-Regulated Sine-Wave Interior-Permanent-Magnet Machines With Rotor Eccentricity

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 642 - 652
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2039 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The behavior of rotor eccentricities in current-regulated interior-permanent-magnet machines is investigated. The study focuses on two typical topologies of significant industrial relevance: machines with distributed windings with two slots per pole and phase and motors with concentrated coils and three slots per pole pair. The effect of stator-winding parallel paths is examined for both cases. Coil and terminal electrical quantities and radial forces were simulated using finite-element analysis. Unbalanced operation, where the currents are not equal in parallel phase connections due to eccentricity, is also investigated. Experimental measurements of electrical quantities and forces on motors with static eccentricity are carried out using two special test setups. The experimental measurements validated the simulation results. View full abstract»

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  • A New Method for Power Converter Fault Diagnosis in SRM Drives

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 653 - 662
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1150 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new fault diagnostic technique applied to switched reluctance motor drives, based on the analysis of the power converter supply current. A fault is detected when the measured amplitude of the dc bus current differs from its expected amplitude, assuming normal operating conditions. The information about phase currents amplitudes and the control commands of all power switches permit to easily estimate the amplitude of the power converter supply current, since an asymmetric bridge converter is used. Simulation and experimental results are presented. Open- and short-circuit fault occurrences in the converter power switches are considered and analyzed. The proposed technique can early detect these fault occurrences and can also identify the affected motor phase. In almost all situations, the faulty element is also identified. An early fault diagnosis, with an accurate fault identification, is of a paramount importance since it permits the early adoption of fault-tolerant procedures that minimize the fault impact on the machine operation. View full abstract»

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  • Model Predictive Pulse Pattern Control

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 663 - 676
    Cited by:  Papers (26)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1582 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Industrial applications of medium-voltage drives impose increasingly stringent performance requirements, particularly with regard to harmonic distortions of the phase currents of the controlled electrical machine. An established method to achieve very low current distortions during steady-state operation is to employ offline calculated optimized pulse patterns (OPP). Achieving high dynamic performance, however, proves to be very difficult in a system operated by OPPs. In this paper, we propose a method that combines the optimal steady-state performance of OPPs with the very fast dynamics of trajectory tracking control. A constrained optimal control problem with a receding horizon policy, i.e., model predictive control (MPC), is formulated and solved. Results show that the combination of MPC with OPPs satisfies both the strict steady-state as well as the dynamic performance requirements imposed by the most demanding industrial applications. The estimation of the fundamental components of the machine variables separately from their respective harmonic components is not required. As a result, complicated structures such as observers can be avoided, contrary to state-of-the-art methods. A further advantage of the MPC method is the use of a receding horizon policy, which provides feedback and a high degree of robustness. View full abstract»

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  • Sensorless Control of Brushless DC Motors With Torque Constant Estimation for Home Appliances

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 677 - 684
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1640 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new sensorless control algorithm for brushless dc motors (BLDCMs) is proposed in this paper. The torque constant of a BLDCM is used as a reference signal for position detection because it is constant during the entire speed range and can be estimated by calculating the ratio of the back electromotive force (EMF) to the rotor speed. By using both a disturbance observer and the torque constant estimation error, the rotor speed can be obtained. The back EMF can be easily obtained from the voltage equation of the BLDCM. The estimated back EMF decreases simultaneously with the estimated torque constant at the commutation point. By using this phenomenon, the commutation of the phase currents can be done automatically at the drop point of the estimated torque constant. Unlike conventional back-EMF-based methods, the proposed method provides highly accurate sensorless operation even under low speeds because only the drop of the torque constant is used for position detection and current commutation. Therefore, the position accuracy is not affected by the electric parameter errors of the BLDCM. Also, this algorithm does not require an additional hardware circuit for position detection. The validity of the proposed algorithm is verified through several experiments. View full abstract»

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  • A New Universal Isolated Converter for Grid Connection

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 685 - 696
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1699 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes an isolated universal-link ac-ac power converter suitable for grid connection. The proposed power converter can have multiple ports to connect various loads or electric energy sources, and the configuration can be arranged according to the situation. The proposed power converter does not need to employ the large interface inductor at input side and the huge electrolytic capacitor at dc link. Moreover, it utilizes high-frequency transformers for the galvanic isolation instead of bulky line-frequency transformers. These characteristics of the proposed power converter result in the reduction of the system volume and weight remarkably. The proposed power converter is the modular structure, and an H-bridge works as a basic module of the converter. By stacking the modules, the power converter can be adapted to the high-voltage grid and the various types of loads and/or sources. This paper addresses the structure of the proposed power converter and the fundamental principle of power flow. The operation of the proposed converter is verified by both computer simulations and experimental results with a laboratory-level prototype system. View full abstract»

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  • Space Vector PWM Technique for a Three-to-Five-Phase Matrix Converter

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 697 - 707
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1660 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Variable-speed multiphase (more than three phases) drive systems are seen as serious contenders to the existing three-phase drives due to their distinct advantages. Supply to the multiphase drives is invariably given from a voltage source inverter. However, this paper proposes an alternative solution for supplying multiphase drive system using a direct ac-ac converter called a matrix converter. This paper proposes the pulsewidth modulation (PWM) algorithm for the matrix converter topology with three-phase grid input and five-phase variable-voltage and variable-frequency output. The PWM control technique developed and presented in this paper is based on space vector approach. This paper presents the complete space vector model of the three-to-five-phase matrix converter topology. The space vector model yield 215 total switching combinations which reduce to 243 states considering the imposed constraints, out of which 240 are active and 3 are zero vectors. However, for space vector PWM (SVPWM) implementation, only 90 active and 3 zero vectors can be used. The SVPWM algorithm is presented in this paper. The viability of the proposed solution is proved using analytical, simulation, and experimental approaches. View full abstract»

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  • Power Electronics Converters for Wind Turbine Systems

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 708 - 719
    Cited by:  Papers (107)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1687 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The steady growth of installed wind power together with the upscaling of the single wind turbine power capability has pushed the research and development of power converters toward full-scale power conversion, lowered cost pr kW, increased power density, and also the need for higher reliability. In this paper, power converter technologies are reviewed with focus on existing ones and on those that have potential for higher power but which have not been yet adopted due to the important risk associated with the high-power industry. The power converters are classified into single- and multicell topologies, in the latter case with attention to series connection and parallel connection either electrical or magnetic ones (multiphase/windings machines/transformers). It is concluded that as the power level increases in wind turbines, medium-voltage power converters will be a dominant power converter configuration, but continuously cost and reliability are important issues to be addressed. View full abstract»

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  • Negative-Sequence Reactive-Power Control by a PWM STATCOM Based on a Modular Multilevel Cascade Converter (MMCC-SDBC)

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 720 - 729
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (773 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the application of a modular multilevel cascade converter based on single-delta bridge cells (SDBCs) to a STATic synchronous COMpensator (STATCOM), particularly for negative-sequence reactive-power control. The SDBC is characterized by cascade connection of multiple single-phase H-bridge (or full bridge) converter cells per leg, thus facilitating flexible circuit design, low-voltage steps, and low-electromagnetic-interference emissions. This paper designs, constructs, and tests a 100-V 5-kVA pulsewidth-modulated STATCOM based on the SDBC, with focus on the operating principle and performance. Experimental results verify that it can control not only positive-sequence reactive power but also negative-sequence reactive power and low-frequency active power intended for flicker compensation of arc furnaces. View full abstract»

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  • Capacity Credit of Wind Generation Based on Minimum Resource Adequacy Procurement

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 730 - 735
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (300 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Different from conventional generation, the renewable resource, such as wind or solar generation, is energy limited and intermittent. It is challenging to identify the capacity credit of renewable generation. A new method has been proposed in this paper to determine the capacity credit for renewable resource in the framework of resource adequacy. An optimization model is developed first to calculate the minimum resource procurement based on the system loss of load expectation criterion. Then, renewable generation is added into the generation portfolio to identify the new resource procurement. The capacity credit of the renewable generation is the reduction in the procurement requirement for the conventional resource. The proposed model and method are demonstrated on the IEEE Reliability Test System system. View full abstract»

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  • A Method for Online Capacity Estimation of Lithium Ion Battery Cells Using the State of Charge and the Transferred Charge

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 736 - 741
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (583 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a method to estimate the capacity of individual lithium ion battery cells during operation is presented. When having two different states of charge of a battery cell as well as the transferred charge between these two states, the capacity of the battery cell can be estimated. The method is described in detail and validated on a battery cell with a current pulse test cycle. It is then applied to a real-life cycle; the accuracy is analyzed and discussed. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Loaded-Resonant Converter for the Application of DC-to-DC Energy Conversions

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 742 - 749
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (669 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Among the many advantages that resonant power conversion has over conventionally adopted pulse-width modulation include a low electromagnetic interference, low switching losses, small volume, and light weight of components due to a high switching frequency, high efficiency, and low reverse-recovery losses in diodes owing to a low di/dt at switching instant. This work presents a novel loaded-resonant converter for direct current (dc)-to-dc energy conversion applications. The proposed topology comprises a half-bridge inductor-capacitor-inductor (L-C-L) resonant inverter and a bridge rectifier. Output stage of the proposed loaded-resonant converter is filtered by a low-pass filter. A prototype dc-to-dc energy converter circuit with the novel loaded-resonant converter designed for a load is developed and tested to verify its analytical predictions. The measured energy conversion efficiency of the proposed novel loaded-resonant topology reaches up to 88.3%. Moreover, test results demonstrate a satisfactory performance of the proposed topology. Furthermore, the proposed topology is highly promising for applications of power electronic productions such as switching power supplies, battery chargers, uninterruptible power systems, renewable energy generation systems, and telecom power supplies. View full abstract»

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  • Resolution-Level-Controlled WM Inverter for PMG-Based Wind Energy Conversion System

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 750 - 763
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1657 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the development, implementation, and performance testing of a permanent-magnet generator (PMG)-based wind energy conversion system (WECS) for grid-connected applications. The grid-connected operation is constructed using the new three-phase resolution-level-controlled wavelet-modulated inverter. The output of the wind generator is fed to a switch-mode ac-dc converter, where the dc voltage is controlled to ensure extracting power from the wind under variable wind speed conditions in order to meet the grid active and reactive power demands. The resolution-level control of the grid-side inverter is designed as a current controller for adjusting active and reactive powers delivered to the grid. The proposed WECS is implemented both in software and hardware for performance testing on a direct-drive 6-kW laboratory PMG operated with variable speed. Test results demonstrate that an accurate control of the dc voltage on the generator side ensures adjusting the generator speed to extract power at each wind speed in order to meet the demand active and reactive power delivery to the grid. Also, test results show significant abilities of the resolution-level controller to initiate fast and accurate adjustments in the active and reactive powers delivered to the grid in order to follow any changes in their demand values under variable wind speed. View full abstract»

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  • A New Measurement Method for Power Signatures of Nonintrusive Demand Monitoring and Load Identification

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 764 - 771
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (459 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Based upon the analysis of load signatures, this paper presents a nonintrusive load monitoring (NILM) technique. With a characterizing response associated with a transient energy signature, a reliable and accurate recognition result can be obtained. In this paper, artificial neural networks, in combination with turn-on transient energy analysis, are used to improve recognition accuracy and computational speed of NILM results. To minimize the distortion phenomenon in current measurements from the hysteresis of traditional current transformer (CT) iron cores, a coreless Hall CT is adopted to accurately detect nonsinusoidal waves to improve NILM accuracy. The experimental results indicate that the incorporation of turn-on transient energy algorithm into NILM significantly improve the recognition accuracy and the computational speed. View full abstract»

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  • Decanting the Data: The Gold Book Presents Equipment Reliability Refreshment

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 772 - 776
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (123 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Since the last publication of the Gold Book, a team of engineers and statisticians has been pouring over a mountain of data through a public-private partnership. This effort has compressed equipment reliability data from 223 sites-hospitals, utility plants, universities, and the like. This paper discusses the major results of the effort, the quantity of data extracted, and the process of incorporation into the existing IEEE database. View full abstract»

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  • Reliability of Data Centers by Tier Classification

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 777 - 783
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (403 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    When the concept of reliability began to formally become an integrated engineering approach in the 50s, reliability was associated with failure rate. Today the term “reliability” is used as an umbrella definition covering a variety of subjects including availability, durability, quality, and sometimes the function of the product. Reliability engineering was developed to quantify “how reliable” a component, product, or system was when used in a specific application for a specific period of time. The data center industry has come to rely on “tier classifications” as presented in a number of papers by the Uptime Institute as a gradient scale of data center configurations and requirements from least (Tier 1) to most reliable (Tier 4). This paper will apply the principles and modeling techniques of reliability engineering to specific examples of each of the tier classifications and discuss the results. A review of the metrics of reliability engineering being used will also be included. View full abstract»

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The scope of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS includes all scope items of the IEEE Industry Applications Society, that is, the advancement of the theory and practice of electrical and electronic engineering in the development, design, manufacture, and application of electrical systems, apparatus, devices, and controls to the processes and equipment of industry and commerce; the promotion of safe, reliable, and economic installations; industry leadership in energy conservation and environmental, health, and safety issues; the creation of voluntary engineering standards and recommended practices; and the professional development of its membership.

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