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Haptics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Jan.-March 2012

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Displaying Results 1 - 19 of 19
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): c1
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  • [Cover 2]

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): c2
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  • EIC Editorial

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 1 - 3
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  • Guest Editorial for Special Section on Consumer Electronics

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 4 - 5
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  • Electrotactile Feedback for Handheld Devices with Touch Screen and Simulation of Roughness

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 6 - 13
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    We present a novel electrotactile display that can be integrated into current handheld devices with touch screens. In this display, tactile information is presented to the fingertip of the user by transmitting small currents through electrodes. Experiments were conducted to investigate the perception of simulated textures using this electrotactile display technique. One fundamental feature of texture, which is the focus of this study, is roughness. The aim of the first experiment was to investigate the relationship between electrotactile stimulation parameters such as current and pulse frequency and the perception of roughness. An increase in the current magnitude resulted in an increase in perceived roughness. The aim of the second experiment was to investigate parameter combinations of electrotactile stimuli can be used to simulate textures. Subjects adjusted the intensity and frequency of the current stimuli until the simulated textures were perceived as being equal to reference textures such as sandpapers of varying grit numbers and grooved woods with varying groove widths. Subjects tended to find an electrotactile stimulus with a high current magnitude and a low pulse frequency more suitable to represent rough surfaces. They tended to find just-perceptible current magnitudes suitable for very smooth surfaces and did not show a preference for any frequency. View full abstract»

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  • Vibrotactile Rendering for a Traveling Vibrotactile Wave Based on a Haptic Processor

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 14 - 20
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Mobile device users can now experience diverse graphical content ranging from a simple static object to an object having complex dynamic behavior. A user who manipulates and plays with such “objects” wants to haptically “feel” the presence of a static object or the motion of a dynamic object. To satisfy this demand, we previously proposed a vibrotactile rendering method based on a vibrotactile traveling wave. Although the proposed method can haptically simulate the dynamic behavior of a target object, it is not easy to delicately generate the traveling vibrotactile wave. The reason is that the sampling rate of the haptic loop in the system determines the performance of the traveling vibrotactile wave. In this study, we develop a haptic processor that can control multiple motors, and furthermore we discuss how we could create traveling vibrotactile waves in mobile devices. View full abstract»

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  • Smooth Vibrotactile Flow Generation Using Two Piezoelectric Actuators

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 21 - 32
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    This paper proposes a method for generating a smooth directional vibrotactile flow on a thin plate. While actuating two piezoelectric actuators spatially across the plate, temporal sweeping of the input excitation frequency from zero to the first mode of the resonance frequency can smooth the perceived directional vibrotactile flow, as compared to a vibrotactile flow generated by conventional apparent tactile movement and phantom sensation methods. In order to ascertain important factors in the excitation pattern, a user study was conducted for three factors (amplitude (constant versus modulated), frequency (constant versus swept), and ending shape (sharp versus smooth)). The results showed that frequency sweeping in addition to amplitude modulation and smooth ending were the most important factors in smoothing vibrotactile flows. Moreover, an excitation signal with a smooth ending shape was important for generating nonspiky flows at the midpoint. In this study, a vibration isolation design is also proposed in order to substantially decrease the transmission of the actuator vibration to the mockup housing. As such, it is expected that the proposed vibrotactile flow generation method and vibration isolation design may be useful in applications including generating directional information in navigation maps or for identifying callers in mobile devices. View full abstract»

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  • Mobile Navigation Using Haptic, Audio, and Visual Direction Cues with a Handheld Test Platform

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 33 - 38
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (403 KB)  

    This paper reports on a series of user experiments evaluating the design of a multimodal test platform capable of rendering visual, audio, vibrotactile, and directional skin-stretch stimuli. The test platform is a handheld, wirelessly controlled device that will facilitate experiments with mobile users in realistic environments. Stimuli rendered by the device are fully characterized, and have little variance in stimulus onset timing. A series of user experiments utilizing navigational cues validates the function of the device and investigates the user response to all stimulus modes. Results show users are capable of interpreting all stimuli with high accuracy and can use the direction cues for mobile navigation. Tests included both stationary (seated) and mobile (walking a simple obstacle course) tasks. Accuracy and response time patterns are similar in both seated and mobile conditions. This device provides a means of designing and evaluating multimodal communication methods for handheld devices and will facilitate experiments investigating the effects of stimulus mode on device usability and situation awareness. View full abstract»

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  • Negative Feedback for Small Capacitive Touchscreen Interfaces: A Usability Study for Data Entry Tasks

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 39 - 47
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    Touchscreen technology has become pervasive in the consumer product arena over the last decade, offering some distinct advantages such as software reconfigurable interfaces and the removal of space consuming mice and keyboards. However, there are significant drawbacks to these devices that have limited their adoption by some users. Most notably, standard touchscreens demand the user's visual attention and require them to look at the input device to avoid pressing the wrong button. This issue is particularly important for mobile, capacitive sensing, nonstylus devices, such as the iPhone where small button sizes can generate high error rates. While previous work has shown the benefits of augmenting such interfaces with audio or vibrotactile feedback, only positive feedback (confirmation of button presses) has been considered. In this paper, we present a simple prototype interface that provides negative vibrotactile feedback. By negative, we mean feedback is generated when an inactive or ambiguous part of the screen, such as the area between two buttons, is touched. First, we present a usability study comparing positive and negative vibrotactile feedback for a benchmark numerical data entry task. The difference in performance is not statistically significant, implying negative feedback provides comparable benefits. Next, based on the experimenter's observations and the users comments, we introduce a multimodal feedback strategy-combining complementary positive audio and negative vibrotactile signals. User tests on a text entry experiment show that, with multimodal feedback, users exhibit a (statistically significant) 24 percent reduction in corrective key presses, as compared to positive audio feedback alone. Exit survey comments indicate that users favor multimodal feedback. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic Physical Constraints: Emulating Hard Surfaces with High Realism

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 48 - 57
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    In this paper, we present a novel haptic technique for emulating hard surfaces with high realism; such a technique has significant potential utility in certain orthopedic surgery applications such as joint replacement surgery where the goal is to prevent incursions beyond a virtual surface during bone cutting operations. The Dynamic Physical Constraint (DPC) concept uses a unidirectional physical constraint that is actively positioned to limit movement between two manipulator links; the concept is applicable to providing virtual constraints in both 2D and 3D workspaces. Simulation results demonstrate the potential feasibility of the concept, and a prototype device was built for testing. The DPC device provides a convincing sensation of a real, hard virtual surface which can be smoothly tracked when the end effector is in contact with the surface. Incursion across the surface with the prototype was well submillimetric and within the accuracy constraints required for joint replacement applications. View full abstract»

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  • Influence of Local Properties on the Perception of Global Object Orientation

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 58 - 65
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    In previous studies, the effect on perception of individual features such as curvature and edges have been studied with specifically designed stimuli. However, the effect of local properties on the perception of the global object has so far received little attention. In this study, cylinders with an elliptical cross section and rectangular blocks were used to investigate the effect and relative importance of curvature, change in curvature and edges, as local properties, on the ability of subjects to determine the orientation of the stimuli, which is a global property. We found that when curvature was present the threshold to determine the orientation was 43 percent lower than when curvature was absent. When, in addition, the change in curvature could be felt, the threshold was 37 percent lower than when only curvature could be felt. Finally, when edges were felt during exploration, the threshold increased by 46 percent compared to when the subjects were instructed to avoid the edges in the blocks. We conclude that the perception of curvature and change in curvature improve the performance of humans in perception of the whole shape, whereas edges, when not directly contributing to the task, disrupt performance. View full abstract»

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  • Perceptually Augmented Simulator Design

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 66 - 76
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    Training simulators have proven their worth in a variety of fields, from piloting to air-traffic control to nuclear power station monitoring. Designing surgical simulators, however, poses the challenge of creating trainers that effectively instill not only high-level understanding of the steps to be taken in a given situation, but also the low-level “muscle-memory” needed to perform delicate surgical procedures. It is often impossible to build an ideal simulator that perfectly mimics the haptic experience of a surgical procedure, but by focussing on the aspects of the experience that are perceptually salient we can build simulators that effectively instill learning. We propose a general method for the design of surgical simulators that augment the perceptually salient aspects of an interaction. Using this method, we can increase skill-transfer rates without requiring expensive improvements in the capability of the rendering hardware or the computational complexity of the simulation. In this paper, we present our decomposition-based method for surgical simulator design, and describe a user-study comparing the training effectiveness of a haptic-search-task simulator designed using our method versus an unaugmented simulator. The results show that perception-based task decomposition can be used to improve the design of surgical simulators that effectively impart skill by targeting perceptually significant aspects of the interaction. View full abstract»

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  • Rendering Virtual Tumors in Real Tissue Mock-Ups Using Haptic Augmented Reality

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 77 - 84
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
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    Haptic augmented reality (AR) is an emerging research area, which targets the modulation of haptic properties of real objects by means of virtual feedback. In our research, we explore the feasibility of using this technology for medical training systems. As a possible demonstration example, we currently examine the use of augmentation in the context of breast tumor palpation. The key idea in our prototype system is to augment the real feedback of a silicone breast mock-up with simulated forces stemming from virtual tumors. In this paper, we introduce and evaluate the underlying algorithm to provide these force augmentations. This includes a method for the identification of the contact dynamics model via measurements on real sample objects. The performance of our augmentation is examined quantitatively as well as in a user study. Initial results show that the haptic feedback of indenting a real silicone tumor with a rod can be approximated reasonably well with our algorithm. The advantage of such an augmentation approach over physical training models is the ability to create a nearly infinite variety of palpable findings. View full abstract»

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  • Virtual Active Touch: Perception of Virtual Gratings Wavelength through Pointing-Stick Interface

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 85 - 93
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1078 KB)  

    Tactile feedback enhances the usability and enjoyment of human-computer interfaces. Many feedback techniques have been devised to present tactile stimuli corresponding to a user's hand movements taking account of the concept of active touch. However, hand movements may not necessarily be required for achieving natural tactile feedback. Here, we propose a virtual-active-touch method that achieves haptic perception without actual/direct hand movements. In this method, a cursor manipulated by a force-input device is regarded as a virtual finger of the operator on the screen. Tactile feedback is provided to the operator in accordance with cursor movements. To validate the translation of virtual roughness gratings, we compare the virtual-active-touch interface with an interface that involves actual hand movements. By using the appropriate force-to-velocity gain for the pointing-stick interface, we show that the virtual-active-touch method presents the surface wavelengths of the gratings, which is a fundamental property for texture roughness, and that the gain significantly influences the textures experienced by the operators. Furthermore, we find that the perceived wavelengths of objects scaled and viewed on a small screen are skewed. We conclude that although some unique problems remain to be solved, we may be able to perceive the surface wavelengths solely with the intentions of active touch through virtual-active-touch interfaces. View full abstract»

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  • 2011 Reviewers List

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 94 - 95
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  • 2011 Annual Index

    Publication Year: 2012
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • What's new in Transactions [advertisement]

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 96
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  • [Cover3]

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): c3
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  • [Cover4]

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): c4
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Haptics addresses the science, technology and applications associated with information acquisition and object manipulation through touch.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Lynette Jones
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
77 Massachusetts Ave.
Cambridge, MA 02139
USA
Phone: 617-253-3973
Fax: 617-253-2218
Email: ljones@mit.edu
Website: http://meche.mit.edu/people/index.html?id=128

Associate Editor-in-Chief
Cagatay Basdogan
Koc University
College of Engineering
Istanbul, 34450 Turkey
Phone: 902123381721