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Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date March 2012

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  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology publication information

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 357 - 358
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  • Effects of Conductive Particles on the Electrical Stability and Reliability of Anisotropic Conductive Film Chip-on-Board Interconnections

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 359 - 366
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2417 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The effects of conductive particles on the electrical stability and reliability of anisotropic conductive film (ACF) joints for chip-on-board applications were investigated. In this paper, two types of conductive particles were prepared. One was a conventional Ni/Au-coated polymer ball, and the other was a Ni/Au-coated polymer ball with Ni/Au-projections. According to the results of a nano-indentation experiment of a conductive particle, the elastic recovery of a single conductive particle decreased as the applied load and the deformation of the conductive particle increased. The evaluated conductive particles which had the same polymer core showed the similar load-deformation behaviors regardless of the existence of Ni/Au-projections. The contact resistances of ACF joints using each conductive particle as a function of bonding pressure were measured, and the results showed that the contact resistances of ACF joints with the metal-projection-type conductive particles were lower and more stable than those with the conventional conductive particles. Especially at lower bonding pressure, ACF joints with the metal-projection-type conductive particles were much more stable and had lower contact resistances than the conventional ACF joints. According to the results of thermal cycling (T/C) reliability test, the metal-projection-type conductive particles also enhanced T/C reliability of ACF joints when compared with the conventional conductive particles. View full abstract»

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  • Air Cavity Transmission Lines for Off-Chip Interconnects Characterized to 40 GHz

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 367 - 374
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1009 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, air cavity transmission lines are integrated into printed circuit boards and packages to enable high-speed low-loss chip-to-chip communication. Microstripline and parallel plate structures with copper conductors separated by an air gap dielectric layer are described. The structures use a sacrificial placeholder material along with conventional microelectronics techniques to create a unique buried copper- air-copper microstripline structure. Transmission lines were characterized by S-parameter measurements to 40 GHz. The capacitance was tracked during fabrication to analyze the impact of the air gap. The effective dielectric constant of the final buried copper-air-copper structure was as low as 1.25. View full abstract»

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  • Ultra-Compact WiMAX Bandpass Filter Embedded Into a Printed Circuit Board With a {\rm SrTiO}_{3} Composite Layer

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 375 - 382
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1136 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An ultra-compact bandpass filter has been developed for 2.3-2.7 GHz worldwide interoperability used for microwave access applications. The proposed filter was fully embedded into a multilayered printed circuit board (PCB) with a high dielectric strontium titanate (SrTiO3) composite film layer. In order to reduce the size of the filter and to avoid unwanted 3-D electromagnetic coupling between the embedded passive filter circuit elements, the proposed filter was designed using J-inverter transformation technology. Two grounding via inductors and a single grounding capacitor were also utilized to generate three independent finite transmission zeros to enhance the rejection characteristics at the proper frequency bands. Since the J-inverter transformed filter circuit elements could be designed with relatively small inductance and large capacitance values, the high dielectric composite film was highly effective in reducing the size and improving the performance of the filter. The high dielectric film exhibited a dielectric constant of 17, a tangent loss of 0.01, and a capacitance density of 12.2 pF/mm2 at 1 GHz. The measured maximum insertion loss in the passband ranged from 2.3 to 2.7 GHz was better than 1.8 dB, with a minimum value of 1.58 dB at 2.6 GHz. The return loss was higher than 15 dB in the passband. The transmission zeros occurred at 1.71 and 5.1 GHz, and provided suppressions of 45 dB at 1.71 GHz, and 54 dB at 5.1 GHz, respectively. The measured group delay was less than 0.8 ns in the passband. The embedded bandpass filter had a volume of 2.6 × 2.6 × 0.55 (H) mm3, which is the smallest one found, compared to previously reported devices, the filter, embedded into the eight-layered packaging substrate with the high dielectric composite layer, dramatically reduced the size up to 56%, and its performance was also much improved in comparison to the one embedded into a conventional six- layered PCB. View full abstract»

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  • Mechanisms of Spiking and Humping in Keyhole Welding

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 383 - 394
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1450 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The effects of power density, concentration of volatile alloying element (magnesium, Mg), and welding speed on the mechanisms of fusion-zone defects, i.e., spiking and humping (and coarse rippling) during keyhole mode electron-beam welding of Al 6061, Al 5083, and SS 304 are investigated experimentally. Spiking represents a sudden increase in penetration beyond the average penetration line. Rippling exhibits rather regular, arc-shaped topographic features on a solidified surface, whereas humping shows an irregular surface contour consisting of a series of swelled protuberance. These defects seriously reduce the properties and strength of the joint. The quantitative variations of humping, coarse rippling, and spiking defects with the beam-focusing characteristics, volatile element, and scanning speed are quite limited in the literature. The experiments in this paper confirm that average pitch of the humps or coarse ripples is approximately identical to that of the spikes. Thus, the frequency of spiking can be determined from the observation of the weld surface. The results show that the average pitches and amplitudes of humping or coarse rippling and spiking increase with decreasing welding speed and increasing content of volatile element Mg from Al 5083. The frequency and amplitude of spiking, however, are increased by lowering the focal-spot location. The measured amplitude and frequency of spiking and humping and fusion-zone depth are confirmed from good agreement with available scaled analysis. This paper provides quantitative results useful for understanding mechanisms of these defects, so that preventing spiking and humping during keyhole mode welding becomes possible. View full abstract»

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  • Robust Superhydrophobic Surfaces Prepared With Epoxy Resin and Silica Nanoparticles

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 395 - 401
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    When nanoparticles are incorporated into surfaces to generate roughness, adhesion of the particles is critical to achieve a durable superhydrophobic surface. In this investigation, we explored the use of bis-phenol A based epoxy and silica nanoparticles to form a composite layer on substrates. After an plasma treatment of the surface layer, the epoxy was etched away and silica nanoparticles exposed on the surface, thereby generating roughness. The plasma etching time was examined to correlate the resulting surface morphology and water droplet contact angles after a fluoroalkyl silane treatment. Surface mechanical stability was studied by an abrasion test. Water vapor condensation on the surface was also assessed by investigation of the contact angle, which offers insight into the applicability of the surfaces to use under hot and humid conditions where degradation of the superhydrophobic surfaces may occur. View full abstract»

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  • Design, Fabrication, and Reliability of Low-Cost Flip-Chip-On-Board Package for Commercial Applications up to 50 GHz

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 402 - 409
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1746 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a flip-chip-on-board (FCOB) packaging technology using a Rogers RO3210 laminate for microwave applications. Compared to the conventional microwave packaging architecture, the proposed FCOB technology skips one level of the ceramic package and thus results in lower reflections and manufacturing costs. To fulfill the small dimension requirement on printed circuit boards, the coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission line and flip-chip bump were fabricated on a high-k RO3210 board (εr = 10.2) with photolithography and electroplating. The GaAs chip patterned with the CPW line was then flip-chip-mounted onto the RO3210 laminate board. This structure displayed excellent performance from dc to 50 GHz with a return loss Sn greater than 18 dB and insertion loss S21 less than 0.5 dB. Meanwhile, the flip-chip bonding of the in-house-fabricated In0.52Al0.4sAs/In0.6Ga0.4As metamorphic high-electron-mobility transistor devices on RO3210 also displayed excellent gain performance with a small degradation of 1 dB from dc to 40 GHz, showing the potential of implementing microwave integrated circuits on RO3210. To enhance the mechanical reliability, an epoxy-based underfill was injected into the flip-chip assemblies. Thermal cycling tests were performed to test the interconnect reliability, and the results indicated that the samples passed the thermal cycling test at least up to 600 cycles, showing excellent reliability for commercial applications. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study that evaluates the use of the RO3210 laminate for microwave flip-chip in open literature. View full abstract»

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  • Fabrication of 3-D Metamaterials Using LTCC Techniques for High-Frequency Applications

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 410 - 417
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1675 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Metamaterials are artificially engineered metallo-dielectric microstructures that display strong resonance behavior although their electrical size is . Individually they behave like LC oscillators and collectively they give rise to effective permittivity and permeability that are highly dispersive in the resonance region and may even become negative. In this paper, metamaterials with 3-D interconnects are designed for low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) fabrication. The fabricated materials are characterized experimentally using a free-space measurement system in the 33-110 GHz range. Dupont 951 is chosen as the substrate with silver ink for metallization. Three-layer and five-layer samples were fabricated. The fabricated samples exhibit electric resonance, magnetic resonance, or both, depending on the orientation and geometry of the metallic microstructure. The materials are passive and may be modeled using series and/or parallel LC circuits. LTCC metamaterials are proposed for packaging applications in microwave integrated circuits that may require embedded passive inductors, capacitors, resistor elements, and circuits that are functional at required frequencies and are inactive at other frequencies. View full abstract»

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  • Suppression of Vertical Electromagnetic Coupling in Multilayer Packages

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 418 - 429
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    This paper proposes an effective approach to suppress vertical electromagnetic (EM) coupling in multilayer packages operating at GHz frequencies. In the case of packages with embedded actives where there are large apertures (die sized) in the metal planes and cavities in dielectric layers to accommodate the chips, the effect of EM field coupling is significant. The method involves EM band-gap structures for suppressing vertical coupling and the isolation band can be tuned over different frequency ranges. In addition, this paper puts forth a methodology for predicting the frequency range of the isolation band achieved by the coupling suppression technique. The proposed methodology is demonstrated through simulations and measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Review of test methods used for the measurement of hermeticity in packages containing small cavities

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 430 - 438
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a critical review of the traditional and newly proposed test methods used for the measurement of hermeticity in packages with very small cavity volumes. Closed-form expressions of the minimum and maximum true leak rates achievable are provided for the helium fine leak test method. These expressions are shown to provide practical guidelines for the accurate testing of hermeticity for ultrasmall packages. A portfolio of hermeticity test methods is also presented outlining the limitations and advantages of each method. View full abstract»

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  • Drop-Shock Failure Prediction in Electronic Packages by Using Peridynamic Theory

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 439 - 447
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    Peridynamic (PD) theory is used to investigate the dynamic responses of electronic packages subjected to impact loading arising from drop-shock. The capability of the PD theory to predict failure is demonstrated by simulating a drop test experiment of a laboratory-type package. The failure predictions and observations are exceptionally similar. For the drop test simulation of a production-type package, the finite element method (FEM) and PD theory are coupled via a submodeling approach. The global modeling is performed using the FEM while the PD theory is employed for the submodeling and failure prediction. The analysis yielded the outermost solder joint as the critical joint, with failure at the interface between the solder and copper pad on the printed circuit board side. View full abstract»

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  • Transient Frequency-Domain Thermal Measurements With Applications to Electronic Packaging

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 448 - 456
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5653 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Non-uniform power distribution, increased die-size, and multiple-chip modules present new challenges for the thermal management of modern integrated circuit (IC) packages. Thermal characterization techniques capable of resolving partial thermal resistances at the component level have received increased emphasis in development of advanced packaging technologies. This paper aims to develop a practical method for thermal characterization of IC packages using the frequency-domain measurement technique as a complementary technique to the widely used time-domain thermal transient measurement technique. This paper discusses practical implementation of the technique and demonstrates both thermal modeling and experimental results. Thermal impedances measured in frequency-domain yield the structure function, which describes the dynamic thermal response of the device based on thermal RC network analysis. Various applications of this technique in thermal characterization of the IC packages subjected to field conditions are also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Heat Sink in Presence of a Synthetic Jet

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 457 - 463
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (478 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The heat transfer characteristics of a typical heat sink used in conjunction with an impinging synthetic jet are experimentally investigated in this paper. The experiments are conducted for several excitation frequencies, different shapes of the synthetic jet orifice having the same hydraulic diameter, and several axial distances from the tip of heat sink fins to the orifice plate. In addition, experiments with a fan placed on top of the heat sink are conducted at different input powers to the fan and for different axial distances. The performance of the heat sink in terms of the overall thermal resistance is documented. The heat transfer coefficient with the heat sink is found to be approximately four times greater with the impinging synthetic jet with the impinging synthetic jet than that for the bare surface. Different shapes of the orifice with identical hydraulic diameter have negligible effect on the thermal performance of the heat sink. The synthetic jet is deduced to perform better than a continuous jet but worse than a commercial fan. These results of an impinging synthetic jet on a heat sink have not been reported earlier and are expected to have practical utility. View full abstract»

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  • Thermal Management of Electronics Using PCM-Based Heat Sink Subjected to Cyclic Heat Load

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 464 - 473
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (922 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Designing a heat sink based on a phase change material (PCM) under cyclic loading is a critical issue. For cyclic operation, it is required that the fraction of the PCM melting during the heating cycle should completely resolidify during the cooling period, so that that thermal storage unit can be operated for an unlimited number of cycles. Accordingly, studies are carried out to find the parameters influencing the behavior of a PCM under cyclic loading. A number of parameters are identified in the process, the most important ones being the duty cycle and heat transfer coefficient (h) for cooling. The required h or the required cooling period for complete resolidification for infinite cyclic operation of a conventional PCM-based heat sink is found to be very high and unrealistic with air cooling from the surface. To overcome this problem, the conventional design is modified where h and the area exposed to heat transfer can be independently controlled. With this arrangement, the enhanced area provided for cooling keeps h within realistic limits. Analytical investigation is carried out to evaluate the thermal performance of this modified PCM-based heat sink in comparison to those with conventional designs. Experiments are also performed on both the conventional and the modified PCM-based heat sinks to validate the new findings. View full abstract»

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  • Thermoelectric Module-Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Assemblies for Reduced Power Temperature Control

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 474 - 482
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (558 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Thermoelectric modules (TEMs) are used to precisely maintain the setpoint temperature of photonic components generating variable heat loads under varying ambient conditions. The non-component side of TEMs is mounted onto conventional heat sinks (CHSs). At any combination of setpoint temperature, heat load and ambient temperature, there is a unique thermal resistance between the non-component side of a TEM and the ambient corresponding to minimal TEM power consumption. Indeed, a zero thermal resistance heat sink minimizes power consumption when a TEM operates in refrigeration mode, but when it operates in heating mode a relatively high thermal resistance one is optimal. This paper considers replacing a CHS with a variable thermal resistance heat sink in the form of a finned variable conductance heat pipe (FVCHP). An FVCHP passively and (generally) favorably alters its thermal resistance in response to changes in operating conditions, thereby reducing TEM power consumption. An analytical model of a TEM-FVCHP assembly is developed in order to quantitatively estimate achievable energy savings. The model assumes that there is 1-D flow of heat and charge through a TEM and that a “flat front” divides the condenser section of an FVCHP into thermally active and inactive regions. Calculations are performed for representative TEM-FVCHP assemblies that maintain the setpoint temperature of a photonics component over prescribed ranges of heat loads and ambient temperatures. Average TEM power consumption is reduced by up to 55% compared to a comparable TEM-CHS assembly. Finally, further optimization of the TEM and FVCHP design parameters is considered. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal Design of Thermoelectric Refrigerators Embedded in a Thermal Resistance Network

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 483 - 495
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (848 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Thermoelectric refrigeration offers advantages (e.g., no moving parts) over other refrigeration technologies. However, because maximum performance (i.e., heat load for a specified temperature drop below ambient temperature or vice versa) and efficiency (i.e., coefficient of performance) are relatively low, it is important to realize them. It is shown that the cross-sectional area of the semiconductor pellets in a thermoelectric module (TEM) operating in refrigeration mode does not affect its performance or efficiency, but may be sized to tune its operating current and voltage. Then, a procedure is provided to determine the height of the pellets which maximizes performance. Next, it is shown that a range of pellet heights accommodates a specified performance below the maximum one and a procedure is provided to compute that corresponding to maximum efficiency. A thermal resistance boundary condition is applied between the interface in a TEM where Peltier cooling occurs and the control point where it maintains the temperature of a component or medium below ambient temperature. Thermal resistance boundary conditions are also applied between the control point and its local ambient and the interface in a TEM where Peltier heating occurs and its local ambient. The analysis is generalized by using flux-based quantities where applicable and it accounts for the electrical contact resistance at the interconnects in a TEM. Implementation of the optimization procedures are illustrated and the ramifications of the results are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Impact of Isothermal Aging and Sn Grain Orientation on the Long-Term Reliability of Wafer-Level Chip-Scale Package Sn–Ag–Cu Solder Interconnects

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 496 - 501
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1085 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The interaction between isothermal aging and the long-term reliability of wafer-level chip-scale packages with Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (wt%) solder ball interconnects is investigated. On isothermally aging at 100 and 150°C for 500 h and then thermally cycling from 0 to 100°C with 10 min of dwell time, the lifetime of the package is reduced by approximately 29%, depending on the aging condition. The microstructural evolution is observed during thermal aging and thermal cycling using orientation image microscopy. A Sn grain orientation structure transformation is observed. Different mechanisms after aging at various conditions are identified, and their impacts on the fatigue life of solder joints discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical Characterization of Advanced MIM Capacitors With {\rm ZrO}_{2} Insulator for High-Density Packaging and RF Applications

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 502 - 509
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1596 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with the electrical and wideband frequency characterizations of metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitors integrating the medium-k material ZrO2. First, the in situ material electrical properties are characterized in a frequency range from dc up to 5 GHz by using a microstrip waveguide method. The loss tangent and the permittivity are extracted with frequencies up to 5 GHz. We then investigate the evolution with frequency of the electrical parameters, such as capacitance density, quality factor, temperature coefficient of capacitance, voltage coefficient of capacitance, and cut-off frequency for MIM capacitors which incorporate ZrO2 dielectric layers with thickness from 10 to 45 nm. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient Method for Modeling of SSN Using Time-Domain Impedance Function and Noise Suppression Analysis

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 510 - 520
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    In this paper, a new method is proposed to model the simultaneous switching noise (SSN) using time-domain impedance function, which is based on the rational function in time domain. The time-domain impedance function of a power delivery network (PDN) is calculated by approximating the impedance frequency response of a PDN with a rational function, and the SSN is calculated based on switching current characteristics, which is verified by advanced design system, Hspice and measurements. Based on time-domain impedance function, the SSN suppression is also investigated, and it is found that the SSN produced by periodic switching current can be suppressed through adjusting the periods of time-domain impedance function and switching current, and a principle for random switching current is also given to prevent the occurrence of the worst case of SSN in circuit design. View full abstract»

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  • Effects of Ultrasonic Power and Time on Bonding Strength and Interfacial Atomic Diffusion During Thermosonic Flip–Chip Bonding

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 521 - 526
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (882 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, bonding strength of thermosonic flip-chip (FC) bonding was tested by a Dage 4000 bonding tester, atomic diffusion of bonding interfaces was detected by a scanning transmission electron microscope, and deformation of the bumps was observed by X-ray inspection system. Experimental results show that moderate ultrasonic power (about 4 W) results in higher shear strength of FC interfaces, while excessively high ultrasonic power induces larger displacement of vibration to damage bonding performance. Appropriate ultrasonic bonding time (about 100 ms) leads to the optimal thickness of atomic diffusion at the interfaces (about 200 nm) and better bonding bump shear strength with an average of 75 g. Overlong ultrasonic bonding time obviously aggravates the deformation of the bumps, which reduces bonding precision, thickens the thickness of atomic diffusion at the interfaces and damages the bonding strength. So, optimized parameters of ultrasonic power of 4 W and ultrasonic bonding time of 100 ms are proposed to improve the quality and performance of FC bonding. View full abstract»

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  • Sn–Cu–Ni Soldering Process Optimization Using Multivariate Analysis

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 527 - 535
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (850 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    One lead free solder candidate, Sn-Ag-Cu305 (Sn96.5/Ag3.0/Cu0.5), has come into widespread use as a replacement for traditional tin-lead solder (Sn63/Pb37). However, the price of silver has increased dramatically in recent years. This has increased manufacturing costs, impacting firm competitiveness. This paper evaluates the performance of the low cost Sn-Cu-Ni solder alloy used for wave soldering. Sample products for several applications are used to assess critical factors in the wave soldering process. A principal component analysis was performed in this paper to integrate multiple quality characteristics, namely assembly yield and solder joint strength, for process development. As a result, a parameter combination of 270 soldering temperature and 8 s dwell time is recommended. A test vehicle with daisy-chain circuitry design is used to investigate the performance of samples prepared by the optimal process. Samples are subject to the thermal cycling test. The performance of the recommended process is therefore verified. View full abstract»

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    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 536
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  • IEEE Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology Society information for authors

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): C3
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology publishes research and application articles on modeling, design, building blocks, technical infrastructure, and analysis underpinning electronic, photonic and MEMS packaging.

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Managing Editor
R. Wayne Johnson
Auburn University