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Micro & Nano Letters, IET

Issue 2 • Date Feb. 2012

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Displaying Results 1 - 24 of 24
  • Electromagnetic bistable microactuator fabricated on a single wafer

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 99 - 100
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (327 KB)  

    An electromagnetic bistable microactuator fabricated on a single wafer is presented. Its overall size is 3×3×1×mm. Tested results show that the bistable state of the device is realised by 5 V voltage pulse and held by the permanent magnet without current. The response time is 0.96×ms with a large displacement of 160××m. View full abstract»

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  • One-pot protocol for the synthesis of PbS-Au heterodimers consisting of Au nanoparticle on PbS nanooctahedrons

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 101 - 104
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (292 KB)  

    PbS-Au heterodimer with Au nanoparticles grown on the tips of PbS nanooctahedrons has been successfully fabricated in ethylene glycol by a facile one-pot method. The morphology of the heterodimers could be changed by the displacement of the capping agent. The products were characterised by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometer analysis and UV-vis absorption spectra. Compared with traditional synthesis methods of the heterodimers, the one-pot process is facile for large-scale synthesis. Owing to the charge transition between the heterointerface, a broad absorption peak around 372-nm is observed in UV-vis absorption spectra. View full abstract»

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  • Bragg reflector formed on oxidised porous silicon

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 105 - 108
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (254 KB)  

    The manufacturing of a porous silicon Bragg reflector on P+ silicon substrate is investigated and the effects of oxidation on the Bragg reflector parameters is studied, notably the shift of the central wavelength after oxidation. This Letter shows how to anticipate the changes due to oxidation rather than to endure them. First, the variations in the refractive index and thickness after oxidation were studied. Then, from these measurements, an oxidised porous silicon Bragg reflector centred at 1550 nm was formed by anticipating the shift of central wavelength during oxidation. There was a good correlation between the experimental and theoretical spectra of the Bragg reflector. View full abstract»

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  • Nanocrystalline fluorine-substituted hydroxyapatite [Ca5(PO4)3(OH)1-xFx (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 1)] for biomedical applications: preparation and characterisation

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 109 - 114
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (442 KB)  

    Several fluorine-substituted hydroxyapatite ceramics with the general chemical formula Ca5(PO4)3(OH)1-xFx (0≤x≤1), where x=0.0 (hydroxyapatite; HA), x=0.41 (fluorhydroxyapatite; FHA1) and x=0.69 (fluorhydroxyapatite; FHA2) and x=0.98 (fluorapatite; FA), were synthesised via pH-cycling method. The powders were characterised by using scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and F-selective electrode. The TEM micrographs showed that the increasing of fluoride ion concentration will cause a reduction in the aspect ratio of the produced crystallites. The XRD analysis of the calcined powders showed that all of the synthesised powders were pure and their XRD patterns were similar together. Eventually, the FTIR results suggest that the fluorine has substituted instead of hydroxyl groups in the fluoridated hydroxyapatite samples. View full abstract»

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  • Biomimetic synthesis and characterisation of ZnS nanoparticles in aqueous solution of lysozyme

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 115 - 117
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (198 KB)  

    Zinc sulphide nanoparticles were prepared by a simple biomolecule-assisted biomimetic method at room temperature. X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the formation of a cubic zinc blende phase of ZnS nanocrystals. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed that the nanoparticles are nearly spherical in shape, with average diameter about 40 nm. The optical property of ZnS nanoparticles was studied by the ultraviolet visible spectrum. Different template concentrations of lysozyme are used to investigate the influence of biomolecule on the formation of nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study suggested ZnS nanoparticles can react with functional groups of lysozyme including -OH and -NH. View full abstract»

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  • Realisation of silicon piezoresistive accelerometer with proof mass-edge-aligned-flexures using wet anisotropic etching

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 118 - 121
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (378 KB)  

    This Letter presents simulation, fabrication and testing of a high-performance quad-beam silicon piezoresistive accelerometer with very low cross-axis sensitivity. Cross-axis sensitivity in piezoresistive accelerometers is an important issue particularly for high-performance applications. In the present Letter, low cross-axis sensitivity is achieved by improving the device stability by placing four flexures in line with the proof mass edges. The accelerometer device is realised in a single-step double-sided bulk micromachining technique using a 5% dual- doped tetra methyl ammonium hydroxide solution as an anisotropic etchant. Test results of four fabricated devices show an average prime- axis sensitivity of 559.5 μV/g/5 V, a maximum cross-axis sensitivity of 0.62% full scale (FS acceleration = 13 g) of the prime-axis sensitivity and nonlinearity at a level of 0.5% of FS which are comparatively better than already reported devices and commercially available piezoresistive sensors. View full abstract»

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  • Use of high-intensity electron beam to form nanohole, induce bending and fabricate nanocontact on a ZnO nanowire

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 122 - 124
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (276 KB)  

    This Letter presents the experiment of using a high-intensity electron beam to form nanohole, induce bending and fabricate nanocontact on a ZnO nanowire (NW). This study reveals that a nanohole with diameter of not more than 10 nm could easily been created in seconds. A lateral half-cutting on the ZnO NW could induce bending. Nanocontact of the NW could also been achieved by performing a control quasi-sectioning of NW. The electron beam performs rapid localised surface melting and vaporisation in ZnO NW. These processes could possibly be implemented for the fabrication of NW-based devices for the applications of single electron devices and also NW cutting, alignment and carving. View full abstract»

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  • Heat treatment of aluminum in preparing porous anodic alumina templates

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 125 - 129
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (569 KB)  

    The influence of heat treatment on the final arrangement of nanopores in fabrication of ordered porous anodic alumina templates is investigated. The well-established two-step anodising procedure is applied to grow ordered porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO). The surface condition of the specimens exposed to different heat-treatment processes including stress relieving, full annealing and over annealing processes, were compared with the untreated specimen. They were subsequently etched and the microstructure was examined by optical microscopy. The samples were then treated by the two-step anodising procedure and scanning electron microscopy was utilised to study the obtained AAOs. Consequently, linear-angular fast Fourier transformation technique was used to assess the nanopores ordering and ordered domains. View full abstract»

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  • Synthesis of mesoporous ZnO/SBA-15 composite via sonochemical route

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 130 - 133
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (286 KB)  

    Highly dispersed nano-sized ZnO was prepared inside a mesoporous SBA-15 via sonochemical method. Wet impregnation process accompanied by this method gave rise to roughly 43 wt. zinc oxide which was loaded inside mesoporous silica as a host structure. The synthesised mesoporous SBA-15 and the impregnated ZnO were characterised, using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nitrogen physisorption. Low angle XRD peaks confirmed long-range order of two-dimensional hexagonal symmetry of SBA-15 and also shifting of the peaks to higher angle for ZnO loaded samples. The size of ZnO cluster inside the channels was smaller than the one which detected by XRD. With increasing ZnO content in SBA-15, the relative pressure (P/Po) position found by physisorption test was shifted towards higher pressure. Internal pore volume and surface area were reduced, but the pore diameter was increased. View full abstract»

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  • Single-step synthesis of core-shell ZnO microspheres

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 134 - 136
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (251 KB)  

    ZnO core-shell microspheres were successfully synthesised on a large scale through a template-free solvothermal reaction of methanol and zinc acetylacetonate hydrate. Morphologies, microstructures and compositions of the products were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The obtained results indicate that the ZnO microspheres are core-shell structures with an average diameter of 1--m and an average shell thickness of 200-nm. The experimental parameters such as reaction time and solvents played important roles in the formation of the core-shell structures. A possible growth mechanism was proposed. Room temperature photoluminescence spectrum showed an UV emission at -385-nm and a broad green emission at the centre of 550-nm. View full abstract»

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  • Encapsulation of CdTe quantum dots in polyvinylpyrrolidone nanoparticle for live cell imaging

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 137 - 141
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (331 KB)  

    Highly luminescent and water-soluble CdTe quantum dots encapsulated in polyvinylpyrrolidone nanoparticles (QDs/PNs) have been synthesised by one-pot aqueous route. Fluorescence of the as-prepared QDs/PNs was tunable from 539 to 606 nm and photoluminescent quantum yield could reach up to 47%. High quality of QDs/PNs was also observed by narrow full-width at half-maximum as small as 36 nm in the fluorescence spectra. Using fluorescence microscopy, we demonstrated uptake of QDs/PNs by 293 T human renal epithelial cells. Our results suggest that such nanoparticles are potentially powerful tools for fluorescent gene delivery reagent. View full abstract»

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  • Quantum dots and Au nanoparticles conjugated fluorescent DNA probes into uniform microstructure by asymmetrical synthesis

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 142 - 145
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (232 KB)  

    The fluorescent DNA probes using CdTe quantum dots (QDs) and Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) had complicated microstructures because one QD or AuNP can be conjugated to more than one single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) on its surface. In this Letter, an asymmetrical synthesis method of DNA probes was presented to get the DNA probes into the uniform microstructure when poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-divinylbenzene) microspheres (PNDMs) were used as templates. The sterically restricted linkages of CdTe QDs with ssDNA (CdTe-DNA1) and AuNPs with complementary ssDNA (Au-DNA2) were both present on PNDMs. After the CdTe-DNA1 and Au-DNA2 were cleaved from carriers and hybridised with each other, the fluorescent DNA probes (CdTe-dsDNA-Au) were prepared using 1 QD with 1 AuNP microstructure and the corresponding quenching efficiency of probes was 64.8%. View full abstract»

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  • Chromatic tuning of plasmon resonance of tri-layered composites: silver, gold and copper nanoparticles for optical thin film colour filter

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 146 - 148
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (248 KB)  

    The authors describe an approach to control colour shades by varying the volume fractions of three metal nanoparticles (NPs), Cu, Au and Ag, of fixed size and shape. The NPs were designed to match the absorption peaks of the three primary colours. Using the dynamic Maxwell Garnett equation, an analytical model is extracted that calculates the volume fraction value of each metal for the desired transmission red, green and blue values. The model considers the cross-talk between colours because of the broadening of the plasmon peaks. Maximum error of 10% was observed when producing secondary colour and grey shades. View full abstract»

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  • Synthesis of flower-like polyaniline microspheres with a novel strategy

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 149 - 151
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (171 KB)  

    A strategy to prepare flower-like polyaniline (PANI) microspheres was successfully developed. The structure of the flower-like PANI microspheres was characterised by means of scanning electron microscopy, UV-vis spectra and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. These results showed the formation of flower-like PANI microspheres with average diameter of about 8--m. The effect of the reaction time on morphology and electrical conductivity of the polyaniline was further investigated in detail. It showed that the morphology and electrical conductivity of PANI strongly depended on the polymerisation time. Also, the flower-like PANI has higher electrical conductivity compared with that of PANI with others morphology. The result indicates that the flower-like PANI is better to apply on electromagnetic interference shielding materials. View full abstract»

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  • Simple route to self-assembled BiOCl networks photocatalyst from nanosheet with exposed (001) facet

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 152 - 154
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (219 KB)  

    Flower-like BiOCl networks composed of intercrossed nanosheets have been synthesised by a simple thermal oxidation method. The nanosheets are highly crystallised and exhibit large percentage of exposed (001) facet. The as-prepared BiOCl networks show much higher activity than that of P25 TiO2 and electrospun BiOCl nanofibres, which is evaluated by degradation of rhodamine B (RB) dye under ultraviolet light irradiation. View full abstract»

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  • Control synthesis and numerical analysis of gold nanofilms after electric-field-assisted, one-step deposition

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 155 - 158
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (432 KB)  

    Gold nanofilms consisting of networked, cross-linked nanowires were synthesised in large quantities by the integration of electrochemical deposition and dielectrophoresis. The resultant products were characterised by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. On the basis of finite-element modelling of the electrode system in terms of the theory of dielectrophoresis and electromagnetism, the authors found that the growth of gold nanowires responded highly to the inhomogeneous electric fields. Also, the morphologies of the gold nanofilm evolve with the deposition time and frequency. Numerical simulations and theoretical analyses offer useful insights into the mechanism. The above study provides strong evidence that this electrochemical and template-free route is a powerful and universal technique to the synthesis for improving nanofilms performance. This strategy can be transplanted into the synthesis of other metallic nanofilms, such as silver and copper. View full abstract»

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  • Fabrication of planar nanofluidic channels in thermoplastic polymers by O2 plasma etching

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 159 - 162
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (326 KB)  

    A simple O2 plasma etching method is developed and first used to fabricate planar nanofluidic channels in thermoplastic polymers. In this process, a copper etching mask with a micron-scale width is made by traditional UV lithography and wet etching on a polymer substrate, then the polymer substrate is etched by O2 plasma in a commonly used plasma cleaner to form the planar nanochannel. Effects of the process parameters of the plasma cleaner on the etching rate are studied. The average etching rate for most thermoplastic polymers used in lab-on-a-chip is about 10 nm/min and the surface roughness is less than 2 nm when radio frequency power and chamber pressure are 60 W and 200 Pa, respectively. To demonstrate this method, a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) micro-nanofluidic chip containing nine parallel nanochannels, 100 nm in depth, 5 μm wide and 1 mm long, is fabricated to investigate the ion enrichment of 1 M fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) in 10 mM phosphate buffered saline (PBS) buffer. View full abstract»

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  • Characterisation, analysis and optical properties of nanostructure ZnO using the sol-gel method

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 163 - 167
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (270 KB)  

    Nanostructure ZnO was grown on thin aluminium layer, deposited on silicon substrate using the sol-gel method. The surface morphologies of nanostructure ZnO at different precursor concentrations were studied using scanning electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopy suggested that nanorods started to grow along with nanoflakes at a precursor concentration of 50-mM and the density of the nanorods significantly increases when the concentration was raised to 75-mM. Raman spectra were intensified and red shifted with the increment of precursor concentration. Optical properties of refractive index and optical dielectric constant are investigated. The structural defects at lower level of precursor were probably due to the hypoxic environment, whereas the red shift of Raman spectra was due to the structural change of ZnO nanocrystals. View full abstract»

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  • Non-enzymatic glucose detection using Ni/multi-walled carbon nanotubes composite

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 168 - 170
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (191 KB)  

    Ni/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) nanocomposites were successfully synthesised via a simple, rapid and efficient approach. The electrochemical performance of the Ni/MWNTs composites modified glassy carbon electrode (Ni/MWNTs/GCE) was evaluated by using cyclic voltammetry. Direct glucose oxidation at such Ni/MWNTs/GCE was investigated in detail by discussing the effect of the structure and materials of the electrode on electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose. As a result, the authors found that the Ni/MWNTs/GCE exhibited high electrocatalytic activity to glucose oxidation in alkaline solution, and could be used for the development of a non-enzymatic glucose sensor. View full abstract»

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  • Integrated SRAM compiler with clamping diode to reduce leakage and dynamic power in nano-CMOS process

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 171 - 173
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (207 KB)  

    An integrated static random access memory (SRAM) compiler is proposed to reduce both leakage and dynamic power at circuit and architectural level. Based on source biasing scheme, an extra clamping diode in parallel with a pull-down n-type metal-oxide semiconductor transistor is inserted between the ground and source line of a SRAM cell to achieve reduction in the leakage current as well as data retention capability. Bit line charging/discharging current is greatly decreased by introducing extra Z decoding circuits and thus reducing dynamic power significantly. Test chips with 11 embedded SRAMs have been fabricated in UMC 55 nm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor process and the measurement results have proved the effectiveness of the proposed technique. View full abstract»

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  • Synthesis of silver nanoparticles with thermo-controllable optical properties

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 174 - 177
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (268 KB)  

    Silver nanoparticles (SNPs) coated with a thermoresponsive polymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-g-poly-(ethylene oxide) (PNIPAM-g-PEO), have been prepared by the reduction of silver ions with NaH4B in aqueous solutions. The obtained SNPs were very stable at room temperature because of the extended coil conformation of the PNIPAM-g-PEO chain. At higher temperatures (such as 40°C) above the phase transition of PNIPAM-g-PEO, only minute aggregation between the SNPs was observed, indicating that the PEO chains still retained the ability to stabilise the SNPs. Moreover, the thermoresponsive properties of SNPs coated with PNIPAM-g-PEO were further investigated as a function of the temperature by UV°vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. The switchable optical and size response of the SNPs triggered by temperature change was observed. The absorbing peak and size of the SNPs was blue shift from 395.0 to 382.5°nm and increased from 29.4 to 33.5°nm at elevating the temperature from 25 to 40°C, respectively. The result was attributed to the phase transition of PNIPAM-g-PEO adsorbing on the surface of the SNPs as a function of temperature. View full abstract»

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  • Synthesis of hausmannite and kempite nanoparticles at low temperature via an epoxide precipitate route

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 178 - 182
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (213 KB)  

    A simple synthesis procedure, using epoxide as the precipitation agent, was applied at low temperature to prepare well size-controlled hausmannite (Mn3O4) and kempite (Mn2(OH)3Cl) nanoparticles. During the preparation, the hydrolysis of aquo complexes of metal ions was promoted by the ring opening reaction of epoxide through the protonation of its oxygen. Owing to the low acidity of aquo Mn2+ complexes in solution, the slow protonation of epoxide could also lead to the subsequent rise in the pH of the solution, which allows alternative side reactions to occur to a significant degree and cause precipitation to take place instead of sol or gel. Owing to the unique chemistry of propylene oxide, the structure of the as-prepared nanoparticles can be well controlled through the controlling of the reaction temperature and Mn2+ concentration. The hydrolysis and further condensation of aquo Mn2+ complexes resulted in the formation of Mn3O4 nanoparticles. On the other hand, their partial hydrolysis occurred without further condensation of the generated hydroxide intermediate under high Mn2+ concentration. This induced the interposition of Cl- ions into intermediate to form the structure of Mn2(OH)3C1. As confirmed by characterisation results, the size of nanoparticles with the corresponding pure phases increased with the increase in Mn2+ concentration and reaction temperature. View full abstract»

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  • Poly(ether-ester anhydride)-based amphiphilic block copolymer nanoparticle as delivery devices for paclitaxel

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 183 - 187
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (425 KB)  

    This Letter focuses on the preparation and characterisation of a novel amphiphilic multiblock poly(ether-ester anhydride) copolymer [poly(sebacic acid-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-sebacic acid) (PES)], paclitaxel-loaded PES nanoparticles (NPs), in vitro evaluation of the release of paclitaxel and cytotoxicity of NPs. PES was prepared by melt polycondensation and the PES NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation technique. In vitro release behaviour of the paclitaxel-loaded NPs was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In vitro cytotoxicity of NPs was evaluated by MTT assay. The composition and structure of PES are consistent with that of the designed copolymer. The paclitaxel-loaded NPs are of spherical shape and size lower than 200 nm. Paclitaxel can be continuously released from the paclitaxel-loaded NPs. The PES NPs are non-toxic to cells. The results suggest that PES NPs are a potential candidate nanocarrier material for the controlled delivery of paclitaxel and other hydrophobic compounds. View full abstract»

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  • Characterisation of micromechanically coupled U-shaped cantilever-based oscillators with and without micromechanical elements for synchronised oscillation-based applications

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 188 - 192
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (513 KB)  

    Two novel oscillation systems, consisting of a U-shaped cantilever and a beam-shaped cantilever, were designed, fabricated and comparatively characterised for synchronised oscillation-based applications. In the case of without mechanical elements, two geometrically different cantilevers, with resonant frequencies of 182.506 kHz (detecting) and 372.503 kHz (sensing), respectively, are coupled by two coupling overhangs. Under synchronised oscillation, the frequency response was found to double from 182.850 to 365.713 kHz from a low-frequency cantilever (U shaped) to a high-frequency cantilever (beam shaped). A plateau with a frequency ratio of 2.000 was observed for both systems, which corresponds to a stable synchronisation region. This demonstrates the possibility of increasing the frequency response signal from the low-frequency cantilever to the high-frequency cantilever based on this super harmonic synchronisation. However, based on the comparative studies of two systems with and without mechanical systems, it is found that enhancing the nonlinearity without increasing energy loss (support loss in the present study) seems to be necessary to widen the frequency entrainment range for real applications. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Micro & Nano Letters offers express publication of short research papers presenting research conducted at the forefront of micro- and nanoscale science, engineering and technology, with at least one dimension ranging from a few tens of micrometres to a few nanometres.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editors-in-Chief
Professor Gwo-Bin Vincent Lee
National Tsing-Hua University, Taiwan

Professor Peter Dobson
University of Oxford, UK