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Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Part A: Systems and Humans, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date March 2012

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 27
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): C1 - 285
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  • IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics—Part A: Systems and Humans publication information

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): C2
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  • Coordinating Cognitive Assistance With Cognitive Engagement Control Approaches in Human–Machine Collaboration

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 286 - 294
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1045 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In human-machine collaboration, automated machines may assist operators in a variety of ways. However, chaotic assistance may lead to negative consequences, which makes the achievement of effective coordination of the different types of assistance all the more important. This paper discusses the classification of assistance on a cognitive basis and a method of coordinating assistance. Cognitive assistance is viewed as a 2-D problem, consisting of when to provide assistance (a control problem) and what assistance to provide (an interface problem). This paper further proposes dynamically controlling cognitive engagement levels to meet the demands of maintaining performance. Cognitive engagement control determines the appropriate moment to provide the proper level of cognitive assistance. To validate the above approach, a driving assistance experiment was conducted on a driving simulator. In the experiment, an intelligent assistance system monitored the real-time driving performance of human drivers, e.g., time headway and lateral deviation. Because of the importance of visual attention in driving performance, the system monitored the cognitive engagement status of drivers by measuring their eye movements with an eye tracker. Through five sessions of car-following driving tests, the coordinated cognitive assistance (named adaptive assistance) was compared with four other types of cognitive assistance: no aid, soft aid , soft intervention, and hard intervention. The experimental results confirmed that coordinated cognitive assistance is the most effective approach to provide assistance in both primary and secondary tasks. It also appears to be more enjoyable and less intrusive when compared with other individual types of cognitive assistance. View full abstract»

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  • Operability of Joystick-Type Steering Device Considering Human Arm Impedance Characteristics

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 295 - 306
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1306 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present some results from the study on the impedance characteristics of a human arm during the execution of vehicle steering control tasks by using a joystick-type steering device. We propose a new model of human-machine interaction where the damping coefficient of the interface device can be tuned to match the impedance characteristics of the human arm. To verify the proposed model, we developed a special experimental setup. We used a robot and force/torque sensors to simulate the joystick operation. We explored human-machine interactions when the operator uses only one hand to control the vehicle. The reaction forces of the joystick were simulated by a virtual impedance field tuned to match human arm impedance. In the tests, we simulate situations when the movement of the joystick in the forward-backward direction sets the speed of the vehicle while the lateral rotation of the same control stick changes the turning radius of the vehicle. The robot allowed us to simulate various impedance characteristics. With the tests, we investigated the operability of the simulated vehicle by tuning the viscosity coefficient of the joystick in order to match it with the stationary human arm impedance and time-varying human arm impedance. The test results allowed us to propose a new method to improve the operability of a joystick-type steering device, based on the online adaptive matching of the impedance characteristics of the human arm. The usefulness of the proposed method is confirmed through experiments. View full abstract»

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  • Inverse Dynamics of Human Passive Motion Based on Iterative Learning Control

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 307 - 315
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (737 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Estimation of joint torque is an important objective in the analyses of human motion. In particular, many applications seek to discern torque during a desired human motion, which is equivalent to solving the inverse dynamics. The computed torque method is a conventional means of calculating inverse dynamics. The obtained torque, however, invariably includes errors resulting from inexact inertial and viscoelastic parameters. This paper presents a method for solving the inverse dynamics of a human arm passively during tracking. To achieve precise human motion tracking, iterative learning control is used for motion generation. Some experiments that target a human arm are executed to validate the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • Semantic Inference on Heterogeneous E-Marketplace Activities

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 316 - 330
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1212 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An electronic marketplace (e-marketplace) is a common business information space populated with many entities of different system types. Each of them has its own context of how to process activities. This leads to heterogeneous e-marketplace activities, which are difficult to make interoperable and inferred from one entity to another. This study solves this problem by proposing a concept of separation strategy and implementing it through providing a semantic inference engine with a novel inference algorithm. The solution, called the RuleXPM approach, enables one to semantically infer a next e-marketplace activity across multiple contexts/domains. Experiments show that the cross-context/cross-domain semantic inference is achievable. This paper is an understanding of many aspects related to heterogeneous activity inference. View full abstract»

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  • Intelligence Analyses and the Insider Threat

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 331 - 347
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (725 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the intelligence community, the existence of a malicious insider poses a severe threat to information, to the actual analytic process, and, ultimately, to any decision-making process relying on such information and analyses. An analyst with malicious intent can create irreversible short-term, as well as long-term, damage that is hard to detect. In this paper, we propose a novel methodology that detects malicious analysts who attempt to manipulate decision makers' perceptions through their intelligence reports. This detection method relies on each analyst's working style, which we assume to be consistent from task to task. In order to measure an analyst's degree of consistency, we employ a user-modeling technique that automatically builds a computational model of each analyst based on observation of their activities. We hypothesize that inconsistency is mainly caused by malicious actions. Therefore, the detection method evaluates how consistent an analyst is across different tasks and raises an alert if any significantly large inconsistency is detected. A normalization procedure is employed which allows us to compare across a group of analysts and is shown to reduce noise and amplify inconsistency that is due to malicious actions. We show that this improves detection performance. Our experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in detecting malicious insiders. In the experiments, the percentage of malicious insiders grouped with legitimate ones is varied, and results are collected with and without normalization in order to provide a comprehensive analysis of our approach. View full abstract»

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  • Consensus of Multiagent Systems With Switching Jointly Reachable Interconnection and Time Delays

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 348 - 358
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (332 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper addresses a leader-following consensus problem of a multiagent system with switching jointly reachable interconnection and noncoupling time delays. This problem arises naturally in real multiagent systems such as distributed sensing and collective motion. Neighbor-based rules are designed to realize controlling strategies for these agents described by double integrators. Although the interagent connection structures vary over time and the leader of related graphs may not be globally reachable, a sufficient condition to make all the agents follow the leader is given under a state-feedback switching signal, which is based on an appropriate partition of the state space. The consensus error is estimated in an even noisy environment. Finally, a simulation example is presented to verify the analytical results. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluating the Consequences of an Inland Waterway Port Closure With a Dynamic Multiregional Interdependence Model

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 359 - 370
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (529 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As intermodal hubs connecting barge, train, and truck transportation modes, inland ports play an important role in U.S. and global commerce. Like coastal ports, inland ports face the risk of malevolent attacks, man-made accidents, and natural disasters. However, most port impact studies focus on the consequences of one of these disruptive events suddenly closing a coastal port. This paper examines the economic impact of suddenly closing an inland port by combining a simulation and a multiregional input-output model. The simulation models how companies may react if an inland waterway port suddenly closes, and the multiregional dynamic inoperability input-output model quantifies the interdependent effects of these decisions. We deploy this simulation and model on a case study involving an Oklahoma port on the Arkansas River. The case study indicates that, if a financial penalty is imposed on companies for delivering their commodities late, companies will move their products by train rather than wait for the port to reopen. These decisions save billions of dollars in production losses for the states that use the port. We discuss the implications of these results for policymakers concerned about limiting the consequences of port closures. View full abstract»

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  • Fault Diagnosis Based on Causal Computations

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 371 - 381
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (355 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper focuses on residual generation for model-based fault diagnosis. Specifically, a methodology to derive residual generators when nonlinear equations are present in the model is developed. A main result is the characterization of computation sequences that are particularly easy to implement as residual generators and that take causal information into account. An efficient algorithm, based on the model structure only, which finds all such computation sequences, is derived. Furthermore, fault detectability and isolability performances depend on the sensor configuration. Therefore, another contribution is an algorithm, also based on the model structure, that places sensors with respect to the class of residual generators that take causal information into account. The algorithms are evaluated on a complex highly nonlinear model of a fuel cell stack system. A number of residual generators that are, by construction, easy to implement are computed and provide full diagnosability performance predicted by the model. View full abstract»

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  • Qualitative Approach to Bayesian Networks With Multiple Causes

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 382 - 391
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (267 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Two approaches for extending a quantitative Bayesian network (BN) to deal with qualitative information include a qualitative probability network extension and causal independence. Both approaches help developers to remedy the gap between the complicated BN formalism and the actual problem. Lucas utilizes these two methods in establishing a theory of qualitative causal (QC) interaction patterns where qualitative probability influences (QPIs) (considering whether it is better to hold a single cause than not) affect the network model. QC patterns help to offer developers a high-level starting point when developing BNs. However, in real-world applications, usually, we need to know QPIs on multiple causes, namely, whether holding some subset of the causes will be a better choice than holding other subsets. To this end, we introduce a concept called causality probability from which QPIs can be easily induced. We investigate the local optima and global optima of causality probabilities considering multiple causes. For the local optima, we present the qualitative influences on all binary interaction types, while for the global optima, we achieve an upper bound of causality probability and discuss the conditions to reach the upper bound. Our results are useful for BN developers to get an overview of causality relations. View full abstract»

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  • Liveness and Ratio-Enforcing Supervision of Automated Manufacturing Systems Using Petri Nets

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 392 - 403
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (410 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In automated manufacturing systems (AMSs), Petri nets are widely adopted to solve supervisory control problems. Among them, how to enforce liveness and fairness for AMS constitutes an important problem. Enforcing liveness avoids the occurrence of deadlock situations to inhibit the emergence of partial or complete blockness for processing jobs in AMS. Fairness requires the determination of a reasonable regulation scheme for orderly resolution such that a desired ratio can be assigned among different processes. This paper proposes an efficient method to design supervisors that enforce both, which is based on the invariance property of Petri nets. A novel approach is proposed to iteratively identify empty siphons as solutions to a set of linear inequalities. Supervisors are then designed to control these siphons. The applicability of the proposed methodology is illustrated through examples. Its comparison with existing works is presented to demonstrate its advantages. View full abstract»

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  • Computationally Improved Optimal Deadlock Control Policy for Flexible Manufacturing Systems

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 404 - 415
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1501 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Deadlock prevention, deadlock detection, and deadlock avoidance strategies are used to solve the deadlock problems of flexible manufacturing systems. The theory of regions is recognized as the unique method for obtaining maximally permissive (i.e., optimal) controllers in the existing literature. All legal and live maximal behavior of a Petri net model can be preserved by using a marking/transition-separation instance (MTSI). However, obtaining them is an extremely time consuming problem. This work proposes crucial MTSIs that allow designers to employ much fewer MTSIs to deal with deadlocks. The advantage of the proposed policy is that an optimal deadlock controller can be obtained with drastically reduced computation. Experimental results, by varying the markings of given net structures, indicate that it is the most efficient policy to obtain such controllers. View full abstract»

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  • Structural Diagnosability of DES and Design of Reduced Petri Net Diagnosers

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 416 - 429
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (962 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with diagnosis of permanent and operational faults of partially observed discrete event systems modeled by interpreted Petri nets capturing both normal and faulty behaviors. Two main results are presented: a structural characterization of the diagnosability property and a method for designing reduced model diagnosers for online fault detection and location. Sufficient conditions for diagnosability are provided based on the analysis of the influence area of every fault fi in the model and the relative distance between pairs of transitions; polynomial algorithms are proposed for determining diagnosability. The diagnoser includes two reduced models that monitor the system; one for tracking the actual behavior and the other for establishing the expected behavior; the difference of markings in such models, called residue, provides enough information for the immediate location of faults, even if they occur simultaneously. View full abstract»

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  • Quantitative Absolute Transparency for Bilateral Teleoperation of Mobile Robots

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 430 - 442
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (897 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a new criterion, called absolute transparency, to design control schemes applied to bilateral teleoperation of mobile robots with time-varying delay. The absolute transparency measures how and how fast the human operator and the remote system interact with each other through a teleoperation system. The absolute transparency of different control schemes is analyzed and tested through teleoperation experiments where a human operator drives a mobile robot and receives both visual and force feedback. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel 3-D Palmprint Acquisition System

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 443 - 452
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2156 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Palmprints have been widely studied for personal authentication because they are highly accurate and incur low costs. Most of the previous work has focused on two-dimensional (2-D) palmprint identification. However, the inner surfaces of palms contain not only texture information but also shape information. Unfortunately, 2-D palmprint systems lose the shape information when capturing palmprint images. Hence, three-dimensional (3-D) information is important for palmprint systems. In this paper, we have designed and developed a novel 3-D palmprint acquisition system based on structured-light imaging technology. The acquisition system can obtain 3-D palmprint information and, at the same time, the corresponding 2-D texture, which are used for personal authentication. A 3-D palmprint database that contains 8000 samples has been established by using the developed acquisition system, and the test results illustrate the effectiveness of our system. View full abstract»

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  • A Generalized Block Replacement Policy for a k -Out-of- n System With Respect to Threshold Number of Failed Components and Risk Costs

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 453 - 463
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (661 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We develop a generalized block replacement model for a k-out-of-n system and determine the optimum policies of both the threshold level for the number of failed components to prevent system failures and the maintenance cycle that minimizes the expected total system cost. To overcome the existing block replacement policies' drawbacks, i.e., it is rather wasteful if a preventive replacement happens just after a failure replacement, in our developed policy, a replacement service for a failure is provided when there are a threshold number of failed components occurring. We also take into consideration the downtime period of each failed component using the order statistics for lifetime and age distributions for k-out-of-n systems. Several numerical examples are discussed to demonstrate the applicability of the methodology derived in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • Heterogeneous Redundancy Allocation for Series-Parallel Multi-State Systems Using Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization and Local Search

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 464 - 474
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (591 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A hybrid algorithm of particle swarm optimization (PSO) and local search (LS) is proposed to solve the redundancy allocation problem for series-parallel multi-state systems. The proposed hybrid algorithm is able to design the system structure with a minimum cost to provide a desired level of availability. Unlike most of the previous studies that only consider homogeneous redundancy, the proposed algorithm allows for the heterogeneous redundancy technique. The universal generating function method is applied to evaluate system availability. The standard PSO is modified and novel LS strategies are integrated to adapt to the redundancy allocation problem. Case studies that facilitate comparisons between the proposed hybrid algorithm and other non-hybrid heuristics as well as meta-heuristics reported in the literature (such as genetic algorithms, tabu search, and ant colony optimization) are provided. The results illustrate the advantages of the proposed hybrid algorithm in terms of the solution quality or algorithm efficiency. View full abstract»

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  • Constrained Multiple-Swarm Particle Swarm Optimization Within a Cultural Framework

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 475 - 490
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (795 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Particle swarm optimization (PSO) has been recently adopted to solve constrained optimization problems. In this paper, a cultural-based constrained PSO is proposed to incorporate the information of the objective function and constraint violation into four sections of the belief space, specifically normative knowledge, spatial knowledge, situational knowledge, and temporal knowledge. The archived information facilitates communication among swarms in the population space and assists in selecting the leading particles in three different levels: personal, swarm, and global levels. Comprehensive comparison of the proposed heuristics over a number of benchmark problems with selected state-of-the-art constraint-handling techniques demonstrates that the proposed cultural framework helps the multiple-swarm PSO to perform competitively with respect to selected designs. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient Role Transfer Based on Kuhn–Munkres Algorithm

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 491 - 496
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Many-to-Many (M-M) role transfers are generalized problems that are encountered in collaboration. Exhaustive-search-based algorithms are too computationally intensive. This paper introduces the Kuhn-Munkres (or Hungarian) algorithm for the general assignment problems (GAPs) and proposes a new efficient algorithm to solve the M-M role transfer problems by converting them to the GAPs. The experiments and results validate the proposed algorithms. View full abstract»

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  • A Decision Model on Production Planning With Outsourcing

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 497 - 502
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (126 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This study is oriented to a general problem context for most manufacturers that produce products for uncertain market demands. Manufacturers usually have two alternative modes for the production: One is to outsource parts from outside suppliers and then assemble them, and the other is to in-house manufacture parts and then assemble them. Each mode has its relative merits. This paper studies how to balance the tradeoff between the two modes. We utilize the dynamic programming approach to investigate the optimal decision on the aforementioned two modes during each planning period. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling and Performance Evaluation of BPEL Processes: A Stochastic-Petri-Net-Based Approach

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 503 - 510
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (994 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Business Process Execution Language (BPEL) is considered as the de facto standard for Web service composition. To analyze the performance of composite service processes specified in BPEL gives the way to tell whether the process meets the performance requirements. In this paper, we propose a translation-based approach for performance analysis of BPEL processes, which employs a general stochastic Petri net (GSPN) as the intermediate representation. A set of translation rules is defined for constructs and activities of BPEL so that the processes specified in BPEL can be translated into the GSPN representations. Based on the GSPN representation of BPEL processes, we introduce a state-space method to calculate the expected-process-normal-completion-time as the performance estimate. In the case study, we obtain experimental data and conduct a confidence interval analysis to validate the feasibility and accuracy of the translation-based approach. View full abstract»

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  • Phase Angle-Encoded and Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization Applied to Three-Dimensional Route Planning for UAV

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 511 - 526
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1516 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new variant of particle swarm optimization (PSO), named phase angle-encoded and quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (θ-QPSO), is proposed. Six versions of θ-QPSO using different mappings are presented and compared through their application to solve continuous function optimization problems. Several representative benchmark functions are selected as testing functions. The real-valued genetic algorithm (GA), differential evolution (DE), standard particle swarm optimization (PSO), phase angle-encoded particle swarm optimization ( θ-PSO), quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO), and θ-QPSO are tested and compared with each other on the selected unimodal and multimodal functions. To corroborate the results obtained on the benchmark functions, a new route planner for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is designed to generate a safe and flyable path in the presence of different threat environments based on the θ-QPSO algorithm. The PSO, θ-PSO, and QPSO are presented and compared with the θ-QPSO algorithm as well as GA and DE through the UAV path planning application. Each particle in swarm represents a potential path in search space. To prune the search space, constraints are incorporated into the pre-specified cost function, which is used to evaluate whether a particle is good or not. Experimental results demonstrated good performance of the θ-QPSO in planning a safe and flyable path for UAV when compared with the GA, DE, and three other PSO-based algorithms. View full abstract»

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    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 527
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    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 528
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Aims & Scope

The fields of systems engineering and human machine systems: systems engineering includes efforts that involve issue formulation, issue analysis and modeling, and decision making and issue interpretation at any of the lifecycle phases associated with the definition, development, and implementation of large systems.

 

This Transactions ceased production in 2012. The current retitled publication is IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Dr. Witold Pedrycz
University of Alberta