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Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 7 • Date July 2012

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 36
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): C1 - 2741
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  • IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics publication information

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): C2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Guest Editorial

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2742 - 2744
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  • Efficiency-Optimized High-Current Dual Active Bridge Converter for Automotive Applications

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2745 - 2760
    Cited by:  Papers (45)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1335 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An efficiency-optimized modulation scheme and design method are developed for an existing hardware prototype of a bidirectional dual active bridge (DAB) dc/dc converter. The DAB being considered is used for an automotive application and is made up of a high-voltage port with port voltage V1, 240 V ≤ V1 ≤ 450 V, and a low-voltage port with port voltage V2, 11 V ≤ V2 ≤ 16 V; the rated output power is 2 kW. A much increased converter efficiency is achieved with the methods detailed in this paper: The average efficiency, calculated for different voltages V1 and V2, different power levels, and both directions of power transfer, rises from 89.6% (conventional phase shift modulation) to 93.5% (proposed modulation scheme). Measured efficiency values, obtained from the DAB hardware prototype, are used to verify the theoretical results. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal Design of a Push-Pull-Forward Half-Bridge (PPFHB) Bidirectional DC–DC Converter With Variable Input Voltage

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2761 - 2771
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1673 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a low-cost bidirectional isolated dc-dc converter, derived from dual-active-bridge converter for the power sources with variable output voltage like super capacitors. The proposed converter consists of push-pull-forward circuit half-bridge circuit (PPFHB) and a high-frequency transformer; this structure minimizes the number of the switching transistors and their associate gate driver components. With phase-shift control strategy, all the switches are operated under zero-voltage switching (ZVS) condition. Furthermore, in order to optimize the converter performance and increase efficiency, optimal design methods and criteria are investigated, including coupled inductors design, bidirectional power flow analysis, harmonics analysis, and ZVS range extension. Based on all the optimal parameters, higher efficiency can be achieved. Finally, prototypes are built in laboratory controlled by digital signal processor for comparison purpose. Detailed test results verify the theoretical analysis and demonstrate the validity of optimization design method. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and Design of the L_{m}C Resonant Converter for Low Output Current Ripple

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2772 - 2780
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1606 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, an LmC resonant converter is proposed for low output current ripple, and its steady-state analysis and design guidelines are investigated. In the LmC converter, the current stress of the output capacitors is reduced due to the inductive output filter, and the series resonant inductor is removed while maintaining the benefits of an LLC resonant converter such as zero-voltage switching and narrow switching frequency range. The mode analysis is described, and the steady-state characteristics are explored using the extended describing function. Based on the result, the design guidelines are suggested. A 240-W 24-V/10-A hardware prototype is built and tested to verify the analysis results and to evaluate the performance of the LmC resonant converter. View full abstract»

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  • Presizing Methodology of DC–DC Converters Using Optimization Under Multiphysic Constraints: Application to a Buck Converter

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2781 - 2790
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1183 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an approach to presize dc-dc converters. This approach is carried out in three main steps. The first one helps the designer to select the most adapted architecture answering the specifications and appropriate technologies of passive and active components of the selected architecture minimizing a major constraint (like volume or cost). Models used in this step are developed from manufacturer datasheets. The second step consists on optimizing the selected architecture by considering the appropriate technologies resulting from the first step under multiphysic constraints: thermal, losses (or efficiency), volume, and electromagnetic compatibility. Analytical models to consider the different constraints are developed. The third step carries out a second optimization with integration of a finite element simulation. It allows refining the optimization results of the second step and consists on optimizing the components placement under thermal and EMC constraints together or separately. The developed methodology proposes a progressive approach to answer industrial needs when presizing power converters. It allows reducing significantly the computing time which is suitable in a presizing phase where several parameters must be optimized and multiphysic constraints must be respected. View full abstract»

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  • Analytical and Multiphysics Approach to the Optimal Design of a 10-MW DFIG for Direct-Drive Wind Turbines

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2791 - 2799
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1241 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work deals with a 10-MW doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) for direct-drive operation of wind turbines with a reduced-size converter. The work includes a lumped parameter design, an optimization procedure, a finite-element analysis (FEA), and an electrical performance assessment. A monetary cost was assumed as a cost function, and an approximation of the construction cost as a function of the axial length was obtained. The found solutions were checked by FEA in order to assure the mechanical feasibility. Further verifications were developed to allow a conclusive performance evaluation. The optimization improved the cost of the proposed DFIG, including materials, losses, and converter, making it slightly cheaper than an available permanent-magnet synchronous generator. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal Design and Tradeoff Analysis of Planar Transformer in High-Power DC–DC Converters

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2800 - 2810
    Cited by:  Papers (35)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1941 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The trend toward high power density, high operating frequency, and low profile in power converters has exposed a number of limitations in the use of conventional wire-wound magnetic component structures. A planar magnetic is a low-profile transformer or inductor utilizing planar windings, instead of the traditional windings made of Cu wires. In this paper, the most important factors for planar transformer (PT) design including winding loss, core loss, leakage inductance, and stray capacitance have individually been investigated. The tradeoffs among these factors have to be analyzed in order to achieve optimal parameters. Combined with an application, four typical winding arrangements have been compared to illustrate their advantages and disadvantages. An improved interleaving structure with optimal behaviors is proposed, which constructs the top layer paralleling with the bottom layer and then in series with the other turns of the primary, so that a lower magnetomotive force ratio m can be obtained, as well as minimized ac resistance, leakage inductance, and even stray capacitance. A 1.2-kW full-bridge dc-dc converter prototype employing the improved PT structure has been constructed, over 96% efficiency is achieved, and a 2.7% improvement, compared with the noninterleaving structure, is obtained. View full abstract»

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  • Automated Optimal Design of Input Filters for Direct AC/AC Matrix Converters

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2811 - 2823
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2235 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a novel method to design the input filter for a direct ac/ac matrix converter using genetic algorithms (GA) optimization. The input filter for a matrix converter is a very important and critical part of the conversion structure and careful design is necessary to ensure high input power quality, compactness, and stability. The GA will optimize structure and parameters of the input filter as a function of different factors such as energy storage, weight, and volume. The effectiveness of this design method is demonstrated through a wide range of simulations using Saber and experimental results on a laboratory prototype. The same methodology could also be adapted and applied to any converter configuration such as, for example, traditional voltage source converters. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling and Harmonic Optimization of a Two-Stage Saturable Magnetically Controlled Reactor for an Arc Suppression Coil

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2824 - 2831
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1050 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Magnetically controlled reactors (MCRs) are usually used as three-phase shunt reactors. They have low harmonic distortion independent of the third harmonic current because most three-phase MCRs are delta connected. However, as arc suppression coils, MCRs are operated in the single-phase mode, and the harmonics can be much higher than those of three-phase MCRs. In this paper, the structure and the mathematical model of a two-stage saturable MCR (TSMCR) are proposed. There are two stages with different lengths and areas in the iron cores. The stages saturate at different times when the TSMCR outputs reactive current. The current harmonics of the first saturated stage can be compensated for when the second stage begins to saturate, to reduce the total harmonics of the output current. The mathematical model that reveals the distribution characteristics of the current harmonics for the TSMCR is also presented. A study of the mathematical model indicates that there are two key factors that affect the total current harmonics of the TSMCR. One is the parameter k, which represents the area ratio of the second stage to the first stage. The other one is the parameter m, which represents the ratio of the length of the first stage to the total length of the magnetic valve in the iron core. The simulations and experiments show that the maximum current harmonics of the novel MCR can be limited to 3.61% of the rated output current when k and m are chosen according to the theoretical mathematical model. View full abstract»

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  • Predictive Control of AC–AC Modular Multilevel Converters

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2832 - 2839
    Cited by:  Papers (43)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1232 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multilevel converters can reach medium-voltage operation increasing the efficiency of high-power applications. Among the existing multilevel converter topologies, the modular multilevel converter (MMC) provides the advantages of high modularity, availability, and high power quality. Moreover, the main advantage compared to cascaded multilevel converters is the lack of an input transformer which results in a reduction of cooling requirements, size, and cost. One of the drawbacks of this topology when used as an ac-ac converter is the input and output frequency components in the control loop, resulting in a more complex controller design. In this paper, a single-phase ac-ac MMC predictive control approach is proposed. The controller minimizes the input, output, and circulating current errors and balances the dc voltages. Experimental results show the performance of the proposed predictive control scheme. View full abstract»

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  • Predictive Speed Control of a Two-Mass System Driven by a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2840 - 2848
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (437 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a predictive strategy for the speed control of a two-mass system driven by a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). The proposed approach allows to manipulate all the system variables simultaneously, including mechanical and electrical variables in a single control law. The state feedback is achieved with a reduced order extended Kalman filter, which observes the non-measured variables as well as reduces the impact of measurement noise. The performance of the control strategy is shown through simulation and experimental results in a 4 [kW] laboratory prototype. View full abstract»

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  • Robust Nonlinear Predictive Controller for Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motors With an Optimized Cost Function

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2849 - 2858
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (482 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A robust nonlinear predictive controller for permanent-magnet synchronous motors is proposed. The nonlinear predictive control law is formulated by optimizing a novel cost function. A key feature of the proposed control is that it does not require the knowledge of the external perturbation and parameter uncertainties to enhance the robustness. A zero steady-state error is guaranteed by an integral action of the controller. The stability of the closed-loop system is ensured by convergence of the output-tracking error to the origin. The proposed control strategy is verified via simulation and experiment. High performance with respect to speed tracking and current control of the motor has been demonstrated. View full abstract»

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  • Differential-Evolution-Based Optimization of the Dynamic Response for Parallel Operation of Inverters With No Controller Interconnection

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2859 - 2866
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (521 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the use of differential evolution (DE), a global search technique inspired by evolutionary theory, to find the parameters that are required to achieve optimum dynamic response of parallel operation of inverters with no interconnection among the controllers is proposed. Basically, in order to reach such a goal, the system is modeled in a certain way that the slopes of P- ω and Q -V curves are the parameters to be tuned. Such parameters, when properly tuned, result in system's eigenvalues located in positions that assure the system's stability and oscillation-free dynamic response with minimum settling time. This paper describes the modeling approach and provides an overview of the motivation for the optimization and a description of the DE technique. Simulation and experimental results are also presented, and they show the viability of the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • Optimum Trajectory Control of the Current Vector of a Nonsalient-Pole PMSM in the Field-Weakening Region

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2867 - 2876
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1151 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Industry-proven field-weakening solutions for nonsalient-pole permanent-magnet synchronous motor drives are presented in this paper. The core algorithm relies on direct symbolic equations. The equations take into account the stator resistance and reveal its effect on overall algorithm quality. They establish a foundation for an offline calculated lookup table which secures effective d-axis current reference over entire field-weakening region. The table has been proven on its own and in combination with a PI compensator. Usage recommendations are given in this paper. Functionality of the proposed solutions has been investigated theoretically and in practice. The investigation has been carried out in the presence of motor magnetic saturation and parameter tolerance, taking into account the change of operating temperature. The results and analysis method are included in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • Copper and Core Loss Minimization for Induction Motors Using High-Order Sliding-Mode Control

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2877 - 2889
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (641 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel nonlinear affine model for an induction motor with core loss is developed in the well-known (α, β) stationary reference frame, where the core is represented with a resistance in parallel with a magnetization inductance. Then, an optimal rotor flux modulus is calculated such that the power loss due to stator, rotor, and core resistances is minimized, and as a consequence, the motor efficiency is raised; therefore, this flux modulus is forced to be tracked by the induction motor along with a desired rotor velocity by means of a high-order sliding-mode controller, the supertwisting algorithm. Using a novel Lyapunov function, the closed-loop stability of the system is demonstrated. Moreover, a classical sliding-mode observer is designed for the estimation of unmeasurable variables like rotor fluxes and magnetization currents. For the load torque, a Luenberger observer is designed. The performance of the proposed controller is finally studied by simulation and experimental tests. It was observed that the steady-state optimal flux signal corresponds to the load torque profile. This fact suggests that the flux demand is the necessary one to produce the electric torque that can cancel out the load torque. View full abstract»

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  • Flatness-Based Control of Three-Phase Inverter With Output LC Filter

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2890 - 2897
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1053 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recently, hybrid electrical power sources composed of storage elements and renewable energy sources are known to have made great development. These energy sources are connected to a dc bus and need a dc-to-ac converter to transfer the produced energy to the grid. Three-leg voltage source inverters equipped with an output LC filter are often used. The main objective of this stage is to generate a three-phase sinusoidal voltage with defined amplitude and to ensure the smallest harmonic distortion rate of the output voltage for any load conditions. To satisfy the defined objectives, we present in this paper a new control method based on differential flatness control technique. The main interest of this control method is the possibility to define the behavior of the state variable system in the steady state as well as in transients. The use of only one control loop allows obtaining high dynamic properties of the system which ensure small harmonic distortion rate of the output voltage. Experimental results under balanced, unbalanced, and nonlinear load conditions are presented and validate the effectiveness of the proposed control methods. View full abstract»

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  • Current Controller Based on Reduced Order Generalized Integrators for Distributed Generation Systems

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2898 - 2909
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (503 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a current controller based on a stationary reference frame implementation of an integrator in the synchronous reference frame [called here reduced order generalized integrator (ROGI)], suitable for three-phase distributed generation systems. The proposed controller is compared with the traditional second-order generalized integrator (SOGI)-based current controller. It is confirmed that, in normal operation conditions, both controllers have similar performance, requiring the ROGI-based controller much less computational burden than the SOGI counterpart. The proposed controller injects sinusoidal currents synchronized with the grid voltage, without requiring any dedicated synchronization algorithm. Three different current injection strategies are realizable with the same controller structure: balanced current injection, constant instantaneous active power injection, and maximum instantaneous active power injection. A state-variable-based control methodology in the discrete-time domain is presented. It ensures the stability and performance of the closed-loop system, even for high-order controllers and large digital signal processor processing delay. Moreover, it is confirmed that the proposed controller works satisfactorily even on faulty grid conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Voltage-Sensor-Less Synchronization to Unbalanced Grids by Frequency-Adaptive Virtual Flux Estimation

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2910 - 2923
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2028 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a simple method for inherently frequency-adaptive virtual flux (VF) estimation intended for voltage-sensor-less grid synchronization and control of voltage source converters. The frequency-adaptive characteristics are obtained by using a second-order generalized integrator configured as a quadrature signal generator (SOGI-QSG) with the grid frequency as an explicit input variable. It is also shown how the properties of VF estimation based on SOGI-QSGs can be utilized to achieve a simple and effective synchronization technique that integrates frequency-adaptive bandpass filtering, VF estimation, and symmetrical component sequence separation into one operation. This new method avoids cascaded delays of VF estimation and sequence separation and is labeled as dual SOGI-based VF (DSOGI-VF) estimation since it is based on two parallel SOGI-QSGs. The properties and performance of the DSOGI-VF estimation are analyzed in comparison to conventional configurations of VF estimation and sequence separation, demonstrating that it is a simpler structure with improved dynamic response. In fact, similar response time as for grid synchronization based on voltage measurements is achieved. The operation and performance of the proposed DSOGI-VF estimation method have been verified by laboratory experiments in a small-scale converter setup. View full abstract»

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  • A Three-Phase Current Reconstruction Strategy With Online Current Offset Compensation Using a Single Current Sensor

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2924 - 2933
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1655 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a three-phase current reconstruction technique with an online current offset compensation function for three-phase inverter applications utilizing only a single current sensor. In the proposed current sensing method, a phase current and a branch current are simultaneously measured twice in a switching period by using a single current sensor. After that, the current reconstruction algorithm is applied to obtain the three-phase current information. Compared to previous single current sensor strategies, in the proposed method, the sensor output is regularly sampled, and the dead zone is located near the boundary of the voltage vector space instead of near the origin and the borders of each sector. This boundary-neighbored dead zone makes the proposed method more attractive in extremely low modulation index cases because it avoids periodical dead zones which have been an issue in the existing methods. Moreover, the online compensation method for a current measurement offset makes it possible to achieve purely balanced three-phase current control without an offset component. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been verified through simulations and experiments by measuring and reconstructing three-phase currents under various conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Finite-Element and Analytical Calculations of No-Load Core Losses in Energy-Saving Induction Motors

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2934 - 2946
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3371 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a no-load core loss analysis of a three-phase energy-saving small-size induction motor supplied by a sinusoidal voltage. In the field-circuit approach, the distribution and changes of magnetic flux density in the motor are computed using a time-stepping finite-element method. The discrete Fourier transform is used to analyze the magnetic flux density waveforms in each element of the motor model. The rotational aspect of the field is included by introducing a correction to the losses generated by the first harmonic of magnetic flux density. The core losses in each element are evaluated using a loss curve measured on a toroidal core at different frequencies. Finally, an approximate analytical formulation is derived for rapid field computation. The results are compared with measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Hybrid Rectifier With Near-Sinusoidal Input Currents

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2947 - 2958
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1481 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new hybrid rectifier with near-sinusoidal input currents (RNSIC) converter which increases the performances of classic RNSIC converters. The proposed solution is technically and economically competitive with three-phase diode rectifiers with passive filters. Simulation and experimental results from a laboratory prototype are shown to confirm the validity of the proposed converter. View full abstract»

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  • Implementation of Fuzzy Control to Improve Energy Efficiency of Variable Speed Bulk Material Transportation

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2959 - 2969
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1178 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper presents a control strategy for the system of belt conveyors (BCs) with adjustable speed drives based on the principle of optimum energy consumption. Fuzzy logic controller is used in the algorithm for generating the reference speed. The proposed control structure is developed and tested on the detailed mathematical model of the drive system with the rubber belt. The presented algorithm is implemented on the new variable speed BC system with remote control on an open-pit mine. The measurements were performed to verify the proposed concept during the eight months of exploitation. Results of the measurements are presented in the paper. View full abstract»

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  • A Current-Source-Converter-Based High-Power High-Speed PMSM Drive With 420-Hz Switching Frequency

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 2970 - 2981
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (810 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a current-source-converter (CSC)-based high-power high-speed (HPHS) permanent-magnet synchronous motor drive is proposed for high-speed compressor applications. The most important feature of the proposed CSC-fed HPHS drive is that the switching frequency is limited to 420 Hz at 200-Hz fundamental frequency. In the drive system, the whole operation range is divided into three regions, namely, the high-, medium-, and low-speed regions, where different modulation strategies and control schemes are used with the requirement of switching frequency and output filter. In particular, a two-pulse space vector modulation with dynamic capacitor voltage control is proposed for the high-speed region to achieve better dynamic and harmonic performance. Both simulation and experiments verify the proposed control strategy. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics encompasses the applications of electronics, controls and communications, instrumentation and computational intelligence for the enhancement of industrial and manufacturing systems and processes.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Carlo Cecati
DISIM - Univ. degli Studi dell'Aquila
67100 Aquila, Italy
c.cecati@ieee.org
Phone: +39 0862 434 450
Fax: +39 0862 1960 411