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Electromagnetic Compatibility, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Feb. 2012

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 38
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - 1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Guest Editorial Special Issue on Applications of Nanotechnology in Electromagnetic Compatibility (nano-EMC)

    Page(s): 2 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (242 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The papers in this special issue are grouped in the following main topics: carbon-based nanomaterials for EM shielding and absorbing; nanocrystalline ferromagnetic (NFM) materials for EM shielding; modeling of EM field interaction with nanomaterials; interconnects. View full abstract»

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  • Carbon Onion Composites for EMC Applications

    Page(s): 6 - 16
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1480 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel lightweight onion-like carbon (OLC)-based polymer composite with high electromagnetic (EM) shielding properties is presented. OLC have been produced via the large-scale production technology based on the annealing of detonation nanodiamond under vacuum conditions (or in inert atmosphere). EM shielding effectiveness has been tested in the frequency range of 26-37 GHz. The highest EM attenuation at 36.6 GHz reaching -34 dB was observed for polymethylmethacrylate films comprising 20 wt.% of OLC. The shielding effectiveness data collected for microwave frequencies were found to correlate well with the electrical resistivity measurements by four-probe method as well as conductivity measurements provided by the broadband dielectric spectroscopy (20 Hz-3 GHz). It was proved experimentally that OLC EM shielding capacity can be optimized by varying the nanoonion cluster size and nanodiamond annealing temperature so that effective EM coatings can be produced. Both the experimental observations and theoretical simulations demonstrate that even small (smaller than percolation threshold) additions of OLC particles to a polymer host can noticeably modify the composite response to EM radiation. View full abstract»

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  • Synthesis, Modeling, and Experimental Characterization of Graphite Nanoplatelet-Based Composites for EMC Applications

    Page(s): 17 - 27
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1136 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Graphite nanoplatelets (GNPs) are bidimensional carbon nanostructures consisting of stacks of graphene sheets, having thickness in the range from one up to a few tens of nanometers, and lateral linear dimension in the micrometer range. These nanostructures represent a good candidate to replace carbon nanotubes in composites for electromagnetic applications. This paper proposes a new model based on the Maxwell-Garnett approach to compute the effective complex permittivity of GNP-filled nanocomposites. The effect of the dimensional probabilistic distribution of the nanofiller is investigated. To this purpose, an extensive experimental characterization of the morphological and physical properties of the GNPs after synthesis is performed. The proposed model is validated by comparison with the measured effective permittivity of GNP-composites with different concentrations, and it is used for the design of radar-absorbing materials in the frequency range 1-18 GHz. View full abstract»

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  • Multiwall Carbon Nanotube–Epoxy Composites With High Shielding Effectiveness for Aeronautic Applications

    Page(s): 28 - 36
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1354 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Using mass-produced multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) from different providers, we have fabricated nanocomposites with high and nearly constant shielding effectiveness (SE) over a wide frequency range up to 26.5 GHz. The MWCNT weight fraction and sample thickness were lower than 10% and 2 mm, respectively. The fabrication process and percolation curves are described. A high dc conductivity of 239.1 S/m was achieved at an MWCNT loading of only 8% by weight. The effect of aspect ratio on shielding performance is addressed. By comparing the measured SE of the composite with predictions from a model of the measurement setup using Microwave Studio, the effective conductivity of the nanocomposite was determined. Since the thickness is very important for shielding analysis, the SE/unit thickness diagram was calculated by using the effective parameters of samples. The results were verified experimentally by measuring the SE of samples with different thicknesses. View full abstract»

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  • Salisbury Screen Absorbers of Dielectric Lossy Sheets of Carbon Nanocomposite Laminates

    Page(s): 37 - 42
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    In this paper, we present an innovative radar absorber composed of a dielectric spacer and a dielectric lossy sheet (DLS), instead of the resistive sheet of the conventional Salisbury screen absorber. We propose carbon nanocomposites as DLS to utilize their structural robustness and advantages in large-area applications, while maintaining a relatively precise thickness. These are laminates made of E-glass fabric/epoxy prepregs containing carbon black (CB), carbon nanotube (CNT), and carbon nanofiber (CNF). The spacer is a pure E-glass fabric/epoxy composite laminate. The optimal design process based on a numerical model of the complex permittivity of the carbon nanocomposites, and a genetic algorithm shows that the real part of the complex permittivity of the sheet is closely related to the reduction of the spacer thickness. In contrast, the variation of the imaginary part is very marginal. The design results show that, in the X-band, the absorber thickness is 3.1 mm for the CB-composites, 2.76 mm for the CNT-composites, and 2.5 mm for the CNF-composites. The 10-dB bandwidth of every absorber is about 3.8 GHz. In the Ku-band, the absorber thickness is 1.95 mm for the CB-composites, 1.85 mm for the CNT-composites, and 1.7 mm for the CNF-composites. The 10-dB bandwidth of every absorber is broader than 5.5 GHz. View full abstract»

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  • Electromagnetic Absorption Properties of Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposite Foam Filling Honeycomb Waveguide Structures

    Page(s): 43 - 51
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1251 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Carbon nanotube reinforced polymer foams filling a metallic honeycomb were processed and characterized for the production of hybrid materials with high electromagnetic absorption potential. Electromagnetic modeling and experimental characterization of the hybrids proved that the honeycomb, acting as a hexagonal waveguide, improves the absorption properties in the gigahertz range above the cutoff frequency. The electromagnetic absorption can be tuned by changing the hybrid material properties. The required levels of electrical conductivity are attained owing to the dispersion of low amounts (1-2 wt%) of carbon nanotubes inside the polymer matrix. The combination of the foam and honeycomb architecture contributes to decrease the real part of the relative effective permittivity Re{εr,eff }. Varying the cell shape of the honeycomb changes the frequency range for high absorption. An analytical model for the absorption has been developed, showing good agreement with the experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • Engineered Carbon-Nanotubes-Based Composite Material for RF Applications

    Page(s): 52 - 59
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (801 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electrical properties of nanocomposite materials are extracted to investigate the possibility to engineer novel material for microwave applications. A measurement setup is developed to characterize material in a powder form. The developed measurement technique is applied on nanoparticles of alumina, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and composite mixture of carbon nanotubes and alumina. The effect of packing density on dielectric constant and loss tangent is thoroughly characterized experimentally. The obtained results show that the real part of effective permittivity may be considerably enhanced by increasing the percentage of conducting nanoparticles. In addition, it is possible to decrease the loss in a material by mixing low-loss dielectric nanoparticles powder in a lossy material. View full abstract»

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  • Optimization of Multilayer Shields Made of Composite Nanostructured Materials

    Page(s): 60 - 69
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    In this paper, we propose a multilayer nanostructured composite for broadband shielding applications. Layers disposal, electrical parameters, and thicknesses are optimized through a winning particle optimization algorithm to achieve the minimization of the transmitted waves. The structures are simulated by including the forward/backward scattering matrix formalism in the optimization code. The adopted algorithm is the recently introduced winning particle optimization. Manufacturing of the composites is grounded on the optimization procedure. Thanks to the macroscopic absorption features of such nanostructured layers, very thin and lightweight composites can be produced. Several weight percentages of multiwall carbon nanotubes are considered in composite base material manufacturing, also including 6wt% and 15wt% in order to enhance the electromagnetic shielding performance. Prototypes are tested in the microwave region, showing the reliability of the optimization procedure. View full abstract»

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  • Microwave Frequency Characteristics of Magnetically Functionalized Carbon Nanotube Arrays

    Page(s): 70 - 80
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    This paper reports the results of a comprehensive study of the interaction of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) of the wide frequency range (8-12, 26-37, and 78-118 GHz) with arrays of vertically aligned and disordered carbon nanotubes (CNTs) which have been obtained by the floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition method. The obtained nanotubes represent a composite of multiwall CNTs with encapsulated magnetic nanoparticles of iron phases, i.e., magnetically functionalized nanotubes (MFCNTs). MFCNTs were formed on silicon substrates, and disordered arrays in the form of powder were obtained by separating the MFCNT arrays mechanically from the walls of the quartz reactor. The frequency dependences of the reflection and transmission coefficients of EMR of MFCNTs of two types were investigated. The high electromagnetic shielding efficiency (40 dB) of MFCNTs associated with the reflection of electromagnetic waves was detected. Possible mechanisms of attenuation of electromagnetic signals by aligned and disordered MFCNTs were discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Rigorous Characterization of Carbon Nanotube Complex Permittivity Over a Broadband of RF Frequencies

    Page(s): 81 - 87
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (705 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This study presents a comprehensive characterization of the frequency dependence of the effective complex permittivity of bundled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) considering different densities over a broadband of frequencies from 10 MHz to 50 GHz using only one measurement setup. The extraction technique is based on rigorous modeling of coaxial and circular discontinuities using a mode matching technique in conjunction with an inverse optimization method to map the simulated scattering parameters to those measured by a vector network analyzer. The dramatic values of complex permittivity obtained at low frequencies are physically explained by the percolation theory. The effective permittivity of a mixture of nanoparticles of alumina and CNTs versus frequency and packing density is studied to verify the previously obtained phenomenon. View full abstract»

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  • Nanocrystalline Ferromagnetic Microwires Silicone Flexible Composite With Optical Transparency

    Page(s): 88 - 92
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (658 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Novel flexible transparent composite sheets were fabricated with glass-coated nanocrystalline ferromagnetic microwires and transparent silicone matrix. The free-space method was employed to measure the effective permittivity and shielding effectiveness (SE) of samples fabricated from 4 to 20 GHz. SE of the transparent shielding layer with 1 wt% of microwires and thickness of 0.85 mm can be more than 20 dB when frequency is above 11 GHz. Due to resonance phenomena of the embedded shortcut microwires with a length of about 5 mm, both dielectric permittivity and loss of the composite are quite high at microwave frequency. Hence, such transparent composite sheets may also find applications in microwave applications. View full abstract»

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  • The Nanocrystalline FeSiBCuNb Finemet Absorption Properties at Microwaves

    Page(s): 93 - 100
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (886 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The reflection and absorption properties of powdered nanocrystalline FeSiBCuNb (“Finemet”) alloy at microwaves have been presented. To visualize the shielding ability of this material, the complex permittivity and permeability of pulverized Finemet in the frequency range from 0.2 to 10 GHz have been studied. To measure the permittivity and permeability of powdered Finemet, the modification of the Nicolson, Ross, and Weir method was presented. The modification of this method was mainly based on the unwrapping technique of the measured S-parameter phases. The investigation of permittivity and permeability was realized for pure powders. Four groups of powders with different particle sizes below 200 μm have been investigated. To assess the shielding effectiveness of the nanocrystalline Finemet, two attempts were analyzed. The investigation of the reflection loss of material layer with metal sheet attached to the backside as a reflector was investigated. On the other hand, the reflection and absorption factors of 3-mm-thick layer in free space were additionally analyzed. The obtained results show that the pulverized nanocrystalline Finemet alloy with particle size below 25 μm possesses good absorption properties and, for such particles, the absorption factor is significantly higher than the reflection factor. View full abstract»

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  • Equivalent Circuit for Electromagnetic Interaction and Transmission Through Graphene Sheets

    Page(s): 101 - 109
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1157 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An equivalent circuit for the analysis of the interaction between an electromagnetic field and a thin graphene sheet is derived, based on a local anisotropic model of the graphene conductivity, valid at frequencies below the THz range. Due to the anisotropic properties, the equivalent circuit is a four-port network which couples the fundamental TE and TM polarizations. The possible effects of electrostatic and/or magnetostatic bias are included and the equivalent circuit is next used to investigate the shielding properties of graphene layers against impinging plane waves. While the possibility of tuning the graphene conductivity leads to interesting properties of electronic control of shielding perfomance, the proposed equivalent circuit represents a very simple tool for the relevant analysis and design. View full abstract»

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  • Scattering Properties of Carbon Nanotube Arrays

    Page(s): 110 - 117
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    Interaction of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with electromagnetic waves has not been extensively investigated, nor is well understood. In this paper, we examine the scattering behavior of finite CNTs arrays at terahertz frequencies. To this end, we employ a method of moment (MoM) analysis in conjunction with the thin wire approximation capable of analyzing complex geometries in a few minutes on a standard portable PC. MoM analysis and relevant numerical code is evaluated against published results and excellent agreement is observed. To fully understand scattering properties of CNT arrays, we keep the structures simple, yet valuable results are extracted. Arrays comprise parallel elements and are illuminated by a plane wave. Apart from scattering properties and patterns, current profiles are also quantified and plotted. This analysis and the results extracted are expected to prove useful in the future as a reference for electromagnetic shielding applications. View full abstract»

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  • Green's Function of a Dielectric Slab Grounded by Carbon Fiber Composite Materials

    Page(s): 118 - 125
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    The exact solution is obtained for Green's function of an infinitesimal horizontal electric dipole on a dielectric slab backed by a ground plane of carbon fiber composite (CFC) material. We consider both reinforced continuous carbon fiber (RCCF) CFC and carbon nanotube (CNT) CFC. RCCF is modeled by an electrically anisotropic surface impedance tensor whereas CNT is modeled as isotropic. The spectral domain method is used and the asymptotic part of the integrand is treated by adding and subtracting that for a perfect electric conductor ground, leaving a rapidly-converging term for numerical integration. Numerical results based on this method compare well with results based on a time-domain finite integration technique. The effect of conductivity and anisotropy of the composite ground plane on electric field is investigated. View full abstract»

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  • Signal Transmission Analysis of Multilayer Graphene Nano-Ribbon (MLGNR) Interconnects

    Page(s): 126 - 132
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (891 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Signal transmission characteristics of some multilayer graphene nano-ribbon (MLGNR) interconnects are studied in this paper, with an equivalent single-conductor (ESC) model implemented for the analysis of their transient responses. In this model, both capacitive and inductive couplings between adjacent GNR layers are treated appropriately. According to the derived transfer function using the fourth-order approximation, the output voltage waveforms are predicted for both 14- and 22-nm technology nodes. In particular, the effects of Fermi level of MLGNR on the time delay of the transmitted rectangular pulse are examined and compared. Based on the decoupled partially differential equations (PDEs) for the common and differential modes of voltage wave propagation in the edge-coupled MLGNR interconnects, their output voltage responses are also predicted for different technology nodes, which are useful for the evaluation of on-chip signal integrity or EMC and EMI issues of MLGNR-built transmission lines for the future ICs. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling of Crosstalk Effects in Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Interconnects

    Page(s): 133 - 139
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (676 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Crosstalk effects in multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) interconnects for future ICs are investigated by virtue of the equivalent single conductor model and the finite-difference time-domain solution of transmission line equations. The worst case time delay and the peak crosstalk voltage on victim wire of multiwire MWCNT interconnect configurations are derived and compared to those of the copper (Cu) wire counterparts for the intermediate and global interconnects at the 22- and 14-nm technology nodes. The numerical results illustrate that the crosstalk-induced time delays in the MWCNT interconnects are much smaller than those in the Cu interconnects, in particular, for longer wires. Nevertheless, the MWCNT interconnects exhibit little improvement on the crosstalk-induced noises in comparison with their Cu counterparts. View full abstract»

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  • Carbon Nanotube Interconnects: Process Variation via Polynomial Chaos

    Page(s): 140 - 148
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (808 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper addresses the generation of an enhanced stochastic model of a carbon nanotube interconnect including the effects of process variation. The proposed approach is based on the expansion of the constitutive relations of state-of-the-art deterministic models of nanointerconnects with uncertain parameters in terms of orthogonal polynomials. The method offers comparable accuracy and improved efficiency with respect to conventional methods like Monte Carlo in predicting the statistical behavior of the electrical performance of next-generation data links. An application example involving both the frequency- and time-domain analysis of a realistic nanointerconnect concludes this paper. View full abstract»

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  • Electromagnetic Compatibility-Oriented Study on Through Silicon Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Bundle Via (TS-SWCNTBV) Arrays

    Page(s): 149 - 157
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1061 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electromagnetic compatibility-oriented study is performed for accurately characterizing through silicon single-walled carbon nanotube bundle via (TS-SWCNTBV) array in this paper. Based on the modified equivalent lumped-element circuit model of a pair of TS-SWCNTBVs, its forward transmission coefficient, in comparison with copper- and tungsten-based TSVs, is investigated for different metallic fractions of the SWCNTs, with quantum effects treated appropriately. The 3-D transmission-line method (TLM) is further employed for studying mutual couplings in three, four, and nine TS-SWCNTBV arrays, respectively, where the effects of their geometrical and physical parameters on the effective capacitance and conductance are examined in detail. Also, transient coupling noises in different arrays excited by a clock signal, respectively, are predicted and compared, which are useful for the design of high density TS-SWCNTBV arrays with better signal transmission performance. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical Modeling of Carbon Nanotube Vias

    Page(s): 158 - 166
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (626 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper investigates the electrical behavior of vias made by bundles of either single-walled or multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The electronic transport in the CNTs is modeled through the kinetic inductance, the quantum capacitance, and the electrical resistance, which depend on the equivalent number of the CNT conducting channels. The dependence of such a number on the CNT radius, chirality, and temperature is described by using the quasi-classical transport theory. Since for the common mode the effects of the intershell tunneling are negligible, the interaction between different shells is described by using the classical electromagnetic theory. A simple but accurate equivalent lumped model for vias made by CNT bundles is proposed. Vias of interest in nanoelectronic applications are here analyzed, with particular focus on the behavior of electrical parameters versus temperature and frequency. View full abstract»

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  • Accurate and Efficient Numerical Simulation of the Random Environment Within an Ideal Reverberation Chamber

    Page(s): 167 - 173
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    An electromagnetic susceptibility test within an ideal reverberation chamber is numerically simulated using the moment method (MM). The random field environment within the chamber is synthesized using a superposition of plane waves that are propagating in fixed directions determined rigorously from spectral sampling theory. Randomness is introduced in the complex field amplitudes associated with each plane wave. This approach yields field statistics within a designated test region that approach ideal. Moreover, the fixed propagation directions allow very efficient calculation of the currents induced at specific test points on an equipment-under-test due to the random field realizations. MM calculations show that the proposed sampling method yields a better prediction of the statistics of the induced current while requiring far less computation time than the currently used technique of superimposing randomly propagating plane waves to yield field realizations. View full abstract»

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  • On the Power Dissipated by an Antenna in Transmit Mode or in Receive Mode in a Reverberation Chamber

    Page(s): 174 - 180
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    One of the main characteristics of a reverberation chamber is its quality factor since it determines the field enhancement and the decay time of the impulse response. If a receiving antenna is placed in the room, it absorbs part of the energy which leads to a decrease of the intrinsic quality factor of the room. Such a well-known phenomenon is quantified by the quality factor of the receiving antenna, and a simple analytical formula is available in the literature. If the antenna placed in the chamber is a transmitting antenna, it also receives the waves reflected by the chamber walls and it is often supposed that its quality factor is still given by the same formula. However, it has been already outlined that the quality factor of an antenna used either in a transmitting mode or in a receiving mode is not identical, but differ by a factor of two. The objective of this contribution is to propose an analytical approach, based on the statistical properties of scattering matrices, to justify this result. Furthermore, experiments have been carried out both in the frequency domain and in the time domain to clearly point out the increase of the power dissipated in a transmit-mode antenna. Polarization effects are also studied. View full abstract»

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  • Simplified Local Specific Absorption Rate Measurement Method Using Lightweight Phantom Composed of Wave Absorber Embedded of Electric Field Probe

    Page(s): 181 - 187
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1019 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a simplified local SAR measurement method is developed. A lightweight phantom composed of wave absorber embedded of electric field probe is designed. The relative permittivity and conductivity of wave absorber is determined in order to equalize the surface electric field of the wave absorber and the standard liquid phantom. For this purpose, it is suitable to equalize the amplitude of the surface impedances of the two cases. The internal electric field is estimated with the estimated penetration depth. The peak spatial-average SAR of an inverted F-antenna mounted on a metal plate using the proposed measurement method is almost identical to the analytical result of the liquid phantom. The error of the proposed measurement method is within the allowable limits including measurement error. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Capability publishes original and significant contributions related to all disciplines of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and relevant methods to predict, assess and prevent electromagnetic interference (EMI) and increase device/product immunity.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Professor Farhad Rachidi
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL)
EMC Laboratory
CH-1015 Lausanne
Switzerland
Phone: +41 (0) 21 693 26 20 (direct)
+41 (0) 21 693 26 61 (secretariat)
Fax: +41 (0) 21 693 46 62
Email: Farhad.Rachidi@epfl.ch
url: http://emc.epfl.ch