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Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date March 2012

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 36
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - 565
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  • IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Multisine With Optimal Phase-Plane Uniformity for ADC Testing

    Page(s): 566 - 578
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1514 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A multisine excitation signal enables fast and statistically robust measurement of the nonlinear behavior of analog devices under test. This paper describes the design considerations and constraints of a multisine excitation signal when it is applied to analog-to-digital converter testing. A novel phase-plane uniformity objective function followed by an optimization procedure is proposed to optimize the multisine excitation signal. Performance comparison between the proposed multisine design and other alternative multisine design is carried out. It is demonstrated that the proposed phase-space uniform multisine enables better representation of the conversion error distribution compared with existing multisine designs. This results in a more accurate assessment of the analog-to-digital converter performance. View full abstract»

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  • Enhanced Random Equivalent Sampling Based on Compressed Sensing

    Page(s): 579 - 586
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (360 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The feasibility of compressed-sensing-based (CS) waveform reconstruction for data sampled from the random equivalent sampling (RES) method is investigated. RES is a well-known random sampling method that samples high-frequency periodic signals using low-frequency sampling circuits. It has been incorporated in modern digital oscilloscopes. However, the efficiency and accuracy of RES may be sensitive to timing uncertainty of analog RES circuits. For signals with sparsely populated harmonic components, the CS-based signal reconstruction method promises to mitigate the inherent timing error and to enhance the overall performance. A novel measurement matrix motivated by the Whittaker-Shannon interpolation formula is proposed for this purpose. Experiments indicate that, for spectrally sparse signal, the CS-reconstructed waveform exhibits a significantly higher signal-to-noise ratio than that using the traditional time-alignment method. A prototype realization of this proposed CS-RES method has been developed using off-the-shelf components. It is able to capture analog waveforms at an equivalent sampling rate of 25 GHz while sampled at 100 MHz physically. View full abstract»

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  • Reduction of Parasitic Capacitance Impact in Low-Power SAR ADC

    Page(s): 587 - 594
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (594 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Many low-power successive approximation register analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) use separate small capacitors, instead of the entire charge scaling (CS) capacitor arrays, to sample the analog inputs. While reducing power consumption, it makes these ADCs prone to gain errors and input range reduction caused by parasitic capacitance of the CS array. This paper presents an effective technique with negligible hardware overhead to address this problem. Simulation results are also presented to validate the proposed technique. View full abstract»

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  • Distributed Spatiotemporal Neural Network for Nonlinear Dynamic Transmitter Modeling and Adaptive Digital Predistortion

    Page(s): 595 - 608
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1514 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an adaptive neural network (NN) approach for the behavioral modeling of wireless transmitters exhibiting dynamic nonlinearities that are mainly caused by the power amplifier (PA). The proposed distributed spatiotemporal NN mimics the functionality of the mammal cerebellum, which is capable of very fast learning and contains features of interpolation. PAs' memory effects are modeled by using linear affine projection on a local function generated by preceding signal inputs. The applicability of the proposed model is validated in the frequency and time domains for forward and reverse modeling using a highly nonlinear Doherty amplifier and a class AB PA driven by wideband code division multiple access and WiMAX signals. The modeling performance is compared with existing techniques to establish it as a successful model that requires a relatively less demanding processing speed and memory requirement during the identification procedure. This model was found to be effective for adaptive applications such as baseband predistortion-based linearization of wireless transmitters. View full abstract»

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  • A Bluetooth Radio Energy Consumption Model for Low-Duty-Cycle Applications

    Page(s): 609 - 617
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    This paper presents a realistic model of the radio energy consumption for Bluetooth-equipped sensor nodes used in a low-duty-cycle network. The model is based on empirical energy consumption measurements of Bluetooth modules. This model will give users the possibility to optimize their radio communication with respect to energy consumption while sustaining the data rate. This paper shows that transmission power cannot always be directly related to energy consumption. Measurements indicate that, when the transmission power ranges from -5 to +10 dBm, the difference in consumed energy can be detected for each transmission peak in the sniff peak. However, the change is negligible for the overall energy consumption. The nonlinear behavior of the idle state for both master and slave when increasing the interval and number of attempts is presented. The energy consumption for a master node is in direct relation to the number of slaves and will increase by approximately 50% of the consumption of one slave per additional slave, regardless of the radio setting. View full abstract»

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  • A Compact Remote Monitoring System for a Three-Phase 10-kVA Energy-Efficient Switchable Distribution Transformer

    Page(s): 618 - 628
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2002 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Remote monitoring has been implemented in many areas. This paper introduces its specific application to a three-phase 10-kVA energy-efficient switchable distribution transformer. A designed embedded system and embedded Ethernet have been implemented to achieve a compact remote condition monitoring for the transformer. The embedded system performs acquisition of voltages, currents, and temperatures, controls the switching devices that connect the tappings of the transformer, and processes acquired data. Client and server applications were developed through the use of embedded Ethernet to enable remote monitoring through a local area network (LAN). Some protocols were developed as parts of software development of the whole system. Experimentation was done by applying the remote monitoring system to the transformer connected to three-phase variable supply voltage and load. Results of the experimentation by using a LAN available in the school revealed that the system can handle remote monitoring and control tasks for the transformer. View full abstract»

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  • Influence of the Carrier Phase on Flicker Measurement for Rectangular Voltage Fluctuations

    Page(s): 629 - 635
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (395 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an analysis of the influence of the phase relationship between the fundamental frequency and the rectangular voltage fluctuation on flicker measurements made by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) flickermeter. We analytically studied the origin of the deviations for a set of significant fluctuation frequencies. We found that the nonlinear behavior of the squaring multiplier of the IEC flickermeter produces an additional dc component in instantaneous flicker sensation Pinst for several rectangular fluctuation frequencies. The value of this dc component depends on the phase relationship between the fundamental and the fluctuation frequency. The analysis of this paper has contributed to clarify the definition of some performance tests of the IEC flickermeter standard IEC 61000-4-15 ed.2. This will help develop calibration and verification methods for the flickermeters. View full abstract»

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  • Power Components Estimation According to IEEE Standard 1459–2010 Under Wide-Range Frequency Deviations

    Page(s): 636 - 644
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1001 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes an accurate and computationally efficient time-domain implementation of the IEEE Standard 1459-2010 for power measurements. The most important parts are adaptive low- and bandpass finite-impulse-response (FIR) filters that extract dc and fundamental components, respectively. In addition, coefficient sensitivity problems of the large-order FIR comb cascade structure are overridden by using a multirate (decimation) digital signal processing technique. Even more, by using decimation antialiasing filters, the parameter estimation accuracy is improved. The symmetrical components are estimated through adaptive transformation matrix of phase shifters. The algorithm convergence provided a fast response and adaptability. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is demonstrated by simulation results. The algorithm shows a very high level of robustness and high measurement accuracy over a wide range of frequency changes. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of Best Linear Approximation of a Wiener–Hammerstein System for Arbitrary Amplitude Distributions

    Page(s): 645 - 654
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (781 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For a nonlinear system with an input signal having a Gaussian probability distribution (this includes random-phase multisines), the best linear approximation (BLA) is proportional to the frequency response of the overall system. However, this is not the case for non-Gaussian input signals, for which the frequency response is biased with respect to the Gaussian BLA. In this paper, theoretical expressions for determining this bias for Wiener-Hammerstein systems are developed both for binary input signals and for white noise inputs with arbitrary probability distribution. Cubic and quintic nonlinearities are considered, but the methods can be extended to other forms of polynomial nonlinearity. Simple measures for quantifying the bias are also developed. It is shown that the bias decays rapidly to zero for a growing length of the impulse response. View full abstract»

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  • On the Definition of Radar Range Resolution for Targets of Greatly Differing RCS

    Page(s): 655 - 663
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1247 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Conventional radar system design uses only waveform bandwidth to measure the range resolution. This paper examines the effect of both bandwidth and the difference in target radar cross section on range resolution. In the context of the subject scenario, the nature of the pulse-compressed return is studied, and a commonly used measurement definition of range resolution that assumes equally reflective targets is extended to account for the difference in target reflectivity as well. Results are presented as an application of the derived results to depict how resolution performance is affected by various parameters and how a more comprehensive definition of range resolution can be used during the system design. View full abstract»

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  • Integration of Triaxial Hall-Effect Sensor Technology for Gear Position Sensing in Commercial Vehicle Transmissions

    Page(s): 664 - 672
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1059 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The proliferation of microprocessor architecture onboard transmission control modules has seen sensors play a crucial role in feedback control. This paper presents a linear position sensor module with a Hall-effect element for gear position sensing in a commercial vehicle transmission. Finite-element analysis model of the sensor performance has been performed, and the model has been validated against experimental data from the sensor prototype. The significance of this paper is that a low-cost linear position sensor module has been developed with high linearity, high output resolution (37.5 μm), and high accuracy (0.25 mm) for gear position sensing. The complete sensor system is designed for ease of manufacturing and application in harsh transmission environments, such as high-temperature profiles ranging from -40 °C to +135 °C. View full abstract»

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  • Statistical Modeling of Rate Gyros

    Page(s): 673 - 684
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (696 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Gyroscopes are integral components of inertial measurement units, which are used for guidance and stabilization of many platforms. This paper presents an algorithm for estimating the statistical parameters that govern the performance of rate gyros, i.e., the spectral densities R and Q of the angle random walk and rate random walk components, respectively. Previous work on gyro modeling is based on computing the Allan variance of a gyro signal and using a well-known formula for its mean. The algorithm in this paper uses these as well as the following quantities, which are derived in this paper: the theoretical variance of the Allan variance and the covariance between different Allan variance points. The algorithm is developed using the formulation of the best linear unbiased estimator from statistical estimation theory. The performance of the algorithm is demonstrated using simulated and experimental data. A bound on the error in the integral of the gyro output, as a function of Q and R, is also derived. View full abstract»

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  • Inchoate Fault Detection Framework: Adaptive Selection of Wavelet Nodes and Cumulant Orders

    Page(s): 685 - 695
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (983 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Inchoate fault detection for machine health monitoring (MHM) demands high level of fault classification accuracy under poor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) which persists in most industrial environment. Vibration signals are extensively used in signature matching for abnormality detection and diagnosis. In order to guarantee improved performance under poor SNR, feature extraction based on statistical parameters which are immune to Gaussian noise becomes inevitable. This paper proposes a novel framework for adaptive feature extraction based on higher order cumulants (HOCs) and wavelet transform (WT) (AFHCW) for MHM. Features extracted based on HOCs have the tendency to mitigate the impact of Gaussian noise. WT provides better time and frequency domain analysis for the nonstationary signals such as vibration in which spectral contents vary with respect to time. In AFHCW, stationary WT is used to ensure linear processing on the vibration data prior to feature extraction, and it helps in mitigating the impact of poor SNR. K-nearest neighbor classifier is used to categorize the type of the fault. Simulation studies show that the proposed scheme outperforms the existing techniques in terms of classification accuracy under poor SNR. View full abstract»

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  • On-Chip Noise Sensor for Integrated Circuit Susceptibility Investigations

    Page(s): 696 - 707
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    With the growing concerns about electromagnetic compatibility of integrated circuits, the need for accurate prediction tools and models to reduce risks of noncompliance becomes critical for circuit designers. However, an on-chip characterization of noise is still necessary for model validation and design optimization. Although different on-chip measurement solutions have been proposed for emission issue characterization, no on-chip measurement methods have been proposed to address the susceptibility issues. This paper presents an on-chip noise sensor dedicated to the study of circuit susceptibility to electromagnetic interferences. A demonstration of the sensor measurement performances and benefits is proposed through a study of the susceptibility of a digital core to conducted interferences. Sensor measurements ensure a better characterization of actual coupling of interferences within the circuit and a diagnosis of failure origins. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis, Enhancement, and Sensitivity Improvement of the Correlation Image Sensor

    Page(s): 708 - 718
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (935 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The correlation image sensor (CIS) is used in a variety of applications which involve the extraction and measurement of low-amplitude-modulated light signals from background interferences. Many applications have been reported on measurement of ac magnetic flux, interferometry, eye gaze tracking, and indirect 3-D imaging using these sensors. In this paper, the performance of different derivatives of the CIS is analyzed, and some modification is applied to the CIS to significantly increase its sensitivity at higher frame rates and reduce its output error. The effect of undesired parameters, such as parasitic capacitances, device mismatches, charge transfers, random noise, and temperature variations, is studied, and modified architectures are proposed to reduce them. The maximum demodulation frequency is also shown to be increased compared to original CIS. The presented designs are compared with previous solutions under similar operating conditions using a 0.35-μm standard CMOS technology. It is shown that the designs can be used to detect lower modulated signal levels over a wider background dynamic range. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental Stress Characterization of a Biomedical Ultrasound Probe Soldered With Innovative Silver Isotropically Conductive Adhesive

    Page(s): 719 - 728
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1004 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the coming years, biomedical instrument manufacturers will have to inform the Notified Body of RoHS conformity assessment of the new medical instruments. In particular, in the case of lead-free solders, the Notified Body will require evidence that such solders are equally reliable as tin-lead, for the proposed use and lifetime of the product. So, biomedical instrument manufacturers are strongly interested in evaluating the performance of new soldering lead-free material used for the implementation of electronic parts. In order to support them and fill the technology knowledge gap, this paper presents a novel 128-channel phased-array probe for echocardiograph applications realized by new soldering technique where isotropic silver electrically conductive adhesive is used. In particular, the new soldering material is taken into consideration in the design phase of ultrasound array transducer, which is the core of a linear phased-array probe that is able to monitor the cardiac muscle. Being such material innovative in the application, a detailed study of the failure condition regarding the phased-array probe by means of accelerated qualification testing is proposed in order to assure its performances under stress and over time. A comparison of the electroacoustic measurement results with respect to the conventional probe, soldered with Sn-Pb, is also presented in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • A Low Power CMOS Voltage Regulator for a Wireless Blood Pressure Biosensor

    Page(s): 729 - 739
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (485 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a CMOS implementation of a linear voltage regulator (LVR) used to power up implanted physiological signal systems, as it is the case of a wireless blood pressure biosensor. The topology is based on a classical structure of a linear low-dropout regulator. The circuit is powered up from an RF link, thus characterizing a passive radio frequency identification (RFID) tag. The LVR was designed to meet important features such as low power consumption and small silicon area, without the need for any external discrete components. The low power operation represents an essential condition to avoid a high-energy RF link, thus minimizing the transmitted power and therefore minimizing the thermal effects on the patient's tissues. The project was implemented in a 0.35-μm CMOS process, and the prototypes were tested to validate the overall performance. The LVR output is regulated at 1 V and supplies a maximum load current of 0.5 mA at 37°C. The load regulation is 13 mV/mA, and the line regulation is 39 mV/V. The LVR total power consumption is 1.2 mW. View full abstract»

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  • Contactless Rotor RPM Measurement Using Laser Mouse Sensors

    Page(s): 740 - 748
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (876 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an experimental study using laser mouse sensors for the contactless revolutions per minute (RPM) measurement of a rotating shaft. The sensor performance characterization experiment is firstly conducted under different parameter setups. After the optimal parameter value has been found, the rotor RPM experiment is then conducted with a speed sweep from 500 to 3800 rpm, and data are gathered at 30 different speeds and processed using two different methods to convert the sensor readings into the RPM of the rotating shaft; the results are then displayed. The performance differences between the two methods are compared, and the observation is that both the linearity and the signal-to-noise ratio of the frequency correlation method are several times better than those for the amplitude correlation method. The conclusion summarizes the experimental results and the advantage associated with this new RPM sensing method and provides the motivation for its potential applications and its future works. View full abstract»

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  • A Mixed Filtering Approach for Track Condition Monitoring Using Accelerometers on the Axle Box and Bogie

    Page(s): 749 - 758
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2508 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a method of estimating irregularities in railway tracks using acceleration data measured from high-speed trains. Track irregularities are the main causes of the vibration of high-speed trains and thus should be carefully monitored to maintain the stability and ride quality of the trains. A mixed filtering approach is proposed for stable displacement estimation and waveband classification of the irregularities in the measured acceleration. Accelerometers are mounted on the axle box and the bogie of a high-speed train to measure the acceleration in the lateral and vertical directions. The estimated results are compared with those of a commercial track geometry measurement system. Finally, the performance of the proposed approach and the relationship between the mounted location of the accelerometers and the estimated track irregularities are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Very Fast Measurement of Low Speed of Rotating Machines Using Rotating Magnetic Field

    Page(s): 759 - 766
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1265 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The measurement at low speed becomes very difficult due to the slow response of transducers. At low speed (below 10 r/min), normally, transducers take several seconds to give the required output signal. In the proposed technique, a fast rotating magnetic field (RMF) is used to measure the speed as well as deviation in speed for low-speed machines. A sine wave oscillator (single-phase ac source) is used to generate a balanced three-phase ac voltage, which is applied to the stator windings of a synchro whose rotor is coupled with the rotating member or rotor of a motor. The RMF in the air gap generates emf in the rotor of the synchro whose frequency depends upon the slip speed. Since the RMF revolves at a speed several times the speed of the rotating member or the rotor of the motor, hence the measurement becomes very fast. The proposed scheme is tested successfully even at 1 r/min, and the overall performance is recorded at dynamic conditions. The results of the measurements are compared with a conventional method (tachogenerator), which shows the accuracy of the proposed method. The output is also obtained in terms of dc voltage and dc current, which can be used for feed-back and control applications. View full abstract»

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  • Current Excitation Method for \Delta {R} Measurement in Piezo-Resistive Sensors With a 0.3-ppm Resolution

    Page(s): 767 - 774
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (965 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new highly sensitive (10 μV/ppm) bidirectional current excitation method for piezo-resistive sensor measurements, through excitation of two half bridges for ΔR measurement. The proposed circuit is insensitive to thermoelectric and stray noise effects since it measures the peak-to-peak value of the generated voltage. Measurement results using resistors show that variations as low as 0.3 ppm are measurable from 15°C to 80°C with resistors. As an experimental application, 40 parts per billion variation in gas concentration using piezo-resistive SU-8 microcantilevers is measured by the proposed circuit at room temperature. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Implementation of a Stator-Free RPM Sensor Prototype Based on MEMS Accelerometers

    Page(s): 775 - 785
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1247 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a prototype of a stator-free revolutions-per-minute (RPM) sensor based on two microelectromechanical-system uniaxial accelerometers. This paper first introduces the operating principle of the stator-free RPM sensor. It then discusses the associated architecture and design issues of this new sensing method. It then describes the detail of the prototype sensor hardware and software design of the common-mode rejection method and its signal processing. Experiments using the prototype sensor have been also conducted to further verify and strengthen the arguments put forward in the previous discussion. All experiments in this paper took place on a lathe machine in a laboratory. Sensor calibration under a MATLAB environment is also described. Experimental results confirm the interesting property of this sensor, namely, that it provides higher precision at higher RPM. The conclusion summarizes the design considerations, the experimental results, and the motivation in relation to future works for this stator-free RPM sensing method. View full abstract»

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  • Improved Measurement of AC–DC Transfer Difference Using a Low-Drift Single-Junction Thermal Converter

    Page(s): 786 - 790
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (228 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We reduced the exponentially decreasing thermal drift of a single-junction thermal converter and performed comparison measurements of the ac-dc transfer difference. The thermal converter was mounted on a metal block using a high-thermal-conductance paste; this treatment is crucial to improving the thermal drift. Numerical calculations using a thermal model that includes the temperature increase on the cold side of the thermocouple can explain the measured thermal drift. Our system, which uses a low-drift thermal converter, allows comparison measurements of the ac-dc transfer difference at a few parts in 107 with a short measurement time if a sufficiently long waiting time is used. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Papers are sought that address innovative solutions to the development and use of electrical and electronic instruments and equipment to measure, monitor and/or record physical phenomena for the purpose of advancing measurement science, methods, functionality and applications.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Prof. Alessandro Ferrero
Dipartimento di Elettrotecnica
Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32
Politecnico di Milano
Milano 20133 Italy
alessandro.ferrero@polimi.it
Phone: 39-02-2399-3751
Fax: 39-02-2399-3703