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Mechatronics, IEEE/ASME Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date April 2012

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Displaying Results 1 - 23 of 23
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - C4
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  • IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Sliding-Mode Antisway Control of an Offshore Container Crane

    Page(s): 201 - 209
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (909 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a sliding-mode control for an offshore container crane is discussed. The offshore container crane is used to load/unload containers between a huge container ship (called the “mother ship”) and a smaller ship (called the “mobile harbor”), on which the crane is installed. The purpose of the mobile harbor is to load/unload containers in the open sea and transport them to shallower water where they can be offloaded at existing conventional ports, thereby obviating the need for expansive and expensive new facilities. The load/unload control objective is to suppress the pendulum motion (i.e., “sway”) of the load in the presence of the wave- and wind-induced movements (heave, roll, and pitch) of the mobile harbor. A new mechanism for lateral sway control, therefore, is proposed as well. A sliding surface is designed in such a way that the longitudinal sway of the load is incorporated with the trolley dynamics. The asymptotic stability of the closed-loop system is guaranteed by a control law derived for the purpose. The proposed new mechanism can suppress lateral sway, which functionality is not possible with conventional cranes. Simulation results are provided. View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of Attitude Tracking Using an Integrated Inertial and Magnetic Navigation System for Hand-Held Surgical Instruments

    Page(s): 210 - 217
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (675 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Due to the need for accurate navigation in minimally invasive surgery, many methods have been introduced to the operating room for tracking the position and orientation of instruments. This paper considers the subproblem of using integrated inertial and magnetic sensing to track the attitude (orientation) of surgical instruments. In this scenario, it is usually assumed that the sensor is quasi-static and the surrounding magnetic field is steady. For practical hand-held surgical instruments, perturbations exist due to intended and unintended (e.g., tremor) motion and due to distortion of the surrounding magnetic field. We consider the problem of estimating the gravity and magnetic field in the inertial sensor frame with small perturbations. The dynamics of the gravity and magnetic field is studied under perturbations, their relationships to gyroscope measurements are analyzed, and Kalman filters (KFs) are formulated to reduce these perturbations. The estimated gravity and magnetic values (outputs of the KFs) are subsequently used in an extended KF for attitude estimation. In this filter, the prediction model is given by the system dynamics, formulated using quaternions, and the observation model is given by vector analysis of the estimated gravity and magnetic field. Experiments are performed to validate the algorithms under clinically realistic motions. The complete system demonstrates an improvement in the accuracy of the attitude estimate in the presence of small perturbations, and satisfies the specified accuracy requirement of 1°. View full abstract»

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  • Three-Fingered Eight-DOF Hand That Exerts 100-N Grasping Force With Force-Magnification Drive

    Page(s): 218 - 227
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1258 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a three-fingered, eight-DOF hand, 100 N Hand II, which can exert a grasping force of 100 N. A force-magnification drive, which can maintain a large grasping force without energy consumption, allows the hand to exert such large grasping force, and a high-speed driving mechanism enables all joints to perform high-speed motions of over 400°/s. In our previous prototype (100 N Hand I), a screw and nut mechanism was used to implement force magnification. The linear motion of this mechanism was translated to rotational joint motion via a linkage mechanism, producing a relatively small motion range for each joint and with large palm dimensions. 100 N Hand II employs a worm gear instead of a screw and nut mechanism, so it can magnify the torque at an arbitrary joint angle. This improved force-magnification drive increases the motion range of each joint and reduces the palm size. The force and speed are confirmed experimentally. View full abstract»

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  • Statistical Transparency Analysis in Internet-Distributed Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation

    Page(s): 228 - 238
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (685 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Internet-distributed hardware-in-the-loop simulation (ID-HILS) is emerging as a critical enabler for geographically dispersed concurrent systems engineering. This paper is concerned with transparency in ID-HILS, which is a measure of fidelity with respect to the nondistributed alternative of integration. Specifically, recognizing the need for a transparency analysis method for stochastic and nonlinear ID-HILS systems in general, the paper first proposes a statistical transparency analysis method. Next, this method is applied to a novel ID-HILS system. This application helps draw two important general conclusions: 1) Distributing the simulation can in and of itself be an important source of transparency degradation and can even dominate the adverse effects of the Internet's delay, jitter, and loss when delay is relatively small; and 2) transparency is not an independent property of the system, but is a system property that needs to be defined with respect to an output, as different output signals in the same system can experience different levels of transparency. These conclusions are important for guiding future efforts to improve transparency in a given ID-HILS system, and the proposed method enables such transparency analysis in other stochastic nonlinear ID-HILS systems, as well. View full abstract»

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  • Reality-Based Real-Time Cell Indentation Simulator

    Page(s): 239 - 250
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1437 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Training simulators that provide realistic visual and haptic feedback during cell indentation tasks are currently investigated. Complex cell geometry inherent to biological cells and intricate mechanical properties drive the need for precise mechanical and numerical modeling to assure accurate cell deformation and force calculations. Advances in alternative finite-element formulation, such as the mass-tensor approach, have reached a state, where they are applicable to model soft-cell deformation in real time. The geometrical characteristics and the mechanical properties of different cells are determined with atomic force microscopy (AFM) indentation. A real-time, haptics-enabled simulator for cell centered indentation has been developed, which utilizes the AFM data (mechanical and geometrical properties of embryonic stem cells) to accurately replicate the indentation task and predict the cell deformation during indentation in real time. This tool can be used as a mechanical marker to characterize the biological state of the cell. The operator is able to feel the change in the stiffness during cell deformation between fixed and live cells in real time. A comparative study with finite-element simulations using a commercial software and the experimental data demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed physically based model. View full abstract»

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  • Application of Singular Perturbation Theory to Hydraulic Pump Controlled Systems

    Page(s): 251 - 259
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    In this paper, we use singular perturbation theory to simplify control designs for hydraulic systems and to make designs more feasible for engineering practice. The paper presents the derivations, simulations and experimental tests of control laws for a hydraulic displacement-controlled actuator. Analyses of applied conditions and stability proofs are provided. The developed control design procedure is simplified and is robust to variations in the bulk modulus. The proposed design is simulated with cases of different control input models. Experiments are conducted on a novel hydraulic circuit. The results show that position tracking error exponentially decays and control efforts are dominated by low-frequency signals. View full abstract»

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  • Piezoelectric Rotary Motor Based on Active Bulk Torsional Element With Grooved Helical Electrodes

    Page(s): 260 - 268
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1395 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An impact rotary motor based on a bulk piezoelectric torsional actuator with grooved helical electrodes is proposed. The prototype actuator, with dimensions of Φ 8 mm × 10 mm, produces a maximum torsional angle of 0.035° with a driving voltage of 2200 Vp-p. Its first torsional resonant frequency is 32 kHz with the fixed-free boundary condition. The rotational speed of the developed motor is proportional to both the amplitude and the frequency of the driving voltage in low frequency range. With a saw-shaped driving voltage of 1400 Vp-p at 8 kHz, the motor can rotate at a speed of 22.5 r/min with a braking torque of 0.1 mN·m, and the stall torque can reach up to 1.6 mN·m. Although its maximum efficiency is less than 0.1%, the motor produces a rather small step angle with a large driving torque. It is suitable for ultrahigh precision positioning. View full abstract»

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  • Servo Control of Magnetic Gears

    Page(s): 269 - 278
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1785 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper considers the analysis and application of magnetic gearbox and magnetic coupling technologies and issues surrounding their use in high performance servo control systems. An analysis of a prototype magnetic coupling is used as a basis for demonstrating the underlying nonlinear torque transfer characteristics, nonlinear damping, and “pole-slipping” features when subjected to overtorque (overload) conditions. It is also shown how pole-slipping results in a consequential loss of control. A theoretical investigation into the suppression of mechanical torsional resonances in transmission systems encompassing these highly compliant magnetically coupled components is included along with experimental results from a demonstrator drive train. Automatic detection of pole slipping and a reconfigurable controller are also investigated. By addressing these issues, the proposed techniques extend the application scope of magnetic gear/coupling technologies to more demanding applications than those hitherto considered possible-specifically, for use in servo control systems and high-bandwidth mechanical drive trains. View full abstract»

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  • Controllable Lubrication for Main Engine Bearings Using Mechanical and Piezoelectric Actuators

    Page(s): 279 - 287
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    Although mechatronic systems are nowadays implemented in a large number of systems in vehicles, active lubrication systems are still incipient in industrial applications. This study is an attempt to extend the active lubrication concept to combustion engines and gives a theoretical contribution to this field. One refers to active lubrication when conventional hydrodynamic lubrication is combined with dynamically modified hydrostatic lubrication. In this study, two different schemes for the oil injection system in actively lubricated main engine bearings are presented. The use of active lubrication in journal bearings helps to enhance the hydrodynamic fluid film by increasing the fluid film thickness and consequently reducing viscous friction losses and vibrations. In this study, the hydrostatic lubrication is modified by injecting oil at controllable pressures through orifices circumferentially located around the bearing surface. The main equations that govern the dynamics of the injection for a piezo-actuated oil injector and a mechanical-actuated oil injector are presented. It is shown how the dynamics of the oil injection system is coupled to the dynamics of the bearing fluid film through equations. The global system is numerically solved using as a case study a single-cylinder combustion engine, where the conventional lubrication of the main bearing is modified by applying radial oil injection using piezo-actuated injection. The performance of such a hybrid bearing is compared to an equivalent conventional lubricated bearing in terms of the maximum fluid film pressures, minimum fluid film thicknesses, and reduction of viscous friction losses. View full abstract»

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  • A Compact Rotary Series Elastic Actuator for Human Assistive Systems

    Page(s): 288 - 297
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1429 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Precise and large torque generation, back drivability, low output impedance, and compactness of hardware are important requirements for human assistive robots. In this paper, a compact rotary series elastic actuator (cRSEA) is designed considering these requirements. To magnify the torque generated by an electric motor in the limited space of the compact device, a worm gear is utilized. However, the actual torque amplification ratio provided by the worm gear is different from the nominal speed reduction ratio due to friction, which makes the controller design challenging. In this paper, the friction effect is considered in the model of cRSEA, and a robust control algorithm is designed to precisely control the torque output in the presence of nonlinearities such as the friction. The mechanical design and dynamic model of the proposed device and the design of a robust control algorithm are discussed, and actuation performance is verified by experiments. Experimental results with a human subject are also presented to show the performance of the cRSEA while interacting with humans. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental Verification of Discrete Switching Vibration Suppression

    Page(s): 298 - 308
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1118 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Control system design for flexible robotic systems requires special care with regard to the control system design to prevent oscillation in the system's resonant modes. If the resonant frequencies of such a system are known, it is possible to determine a switching command that delivers comparable actuation without exciting these natural modes of vibration. If there is redundancy in actuation, it can be exploited to suppress vibration with a reduced amount of actuator changes in state. Minimum switching discrete switching vibration suppression (MSDSVS) involves choosing a switching function with integer amplitudes and continuously variable switch timings to force the root of the residual oscillation function with respect to frequency to be at a resonance. By minimizing the one norm of the vector of amplitudes, we obtain several desired properties. Such a vibration suppression command is developed for a flexible robotic actuator, and experimental results are presented. The proposed command reduces residual oscillation by 73% (rms) and 74% (largest Fourier component) and represents a 37% energy savings over vibration suppression commands that do not exploit the redundancy in actuation. View full abstract»

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  • An Adaptive Modeling Method for a Robot Belt Grinding Process

    Page(s): 309 - 317
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    A robot belt grinding system has a good prospect for releasing hand grinders from their dirty and noisy work environment. However, as a kind of manufacturing system with a flexible grinder, it is a challenge to model its processes and control grinding removal precisely for free-formed surfaces. In the belt grinding process, material removal is related to a variety of factors, such as workpiece shape, contact force, and robot velocity. Some factors of the grinding process, such as belt wear, are time variant. In order to control material removal in the robot grinding process, an effective approach is to build a grinding process model that can track changes in the working condition and predict material removal precisely. In this paper, an adaptive modeling method based on statistic machine learning is proposed. The major idea is to build an initial model based on support vector regression using historical grinding data serving as training samples. Afterward, the trained model is modified according to in situ measurement data. Robot control parameters can then be calculated using the grinding process model. The results of the blade grinding experiments demonstrate that this approach is workable and effective. View full abstract»

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  • Small-Strain Modeling of Helical Dielectric Elastomer Actuators

    Page(s): 318 - 325
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    The helical configuration represents one of the few currently available to implement contractile Dielectric Elastomer (DE) actuators. While experimental investigations have previously been reported, no model is currently available to assist design. This paper describes a simple analytical electromechanical model of helical DE actuators, applicable for relatively small strains (<;10%), consistently with the following assumptions: the effective electrostatic pressure exerted by the compliant electrodes was considered to be constant during actuation; the elastomer was assumed to behave like a linearly elastic body. According to these assumptions, the electromechanical model was derived by means of independent electrical and mechanical analyses, the latter being based on linear elasticity. To validate the model, theoretical predictions were compared with experimental data measured from a silicone-made prototype actuator. Pros and cons of the modeling approach in the small-strain range are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Control Strategies for Driving a Group of Nonholonomic Kinematic Mobile Robots in Formation Along a Time-Parameterized Path

    Page(s): 326 - 336
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    This paper proposes control schemes for a group of nonholonomic kinematic mobile robots for maintaining a desired formation along a time-parameterized path. The control approach is based in particular on the flatness property and the concept of virtual vehicles. The control objective is twofold: to maintain the formation structure during motion along a desired geometric path, and to follow a timing law that dominates the rate of advancement of the group and the arrival times to assigned sites. This paper suggests, in particular, control strategies for convoy-like vehicles and for rigid formations. The leading vehicle governs the overall group motion. However, each member of the group can independently split or merge and maneuver to avoid collision (assuming that the relevant data are available by communication/sensing means) during the group motion. View full abstract»

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  • Minimum-Energy Point-to-Point Trajectory Planning for a Motor-Toggle Servomechanism

    Page(s): 337 - 344
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (718 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose a novel minimum-energy point-to-point (PTP) trajectory planning method for a motor-toggle servomechanism, which is described by the mathematical model of a mechatronic system. To generate the mechatronic trajectory, we employed the real-coded genetic algorithm (RGA) to search for the minimum-energy trajectory for the PTP motion profile, which is described by a polynomial with suitable conditions of position, velocity, and acceleration at the start and end points. The RGA algorithm determines the coefficients of polynomials with the fitness function of minimum-energy input, and is performed in numerical simulations and experiments. The results are compared with those of the S-curve by a traditional proportional-integral control. The proposed methodology can also be applied to any mechatronic system driven by a motor. View full abstract»

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  • Integrated Sensing for IPMC Actuators Using Strain Gages for Underwater Applications

    Page(s): 345 - 355
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (939 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) actuators have many advantages, for instance, they: 1) can be driven with low voltages (<;5 V); 2) are soft, flexible, and easily shaped; and 3) can operate in an aqueous environment (such as water). Important applications for IPMCs include active catheter devices for minimally invasive surgery, artificial muscles, and sensors and actuators for biorobotics. Due to inherent nonlinear behavior, dynamic effects, and external disturbances, sensing and feedback control are required for precision operation. A new method to sense the displacement of an IPMC actuator using resistive strain gages is proposed. The sensing scheme is low cost, practical, effective, and importantly, compact compared to existing methods such as lasers and charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras. The strain-to-displacement relationship is developed and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the sensing scheme. Furthermore, the sensor signal is used as feedback information in a repetitive controller to improve the tracking of periodic motion. The stability condition for the controller is presented, and the sensing scheme and feedback control approach are applied to a fabricated perfluorinated ion-exchange-membrane-based IPMC actuator with lithium as its counterion. Experimental results show that the tracking error can be reduced by approximately 50% compared to PID control for tracking of periodic signals, including sinusoidal and triangular wave forms. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Control of a Three-Axis Serial-Kinematic High-Bandwidth Nanopositioner

    Page(s): 356 - 369
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1252 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The development of a high-performance three-axis serial-kinematic nanopositioning stage is presented. The stage is designed for high-bandwidth applications that include video-rate scanning probe microscopy and high-throughput probe-based nanofabrication. Specifically, the positioner employs vertically stiff, double-hinged serial flexures for guiding the motion of the sample platform to minimize parasitic motion (runout) and off-axis effects compared to previous designs. Finite element analysis (FEA) predicts the dominant resonances along the fast ( x-axis) and slow (y-axis) scanning axes at 25.9 and 6.0 kHz, respectively. The measured dominant resonances of the prototype stage in the fast and slow scanning directions are 24.2 and 6.0 kHz, respectively, which are in good agreement with the FEA predictions. In the z-direction, the measured dominant resonance is approximately 70 kHz. The lateral and vertical positioning ranges are approximately 9 μm × 9 μm and 1 μm, respectively. Four approaches to control the lateral motion of the stage are evaluated for precision tracking at high-scan rates: (1) open-loop smooth inputs; (2) PID feedback; (3) discrete-time repetitive control implemented using field-programmable gate array (FPGA) hardware; and (4) model-based feed forward control. The stage is integrated with a commercial scan-by-probe atomic force microscope (AFM) and imaging and tracking results up to a line rate of 7 kHz are presented. At this line rate, 70 frames/s atomic force microscope video (100 × 100 pixels resolution) can be achieved. View full abstract»

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  • Semiactive Control Methodologies for Suspension Control With Magnetorheological Dampers

    Page(s): 370 - 380
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1054 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Suspension systems are one of the most critical components of transportation vehicles. They are designed to provide comfort to the passengers to protect the chassis and the freight. Suspension systems are normally provided with dampers that mitigate these harmful and uncomfortable vibrations. In this paper, we explore two control methodologies (in time and frequency domain) used to design semiactive controllers for suspension systems that make use of magnetorheological dampers. These dampers are known because of their nonlinear dynamics, which requires the use of nonlinear control methodologies for an appropriate performance. The first methodology is based on the backstepping technique, which is applied with adaptation terms and H constraints. The other methodology to be studied is the quantitative feedback theory (QFT). Despite QFT is intended for linear systems, it can still be applied to nonlinear systems. This can be achieved by representing the nonlinear dynamics as a linear system with uncertainties that approximately represents the true behavior of the plant to be controlled. The semiactive controllers are simulated in MATLAB/Simulink for performance evaluation. View full abstract»

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  • Design of a Tool Integrating Force Sensing With Automated Insertion in Cochlear Implantation

    Page(s): 381 - 389
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1325 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The quality of hearing restored to a deaf patient by a cochlear implant in hearing preservation cochlear implant surgery (and possibly also in routine cochlear implant surgery) is believed to depend on preserving delicate cochlear membranes while accurately inserting an electrode array deep into the spiral cochlea. Membrane rupture forces, and possibly, other indicators of suboptimal placement, are below the threshold detectable by human hands, motivating a force sensing insertion tool. Furthermore, recent studies have shown significant variability in manual insertion forces and velocities that may explain some instances of imperfect placement. Toward addressing this, an automated insertion tool was recently developed by Hussong et al. By following the same insertion tool concept, in this paper, we present mechanical enhancements that improve the surgeon's interface with the device and make it smaller and lighter. We also present electomechanical design of new components enabling integrated force sensing. The tool is designed to be sufficiently compact and light that it can be mounted to a microstereotactic frame for accurate image-guided preinsertion positioning. The new integrated force sensing system is capable of resolving forces as small as 0.005 N, and we provide experimental illustration of using forces to detect errors in electrode insertion. View full abstract»

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  • Depth-of-Field Extension Method Using Variable Annular Pupil Division

    Page(s): 390 - 396
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (811 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The depth-of-field (DOF) of an imaging system is closely related to the pupil function that describes the characteristics of the pupil such as size and shape. Shallow DOF is especially problematic in microscopic optical imaging systems because they have relatively large aperture size for high optical resolution. In this paper, a new DOF extension method is proposed. This is to acquire an image by integrating the incoming light while changing the size of annular pupil. By dividing the pupil into annular form, the effect of the defocus aberration is reduced. Theoretical background is explained and simulation and experimental results are shown for verification. The results show that the DOF can effectively be extended by this method. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics information for authors

    Page(s): C3
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Aims & Scope

IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics encompasses all practical aspects of the theory and methods of mechatronics, the synergetic integration of mechanical engineering with electronic and intelligent computer control in the design and manufacture of industrial products and processes.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Okyay Kaynak
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Bogazici University
34342 Istanbul, Turkey
okyay.kaynak@boun.edu.tr