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Consumer Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date November 2011

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 79
  • IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics - Table of contents

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  • IEEE Consumer Electronics Society

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  • 2011 IEEE Consumer Electronics Society Administrative Committee

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  • 2011 IEEE Consumer Electronics Society Officers and Committee Chairs

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  • Message from the Editor

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  • A simulation model of 3D crosstalk phenomenon on 3D plasma display with active shutter glasses

    Page(s): 1451 - 1459
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1897 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a novel simulation model for the 3D crosstalk of plasma displays, which is a partial leaking of the image for the left eye into the right eye and vice versa. It is known that the 3D crosstalk degrades the 3D image quality seriously. In plasma displays, active shutter glasses are used to realize 3D display capability, and the phosphor decay response and the slow rising response of the liquid crystal (LC) shutter lenses influence the 3D crosstalk. In this paper, we investigate the mechanism of 3D crosstalk on plasma displays, and estimate its characteristics using the proposed model. The experimental results illustrate that the proposed model can be used efficiently to optimize the synchronization condition between the display and the active shutter glasses. In addition, we verify the effectiveness of the proposed model by introducing a new material for shutter lenses-ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC)-which has fast switching characteristics and can enhance 3D image quality. View full abstract»

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  • Parallel pipelined array architectures for real-time histogram computation in consumer devices

    Page(s): 1460 - 1464
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (257 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The real-time parallel computation of histograms using an array of pipelined cells is proposed and prototyped in this paper with application to consumer imaging products. The array operates in two modes: histogram computation and histogram reading. The proposed parallel computation method does not use any memory blocks. The resulting histogram bins can be stored into an external memory block in a pipelined fashion for subsequent reading or streaming of the results. The array of cells can be tuned to accommodate the required data path width in a VLSI image processing engine as present in many imaging consumer devices. Synthesis of the architectures presented in this paper in FPGA are shown to compute the real-time histogram of images streamed at over 36 megapixels at 30 frames/s by processing in parallel 1, 2 or 4 pixels per clock cycle 1. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive edge detection for robust model-based camera tracking

    Page(s): 1465 - 1470
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3358 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In model-based camera tracking where camera poses are estimated in such a way that projections of edges on a known 3D scene/object model are aligned with close and strong edges detected in camera images, a projection usually has multiple candidate correspondences (or hypotheses) and there is little information on which one is the true hypothesis. This ambiguity makes model-based camera tracking unstable and inaccurate. Therefore, this paper proposes an adaptive edge detection method that models the gradients of true hypotheses as a mixture of Gaussian distributions, adjusts the parameters of an edge detector based on the model, and selectively eliminates false hypotheses. In our preliminary experiments, the method reduced the pose error and jitter of a testbed model-based camera tracking system by 27% and 2%, respectively1. View full abstract»

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  • 3D crosstalk compensation to enhance 3D image quality of plasma display panel

    Page(s): 1471 - 1477
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1299 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    3D crosstalk is a critical problem in the 3D display field. It appears as the double image and deteriorates the 3D image quality. This paper proposes an image processing algorithm that compensates 3D crosstalk. The proposed algorithm controls the gray level in the pixel area where 3D crosstalk occurs. 3D crosstalk compensation algorithm is implemented and verified on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) merged in 3D PDP. The experimental results indicate an enhancement of 3D image quality by reducing 3D crosstalk1. View full abstract»

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  • Single image-based ghost-free high dynamic range imaging using local histogram stretching and spatially-adaptive denoising

    Page(s): 1478 - 1484
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1359 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present a novel high dynamic range (HDR) imaging method using a single image. The existing multiple image-based HDR methods work only on condition that there is no camera and object movement when acquiring multiple, differently exposed low dynamic range (LDR) images. To overcome such an unrealistic restriction, we make three LDR images from a single input image using local histogram stretching. An edge-preserving spatially adaptive denoising method is also proposed to suppress the noise that is amplified in the histogram stretching process. Because the proposed method self-generates three histogram-stretched LDR images from a single input image, ghost artifacts that are the result of the relative motion between the camera and objects during exposure time, are inherently removed. Therefore, the proposed method can be applied to mobile imaging devices such as a mobile phone camera and a consumer compact camera to provide the ghost artifacts free HDR function in the form of either embedded or post-processing software. View full abstract»

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  • Unlicensed transmissions in TV white spaces and its impacts on the incumbent services

    Page(s): 1485 - 1490
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (233 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Unutilized TV spectrum is soon opened up for use by unlicensed devices (UDs). The main concern is whether the unlicensed operations could cause harmful interference to the licensees. In this paper we present an evaluation framework that allows us to assess the quality of licensed service in the presence of unlicensed transmissions. In our model, the UDs can spatially reuse a channel and hence, two closest UDs are separated by the cochannel reuse distance. The licensed service quality is measured in terms of outage probability, which is also susceptible to channel fading and shadowing. We then derive the exact expressions for the outage probability under the following channel conditions: (i) Rayleigh fading, (ii) lognormal shadowing, and (iii) the two being superimposed. This is followed by numerical examples that demonstrate the possibility of restricting the interference caused by UDs by increasing the cochannel reuse distance1. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive phase rotation of OFDM signals for PAPR reduction

    Page(s): 1491 - 1495
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (943 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    High peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal causes signal distortion, due to nonlinear high power amplifier at the transmitter, and affects received signal quality at the receiver. To reduce the PAPR, various PAPR reduction schemes have been developed. Of these schemes, the tone reservation (TR) scheme and the active constellation extension (ACE) scheme are used for commercial OFDM systems such as the DVB-T2 system. This paper presents an adaptive allpass filter (AAPF)-based PAPR reduction scheme. The AAPF scheme does not incur mean power increment and spectral efficiency decrement unlike the TR scheme. The AAPF scheme can be used with constellation rotation whereas the ACE scheme has a fundamental limitation with it. Comparison of the PAPR performance and the computational complexity with the TR scheme is made and discussed. Bit error rate (BER) performance demonstrates that adoption of the AAPF scheme does not affect signal reception quality at the receiver.1. View full abstract»

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  • Realistic modeling of IEEE 802.11 WLAN considering rate adaptation and multi-rate retry

    Page(s): 1496 - 1504
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Most recent mobile multimedia devices, such as smart phones, laptops and tablet PCs, are equipped with IEEE 802.11 Wi-Fi interfaces for broadband wireless Internet access. The multimedia applications utilized by end users strongly require guaranteed QoS. Resource availability checking during initial connection establishment and seamless handover is essential under such conditions. Several analytical models of IEEE 802.11 WLAN have been proposed to estimate achievable throughput. However, they do not consider rate adaptations with multi-rate retry and individual channel conditions of each station. This paper proposes a realistic model to estimate achievable throughput considering Minstrel rate adaptation and multi-rate retry chain. The proposed model also considers each station individually, since stations may have different frame error rates in a real environment and thus, select different physical rates for frame delivery. Frame error rates are carefully read from the hardware registers of each station and applied to the model for enhanced accuracy. The correctness of the proposed model was verified through a series of experiments in a real testbed environment with up to 20 stations with MadWiFi interface cards. The proposed model shows accurate results in terms of aggregated and per-station throughput in various channel conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Flexible LDPC decoder using stream data processing for 802.11n and 802.16e

    Page(s): 1505 - 1512
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (295 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wireless data transmission standards like 802.16e, 802.11n, employ Low Density parity Check (LDPC) codes for error control coding. The bit flipping decoding algorithms presents a tradeoff between the error correcting capability, decoding resources and the decoding time. Software based LDPC decoders provide adaptation capabilities in system parameters such as block size and code rate. In a real-time, low-power mobile environments, the Single-Instruction Multiple-Data (SIMD) processor currently used for video processing, could also be used for the LDPC decoding. In this paper, the implementation efficient, reliability ratio-based, weighted bit flipping (IRRWBF) algorithm is presented using a flexible software based LDPC decoder. Compact data structures are proposed for performing the decoding using SIMD architecture. Based on the implementation on two commonly used SIMD architecture for mobile platform, it was found that the decoding speed can be increased by more than 2000% (using 64 bit SIMD registers with vector integer calculation) and 1800% (using 128 bit SIMD registers with vector floating point calculation). Experimental results for different code lengths of 802.16e and 802.11n show that decoding time in order of 1×10-3 ~10×10-3 seconds is achievable. Due to significantly high throughput and flexibility, the proposed design algorithm and data structure can easily be adapted to any energy-sensitive mobile devices employing SIMD processors1. View full abstract»

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  • A new selected mapping scheme without additional IFFT operations in OFDM systems

    Page(s): 1513 - 1518
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (942 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Selected mapping (SLM) is an efficient peak-toaverage power ratio (PAPR) reduction scheme without signal distortion in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. Therefore, it can be applied to mobile consumer electronics that are sensitive to high PAPR because of the limitation of the linear area of a power amplifier. However, enormous inverse fast Fourier transforms (IFFTs) are needed for the sufficient PAPR reduction performance, which cause the mobile devices with SLM scheme to become quite complex and reduce battery power consumption. In this paper, we propose a new SLM scheme that replaces the additional IFFT operations with a conversion of the other candidate OFDM signal. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme significantly reduces the computational complexity, while it obtains the better PAPR reduction performance than the dummy sequence insertion (DSI)-partial transmit sequence (PTS) scheme1. View full abstract»

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  • Implementation and evaluation of a high-performance MIMO detector for wireless LAN systems

    Page(s): 1519 - 1527
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3373 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the implementation and experimental evaluation of an advanced MIMO detector for wireless LAN systems. The proposed detector architecture is based on the well-known lattice-reduction aided MMSE method. Several optimizations at both algorithmic and architectural level are presented which result in an efficient VLSI design able to meet the timing requirements of a practical OFDM-based wireless LAN receiver while keeping complexity at moderate levels. Moreover, the detector offers built-in compensation for transmitter impairments such as nonlinear power amplifier characteristics, hence providing a full and cost-effective solution for practical systems. The described solution is implemented on an FPGA-based IEEE802.11n prototype and evaluation results comparing performance of both conventional MMSE and reduced-lattice detection under several propagation scenarios are presented. Experimental results show significantly lower error rates at the receiver for the advanced detector, or equivalently a lower number of required receiver antenna elements for a given performance target, hence resulting in lower cost, physical size and energy consumption1. View full abstract»

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  • TDS-OFDMA: a novel multiple access system based on TDS-OFDM

    Page(s): 1528 - 1534
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (725 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As the key technology of Chinese national digital television terrestrial broadcasting (DTTB) standard, time domain synchronous OFDM (TDS-OFDM) utilizes known training sequence instead of cyclic prefix (CP) as the guard interval between adjacent inverse discrete Fourier transform (IDFT) blocks to achieve better system performance. Until now, TDS-OFDM was primarily used in downlink broadcasting. When TDS-OFDM is directly used in the uplink, it is difficult to eliminate the superposed interferences caused by different training sequences and IDFT blocks from multiple users. To solve this problem, a novel scheme called time domain synchronous orthogonal frequency division multiple access (TDS-OFDMA) is proposed in this paper. The novel space-time frame structure of the TDS-OFDMA scheme is proposed to achieve joint cyclicity reconstruction as well as joint channel estimation at the receiver. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can achieve better bit error rate (BER) performance than conventional OFDMA system under highspeed mobile environments. View full abstract»

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  • Development of a GINGA-NCL receiver for Brazilian mobile broadcasting services

    Page(s): 1535 - 1540
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (658 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    GINGA-Nested Context Language (GINGANCL) is a subsystem of GINGA, the standard for the Brazilian mobile broadcasting service, and it specifies the mechanisms and services used to enable various interactive data services. The integral part of GINGA-NCL is the NCL declarative language that provides non-invasive control of a multimedia presentation in time and space, as well as user interaction. In particular, one of its core competitive advantages over other existing technologies, such as Broadcast Markup Language (BML) and Open Mobile Alliance-Rich Media Environment (OMA-RME), is that it is substantially light-weight. Therefore, in this paper, we introduce an implementation of a GINGANCL receiver for mobile handsets. The proposed solution supports full feature GINGA-NCL sets, including XHTML and ECMAScript1. View full abstract»

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  • Implementation of an OFDM baseband with adaptive modulations to grouped subcarriers for millimeter-wave wireless indoor networks

    Page(s): 1541 - 1549
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3350 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the developed orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) baseband processor employing adaptive modulations to grouped subcarriers, and its demonstration in millimeter-wave wireless indoor links. Channel measurements and characterizations are performed in line-of-sight (LOS) office environments where the developed OFDM system is supposed to be used. The OFDM baseband processor utilizes 192 data subcarriers among 256 FFT numbers. To minimize bit-error-rate (BER) performance in frequency selective channels of millimeter-wave wireless indoor links, these 192 data subcarriers are grouped into 24 subcarrier groups and independently modulated according to channel characteristics in each subcarrier group. We demonstrate it incorporating with the developed 70 GHz self-heterodyne transceiver. BER measurements and maximum TCP throughput test are performed in practical millimeterwave indoor environments. The results verify the advantages of the proposed adaptive modulation in OFDM and show better BER performance as well as higher throughput performance than a typical OFDM system. View full abstract»

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  • An efficient emergency broadcasting signal multiplexing method for supporting the legacy T-DMB receivers in break-in system

    Page(s): 1550 - 1555
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3681 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, design and implementation of T-DMB emergency broadcasting system (EBS) are introduced. Especially, to reduce the T-DMB EBS implementation cost, efficient encoding and multiplexing schemes are proposed and adopted to the system. Since proposed encoding and multiplexing technologies can reduce the number of encoders and multiplexers, the T-DMB EBS with proposed techniques are efficiently built. The performance of the T-DMB EBS has been evaluated by laboratory and field tests with various commercial receivers, satisfactory results have been drew1. View full abstract»

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  • An enhanced dual carrier modulation for performance improvement in WiMedia UWB systems

    Page(s): 1556 - 1563
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1661 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose an enhanced dual carrier modulation algorithm to improve performance in WiMedia ultra-wideband (UWB) systems. The proposed algorithm, which is named as double dual carrier modulation (DDCM), uses additional precoding to the conventional DCM to transmit symbols over different subbands. By using DCM and additional precoding, the proposed algorithm exploits not only frequency diversity in one subband, but also frequency diversity between uncorrelated subbands, resulting in more diversity and better performance than DCM. We also propose the detection method of the proposed algorithm by sharing the modified dual carrier modulation (MDCM) detection block which is included in WiMedia UWB systems. The proposed detection method reduces hardware complexity by combining the MDCM detection and the proposed algorithm detection. Simulation results of applying the proposed algorithm to WiMedia UWB systems show that the performance was improved by 1.5 dB and transmission range increased by 0.5 m in CM1 at a PER of 1%, compared to DCM. View full abstract»

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  • Overlapped message passing technique with resource sharing for high speed CMMB LDPC decoder

    Page(s): 1564 - 1570
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3544 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Today, demands for high speed digital communication are getting bigger due to wide deployment of 4G mobile communications and mobile TV services. Requirement for high speed data processing makes forward error correction crucial. LDPC is one of the most popular error correcting codes. In this paper, we propose a novel LDPC decoder for the China Multimedia Mobile Broadcasting (CMMB) standard. The LDPC decoding is carried out iteratively, which leads to relatively long decoding latency. Also, due to long code words, the amount of required memory is huge. To resolve these issues, we propose a novel Overlapped Message Passing (OMP) algorithm with an efficient resource sharing technique. Using the proposed method, we find the best permuted parity check matrix of the CMMB to improve the throughput while minimizing the memory requirement. Using the OMP algorithm only, we could improve the performance by 10%. To avoid potential memory access conflicts, a memory grouping technique to improve pipelining performance is also proposed. By applying all the techniques that we propose in this paper, we could improve the performance up to by 451. View full abstract»

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  • Experiment on space and time division multiple access scheme over free space optical communication

    Page(s): 1571 - 1578
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4104 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Developments in outdoor free space optical (FSO) communication between buildings using rooftop mounted units are limited by Point-to-Point wireless links. We propose a space and time division multiple access scheme to perform Point-to-Multi-Point communication employing reflectors. A single reflector controlled by a stepping motor and an array of fixed reflectors are used. The reflection characteristics of the reflector are measured. The relationship characteristics between the static angle error of the stepping motor, the beam fluctuation, and the communication distance are demonstrated. The received optical powers are compared on using one or two reflectors while considering the angle of incidence at the surface of the reflector. Moreover, the received power, the bit error rate and the throughput of the experiment system are measured. In addition, the throughput characteristics of the proposal scheme are made clear by experiments. The result of the experiment shows that the new scheme can provide a low-cost and efficient method for Point-to-Multi-Point FSO communication1. View full abstract»

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  • Improved design of bit mapping based on EXIT-chart analysis for DVB-T2 system

    Page(s): 1579 - 1585
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2589 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we focus on the design of bit mapping scheme to improve the error-control performance for the second generation digital video broadcasting-terrestrial (DVB-T2) standard. Generally in the case of low-density parity-check (LDPC)-coded modulation system, the nonuniform bit reliabilities inherent to the high-order modulation and irregular LDPC code imply the mismatch between the decoder and the demodulator. Hence, the bit mapping is plugged between the two modules to match the unequal error protections (UEPs) of different coded bits to different modulation levels. This scheme gives a remarkable performance improvement with no added complexity in the bit-interleaved coded modulation (BICM) system. By performing the curve-fitting on the extrinsic information transfer (EXIT) chart, we propose a DEMUX design methodology to improve the bit mapping scheme. Design examples are given for the DVB-T2 system under the AWGN channel as well as the Rayleigh channel. Simulation results indicate that the proposed DEMUX schemes can even surpass the performance of the DEMUX operation specified in the DVB-T2 standard. View full abstract»

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  • Advanced soft-reliability information-based post-viterbi processor

    Page(s): 1586 - 1591
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (411 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a new soft-reliability information-based post-Viterbi processor with advanced noise-robustness for reducing probability of miss-correction and no correction of a conventional soft-reliability-based post-Viterbi processor. Among all likely error starting positions for prescribed error events, the two schemes are equal to attempt to correct error-type corresponding to a position with minimum one only if there exist positions where a soft-reliability estimate is negative. The main difference between the two schemes is how they acquire the softreliability estimate. The soft-reliability estimate of the new scheme is obtained through the elimination of the noisesensitive component from the log-likelihood ratio of the posteriori probabilities, which is the soft-reliability estimate of conventional scheme. As a result, the new scheme is based on more reliable soft-reliability information so reducing the probability of miss-correction and no correction. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The primary purpose for publishing the Transactions of the Consumer Electronics Society is to present to the membership and the engineering community in general, papers on new technology oriented to Consumer Electronics.

 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
R. Simon Sherratt
School Director for Teaching and Learning, School of Systems Engineering
The University of Reading
Reading, Berkshire  RG6 6AY  RG6 6AY  U.K.
r.s.sherratt@reading.ac.uk; sherratt@ieee.org
Phone:+44 (0) 118 3788588
Fax:+44 (0) 118 3788583