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Oceanic Engineering, IEEE Journal of

Issue 2 • Date April 1989

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Displaying Results 1 - 11 of 11
  • Sea-ice characterization measurements needed for testing of microwave remote sensing models

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 149 - 158
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1000 KB)  

    The nature and accuracy of ice-characterization measurements needed to test two microwave backscattering models are clarified by examining the sensitivities of these models to variations in the geophysical parameters they require as input. First, the Bragg, or small perturbation, model for rough surface scattering, which appears appropriate for backscattering from new ice types at L-band, is considered. The sensitivities of this model to variations in the dielectric constant of the ice and to the power spectrum of surface roughness are examined. The dense-medium radiation-transfer model at X-band is considered for backscattering from air bubbles embedded in multilayer ice. The sensitivities of this model to air-bubble size, air-volume fraction, and dielectric loss in the ice are examined. Based on these sensitivities, quantitative characterization guidelines for model testing are discussed.<> View full abstract»

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  • The Polar Floats Program

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 186 - 194
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1080 KB)  

    The Polar Floats Program, an adaptation of midlatitude SOFAR float technology to the polar regions, is used to monitor subsurface circulation patterns over large spatial and temporal scales as well as to track mesoscale features in near realtime. The program is comprised of three major components that are now under development: an 80-Hz float transducer, American and French sea-ice-deployable listening stations using ARGOS data telemetry (ARS and SOFARGOS, respectively), and the software needed for real-time tracking. The adaptation of SOFAR technology to the planar regime demands modifications of the existing design from both environmental and acoustical standpoints. The authors describe the development and use of SOFAR technology within a relatively small sector of the north polar region that encompasses several thousand kilometers around Fram Strait (located between Greenland and Spitsbergen).<> View full abstract»

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  • The Autonomous Ocean Profiler: a current-driven oceanographic sensor platform

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 195 - 202
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (848 KB)  

    The development and initial field test results of the Autonomous Ocean Profiler (AOP) are described. The profiler uses a hydrodynamic lift device to fly the instrument package up and down the water column along a taut vertical cable. Because the local currents drive the platform's vertical motion, power requirements are low, and therefore long, unattached deployments are possible. By using ARGOS or GOES satellite retrieval networks, the system can supply near-real-time data. The system provides profile data at very high vertical resolution in contrast to conventional buoys, which gather data only at fixed sensor depths. Because only a single set of sensors is required to cover the vertical range desired, the system is low cost and, for many applications, expendable. The initial deployment configuration is as an Arctic drifting buoy.<> View full abstract»

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  • Position measurements with radiosondes

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 208 - 210
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (260 KB)  

    The use of Omega sondes, designed for the determination of upper air wind vectors, for relative position measurements on the ground is described. The technique shows promise in measuring the deformation of sea ice, the motion of oceanic surface water, and the trajectories of constant-level balloons. The sondes need not be recollected, are inexpensive, and can be built up to large arrays. The accuracy can be as high as ±30 m within a radius of about 30 km from the observing point. The computation is based on noise suppression of the signal retransmitted from the sondes View full abstract»

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  • GEOSAT altimeter sea-ice mapping

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 139 - 148
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1304 KB)  

    The efforts to use GEOSAT data to refine an ice index that is applicable to widely varying ice conditions are detailed. The sea-ice mapping requirements, the present US Navy ice-index operational utilization, and ongoing and future work that promises to provide additional sea-ice measurement capabilities are discussed. Possibilities include discrimination among water, land, ice, combination water/ice, and water/land, as well as distinguishing various ice concentrations and possibly ice types. Coincident airborne passive microwave and synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) data have been collected to test several methods which appear to be promising View full abstract»

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  • An impact sound source useful for Arctic remote sensing

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 166 - 172
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (484 KB)  

    The impact on an ice surface of an energetic projectile, such as a rifle bullet, which creates an acoustic impulse in the water whose properties are useful for Arctic remote sensing, is discussed. The source level of these impulses is typically between 220 and 230 dB Re 1 μPa at 1m and most of their energy is within the band 500 Hz to 3 kHz. Possible remote sensing applications are reviewed together with available experimental data. These include the measurement of ice properties and water depth, as well as bottom imaging. It is concluded that the source described has potential for Arctic acoustic remote sensing applications where probability and ease of deployment are important and the required number of measurements is not too large View full abstract»

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  • Physical oceanography instrumentation for the polar regions: a review

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 173 - 185
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1652 KB)  

    The development of measurement systems for physical oceanography in polar regions is summarized, and selected instruments are described. Some instruments have been developed simply to provide access to the environment. Since hydrographic data are very sparse for large, inaccessible areas of the Arctic Ocean, hydrographic buoys have been developed that make long-term measurements of water temperature and conductivity as they drift through remote regions. Other instruments have been developed to take advantage of the unique platform the ice provides allowing measurements that cannot be performed in the open ocean. Instrumentation has also been developed to measure processes that are unique to ice-covered regions View full abstract»

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  • Modification and deployment techniques for hand-deployed Arctic long-life sonobuoys

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 211 - 220
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1284 KB)  

    Specific methods and equipment used to modify, power, and hand-deploy AN/SSQ-57A sonobuoys in the Arctic are discussed. The methods and suggestions can be easily extended for use with other types of sonobuoys. The modified sonobuoys transmit continuously for up to 30 days from a remote unmanned site to a manned base camp over a range of 20 km. Sample acoustic data from the ALPIS 87 ice station are presented View full abstract»

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  • Stress and strain instruments developed for field measurements of ice

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 159 - 165
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (744 KB)  

    The instruments developed and operational experience gained in the measurement of strain rates and stresses in floating sea ice are described to indicate the total global loads occurring naturally against an artificial island or similar structure. A delta strainmeter and a thin-disk stress sensor were developed to service particular measurement needs for which suitable equipment was not available. The loading conditions studied have included slow-moving winter first-year ice at Tarsiut, Mukluk, and Kaubvik Islands in the Beaufort Sea, freely moving summer multiyear ice at Hans Island, and a pack-ice mixture at Katie's Floeberg. The instruments have also been deployed on a surging glacier on Spitzbergen in Norway View full abstract»

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  • Review and status of remote sensing of sea ice

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 127 - 138
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1824 KB)  

    The status of obtaining geophysical observations through the interpretation of satellite data over sea ice is discussed. It is pointed out that the community working in this area has grown in size and sophistication over the last decade, that the connection between microscopic properties of ice and its microwave behavior is now being understood, and that a good deal of accurate satellite-derived information on sea ice can now be obtained. Areas of ongoing, as well as needed, work are outlined, especially in the understanding of first-year and old-ice microwave properties, and it is pointed out that the efficient advance of remote sensing will require more active participation of scientists focused on in situ studies View full abstract»

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  • A rigid, cable-lowered instrument frame for measuring turbulence and internal waves in the Arctic

    Publication Year: 1989 , Page(s): 203 - 207
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (480 KB)  

    The Arctic Internal Wave experiment (AIWEX) is discussed. For 1985, four instrument clusters, each measuring temperature, conductivity, and three orthogonal components of current velocity, were mounted on a 5.5-m-long rigid frame which was lowered by cable to depths as much as 70-m below the ice/ocean interface. The frame was used for both turbulent boundary layer studies in the near-surface mixed layer and for high-frequency internal studies in the Arctic halocline. The instrument clusters comprised fast-response temperature and conductivity sensors and partially ducted impeller-type current meters. Data from each cluster were sampled six times per second, along with frame depth, magnetic heading, and tilt. Deployment of an improved version of the internal wave frame is planned for CEAREX in the Fram Strait in the spring of 1989 View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering (ISSN 0364-9059) is published quarterly by the IEEE Oceanic Engineering Society (IEEE OES). The scope of the Journal is the field of interest of the IEEE OES, which encompasses all aspects of science, engineering, and technology that address research, development, and operations pertaining to all bodies of water. This includes the creation of new capabilities and technologies from concept design through prototypes, testing, and operational systems to sense, explore, understand, develop, use, and responsibly manage natural resources.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
N. Ross Chapman
School of Earth & Ocean Sciences
University of Victoria
3800 Finnerty Road
Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 Canada
chapman@uvic.ca