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Information Forensics and Security, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1  Part 2 • Date Feb. 2012

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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - C4
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  • IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Secure Communication in Stochastic Wireless Networks—Part I: Connectivity

    Page(s): 125 - 138
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3062 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The ability to exchange secret information is critical to many commercial, governmental, and military networks. Information-theoretic security-widely accepted as the strictest notion of security-relies on channel coding techniques that exploit the inherent randomness of the propagation channels to strengthen the security of digital communications systems. Motivated by recent developments in the field, we aim to characterize the fundamental secrecy limits of wireless networks. The paper is comprised of two separate parts. In Part I, we define the intrinsically secure communications graph (iS-graph), a random graph which describes the connections that can be securely established over a large-scale network. We provide conclusive results for the local connectivity of the Poisson iS-graph, in terms of node degrees and isolation probabilities. We show how the secure connectivity of the network varies with the wireless propagation effects, the secrecy rate threshold of each link, and the noise powers of legitimate nodes and eavesdroppers. We then propose sectorized transmission and eavesdropper neutralization as viable strategies for improving the secure connectivity. Our results help clarify how the spatial density of eavesdroppers can compromise the intrinsic security of wireless networks. In Part II of the paper, we study the achievable secrecy rates and the effect of eavesdropper collusion. View full abstract»

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  • Secure Communication in Stochastic Wireless Networks—Part II: Maximum Rate and Collusion

    Page(s): 139 - 147
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2207 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In Part I of this paper, we introduced the intrinsically secure communications graph (iS-graph)-a random graph which describes the connections that can be established with strong secrecy over a large-scale network, in the presence of eavesdroppers. We focused on the local connectivity of the iS-graph, and proposed techniques to improve it. In this second part, we characterize the maximum secrecy rate (MSR) that can be achieved between a node and its neighbors. We then consider the scenario where the eavesdroppers are allowed to collude, i.e., exchange and combine information. We quantify exactly how eavesdropper collusion degrades the secrecy properties of the network, in comparison to a noncolluding scenario. Our analysis helps clarify how the presence of eavesdroppers can jeopardize the success of wireless physical-layer security. View full abstract»

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  • Security Embedding Codes

    Page(s): 148 - 159
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3099 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper considers the problem of simultaneously communicating two messages, a high-security message and a low-security message, to a legitimate receiver, referred to as the security embedding problem. An information-theoretic formulation of the problem is presented. A coding scheme that combines rate splitting, superposition coding, nested binning, and channel prefixing is considered and is shown to achieve the secrecy capacity region of the channel in several scenarios. Specifying these results to both scalar and independent parallel Gaussian channels (under an average individual per-subchannel power constraint), it is shown that the high-security message can be embedded into the low-security message at full rate (as if the low-security message does not exist) without incurring any loss on the overall rate of communication (as if both messages are low-security messages). Extensions to the wiretap channel II setting of Ozarow and Wyner are also considered, where it is shown that "perfect" security embedding can be achieved by an encoder that uses a two-level coset code. View full abstract»

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  • On the Saddle-Point Solution and the Large-Coalition Asymptotics of Fingerprinting Games

    Page(s): 160 - 175
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4296 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We study a fingerprinting game in which the number of colluders and the collusion channel are unknown. The encoder embeds fingerprints into a host sequence and provides the decoder with the capability to trace back pirated copies to the colluders. Fingerprinting capacity has recently been derived as the limit value of a sequence of maximin games with mutual information as their payoff functions. However, these games generally do not admit saddle-point solutions and are very hard to solve numerically. Here under the so-called Boneh-Shaw marking assumption, we reformulate the capacity as the value of a single two-person zero-sum game, and show that it is achieved by a saddle-point solution. If the maximal coalition size is k and the fingerprinting alphabet is binary, we show that capacity decays quadratically with k. Furthermore, we prove rigorously that the asymptotic capacity is 1/(k221n2) and we confirm our earlier conjecture that Tardos' choice of the arcsine distribution asymptotically maximizes the mutual information payoff function while the interleaving attack minimizes it. Along with the asymptotics, numerical solutions to the game for small k are also presented. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Data Embedding Method Using Adaptive Pixel Pair Matching

    Page(s): 176 - 184
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2654 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a new data-hiding method based on pixel pair matching (PPM). The basic idea of PPM is to use the values of pixel pair as a reference coordinate, and search a coordinate in the neighborhood set of this pixel pair according to a given message digit. The pixel pair is then replaced by the searched coordinate to conceal the digit. Exploiting modification direction (EMD) and diamond encoding (DE) are two data-hiding methods proposed recently based on PPM. The maximum capacity of EMD is 1.161 bpp and DE extends the payload of EMD by embedding digits in a larger notational system. The proposed method offers lower distortion than DE by providing more compact neighborhood sets and allowing embedded digits in any notational system. Compared with the optimal pixel adjustment process (OPAP) method, the proposed method always has lower distortion for various payloads. Experimental results reveal that the proposed method not only provides better performance than those of OPAP and DE, but also is secure under the detection of some well-known steganalysis techniques. View full abstract»

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  • Performance Analysis of a Block-Neighborhood-Based Self-Recovery Fragile Watermarking Scheme

    Page(s): 185 - 196
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4152 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present the performance analysis of a self-recovery fragile watermarking scheme using block-neighbor- hood tamper characterization. This method uses a pseudorandom sequence to generate the nonlinear block-mapping and employs an optimized neighborhood characterization method to detect the tampering. Performance of the proposed method and its resistance to malicious attacks are analyzed. We also investigate three optimization strategies that will further improve the quality of tamper localization and recovery. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method allows image recovery with an acceptable visual quality (peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) as 25 dB) up to 60% tampering. View full abstract»

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  • A Probabilistic Model of (t,n) Visual Cryptography Scheme With Dynamic Group

    Page(s): 197 - 207
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4091 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The (t, n) visual cryptography (VC) is a secret sharing scheme where a secret image is encoded into n transparencies, and the stacking of any t out of n transparencies reveals the secret image. The stacking of t - 1 or fewer transparencies is unable to extract any information about the secret. We discuss the additions and deletions of users in a dynamic user group. To reduce the overhead of generating and distributing transparencies in user changes, this paper proposes a (t, n) VC scheme with unlimited n based on the probabilistic model. The proposed scheme allows n to change dynamically in order to include new transparencies without regenerating and redistributing the original transparencies. Specifically, an extended VC scheme based on basis matrices and a probabilistic model is proposed. An equation is derived from the fundamental definitions of the (t, n) VC scheme, and then the (t, ∞) VC scheme achieving maximal contrast can be designed by using the derived equation. The maximal contrasts with t = 2 to 6 are explicitly solved in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • Reconstructing a Linear Scrambler With Improved Detection Capability and in the Presence of Noise

    Page(s): 208 - 218
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2725 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the problem of reconstruction of the feedback polynomial in a linear scrambler is studied. Our work contains two parts. In the first part, schemes to improve the performance of an existing reconstruction algorithm are proposed. Simulation results show that both the detection capability and speed of the existing algorithm are significantly improved by using our proposed schemes. In the second part, the reconstruction of linear scramblers in the presence of channel noise is investigated. We consider flipped bits due to noise as well as insertion of bits in the scrambled bit sequence. For both cases, factors which affect the performance of the reconstruction algorithm are discussed. View full abstract»

    Open Access
  • An Extended Visual Cryptography Algorithm for General Access Structures

    Page(s): 219 - 229
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2966 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Conventional visual secret sharing schemes generate noise-like random pixels on shares to hide secret images. It suffers a management problem, because of which dealers cannot visually identify each share. This problem is solved by the extended visual cryptography scheme (EVCS), which adds a meaningful cover image in each share. However, the previous approaches involving the EVCS for general access structures suffer from a pixel expansion problem. In addition, the visual cryptography (VC)-based approach needs a sophisticated codebook design for various schemes. In this paper, we propose a general approach to solve the above- mentioned problems; the approach can be used for binary secret images in noncomputer-aided decryption environments. The pro- posed approach consists of two phases. In the first phase, based on a given access structure, we construct meaningless shares using an optimization technique and the construction for conventional VC schemes. In the second phase, cover images are added in each share directly by a stamping algorithm. The experimental results indicate that a solution to the pixel expansion problem of the EVCS for GASs is achieved. Moreover, the display quality of the recovered image is very close to that obtained using conventional VC schemes. View full abstract»

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  • Half-Iris Feature Extraction and Recognition Using a New Class of Biorthogonal Triplet Half-Band Filter Bank and Flexible k-out-of-n:A Postclassifier

    Page(s): 230 - 240
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2836 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Abstract-This paper presents a shift, scale, and rotation-in- variant technique for iris feature-representation and fused postclassification at the decision-level to improve the accuracy and speed of the iris-recognition system. Most of the iris-recognition systems are still incapable for providing low false rejections due to a wide variety of artifacts and are computationally inefficient. In order to address these problems, effective and computationally efficient iris features are extracted based on a new class of triplet half-band filter bank (THFB). First, a new class of THFB is designed by using generalized half-band polynomial suitable for iris feature extraction. This THFB satisfies perfect reconstruction (PR) and provides linear phase, regularity, better frequency-selectivity, near-orthogonality, and good time-frequency localization. The uses of these properties are investigated to approximate iris features significantly. Second, a novel flexible k-out-of-n.A (Accept) postclassifier (any k-out-of-n-regions-Accept) is explored to achieve the robustness against possible intraclass iris variations. The proposed approach (THFB+ k-out-of-n.A) is capable of handling various artifacts, particularly segmentation error, eyelid/eyelashes occlusion, shadow of eyelids, head-tilt, and specular reflections during iris verification. Experimental results using UBIRIS, MMU1, CASIA-IrisV3, and IITD databases show the superiority of the proposed approach with some of the existing popular iris-recognition algorithms. View full abstract»

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  • A Fast Parts-Based Approach to Speaker Verification Using Boosted Slice Classifiers

    Page(s): 241 - 254
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2455 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Speaker verification (SV) on portable devices like smartphones is gradually becoming popular. In this context, two issues need to be considered: 1) such devices have relatively limited computation resources, and 2) they are liable to be used everywhere, possibly in very noisy, uncontrolled environments. This work aims to address both these issues by proposing a computationally efficient yet robust SV system. This novel parts-based system draws inspiration from face and object detection systems in the computer vision domain. The system involves boosted ensembles of simple threshold-based classifiers. It uses a novel set of features extracted from speech spectra, called "slice features." The performance of the proposed system was evaluated through extensive studies involving a wide range of experimental conditions using the TIMIT, HTIMIT, and MOBIO corpus, against standard cepstral features and Gaussian Mixture Model-based SV systems. View full abstract»

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  • Multibiometric Cryptosystems Based on Feature-Level Fusion

    Page(s): 255 - 268
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1952 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multibiometric systems are being increasingly de- ployed in many large-scale biometric applications (e.g., FBI-IAFIS, UIDAI system in India) because they have several advantages such as lower error rates and larger population coverage compared to unibiometric systems. However, multibiometric systems require storage of multiple biometric templates (e.g., fingerprint, iris, and face) for each user, which results in increased risk to user privacy and system security. One method to protect individual templates is to store only the secure sketch generated from the corresponding template using a biometric cryptosystem. This requires storage of multiple sketches. In this paper, we propose a feature-level fusion framework to simultaneously protect multiple templates of a user as a single secure sketch. Our main contributions include: (1) practical implementation of the proposed feature-level fusion framework using two well-known biometric cryptosystems, namery,fuzzy vault and fuzzy commitment, and (2) detailed analysis of the trade-off between matching accuracy and security in the proposed multibiometric cryptosystems based on two different databases (one real and one virtual multimodal database), each containing the three most popular biometric modalities, namely, fingerprint, iris, and face. Experimental results show that both the multibiometric cryptosystems proposed here have higher security and matching performance compared to their unibiometric counterparts. View full abstract»

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  • Biometric Template Protection Using Universal Background Models: An Application to Online Signature

    Page(s): 269 - 282
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    Data security and privacy are crucial issues to be addressed for assuring a successful deployment of biometrics-based recognition systems in real life applications. In this paper, a template protection scheme exploiting the properties of universal background models, eigen-user spaces, and the fuzzy commitment cryptographic protocol is presented. A detailed discussion on the security and information leakage of the proposed template protection system is given. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is investigated with application to online signature recognition. The given experimental results, evaluated on the public MCYT signature database, show that the proposed system can guarantee competitive recognition accuracy while providing protection to the employed biometric data. View full abstract»

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  • Exposing Digital Forgeries in Ballistic Motion

    Page(s): 283 - 296
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3527 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We describe a geometric technique to detect physically implausible trajectories of objects in video sequences. This technique explicitly models the three-dimensional ballistic motion of objects in free-flight and the two-dimensional projection of the trajectory into the image plane of a static or moving camera. Deviations from this model provide evidence of manipulation. The technique assumes that the object's trajectory is substantially influenced only by gravity, that the image of the object's center of mass can be determined from the images, and requires that any camera motion can be estimated from background elements. The computational requirements of the algorithm are modest, and any detected inconsistencies can be illustrated in an intuitive, geometric fashion. We demonstrate the efficacy of this analysis on videos of our own creation and on videos obtained from video-sharing websites. View full abstract»

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  • Jamming-Resistant Collaborative Broadcast Using Uncoordinated Frequency Hopping

    Page(s): 297 - 309
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2494 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a jamming-resistant collaborative broadcast scheme for wireless networks, which utilizes the Un coordinated Frequency Hopping (UFH) technique to counteract jamming without preshared keys, and exploits node cooperation to achieve higher communication efficiency and stronger jamming resistance. In this scheme, nodes that already obtain the broadcast message serve as relays to help forward it to other nodes. Relying on the sheer number of relay nodes, our scheme provides a new angle for jamming countermeasure, which not only significantly enhances the performance of jamming-resistant broadcast, but can readily be combined with other existing or emerging antijamming approaches in various applications. We present the collaborative broadcast protocol, and analyze its successful packet reception rate and the corresponding cooperation gain for both synchronous and asynchronous relays for a snapshot scenario. We also investigate the full broadcast process based on a Markov chain model and derive a closed-form expression of the average broadcast delay. Simulation results in both single-hop and multihop networks indicate that our scheme is a promising antijamming technique in wireless networks. View full abstract»

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  • Joint Relay and Jammer Selection for Secure Two-Way Relay Networks

    Page(s): 310 - 320
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2377 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we investigate joint relay and jammer selection in two-way cooperative networks, consisting of two sources, a number of intermediate nodes, and one eavesdropper, with the constraints of physical-layer security. Specifically, the proposed algorithms select two or three intermediate nodes to enhance security against the malicious eavesdropper. The first selected node operates in the conventional relay mode and assists the sources to deliver their data to the corresponding destinations using an amplify-and-forward protocol. The second and third nodes are used in different communication phases as jammers in order to create intentional interference upon the malicious eavesdropper. First, we find that in a topology where the intermediate nodes are randomly and sparsely distributed, the proposed schemes with cooperative jamming outperform the conventional nonjamming schemes within a certain transmitted power regime. We also find that, in the scenario where the intermediate nodes gather as a close cluster, the jamming schemes may be less effective than their nonjamming counterparts. Therefore, we introduce a hybrid scheme to switch between jamming and nonjamming modes. Simulation results validate our theoretical analysis and show that the hybrid switching scheme further improves the secrecy rate. View full abstract»

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  • Architecture Support for Dynamic Integrity Checking

    Page(s): 321 - 332
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1291 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A trusted platform module (TPM) enhances the security of general purpose computer systems by authenticating the platform at boot time. Security can often be compromised due to the presence of vulnerabilities in the trusted software that is executed on the system. Existing TPM architectures do not support runtime integrity checking and this allows attackers to exploit these vulnerabilities to modify the program after it has been verified (at time of check or TOC) but before the time of its use (at time of use or TOU) to trigger unintended program behavior, such as the execution of malicious code or the leaking of sensitive data. In this paper, we present a dynamic integrity checker (DIC) to improve security by thwarting TOCTOU attacks. The paper makes four contributions. First, we show how to integrate the integrity checker module with a superscalar pipeline. Second, we present an architecture for dynamic integrity checking by monitoring the dynamic execution traces of the program. Third, we present several optimizations to reduce performance impact without compromising the security of the system. Finally, we evaluate the proposed scheme using a cycle-accurate simulator. Results indicate that the proposed technique enhances security against the TOCTOU attacks with 8% performance overhead and 2.52% area overhead over a baseline processor. View full abstract»

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  • A Robust Physical Unclonable Function With Enhanced Challenge-Response Set

    Page(s): 333 - 345
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4153 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A Physical Unclonable Function (PUF) is a promising solution to many security issues due its ability to generate a die unique identifier that can resist cloning attempts as well as physical tampering. However, the efficiency of a PUF depends on its implementation cost, its reliability, its resiliency to attacks, and the amount of entropy in it. PUF entropy is used to construct crypto graphic keys, chip identifiers, or challenge-response pairs (CRPs) in a chip authentication mechanism. The amount of entropy in a PUF is limited by the circuit resources available to build a PUF. As a result, generating longer keys or larger sets of CRPs may increase PUF circuit cost. We address this limitation in a PUF by proposing an identity-mapping function that expands the set of CRPs of a ring-oscillator PUF (RO-PUF) with low area cost. The CRPs generated through this function exhibit strong PUF qualities in terms of uniqueness and reliability. To introduce the identity-mapping function, we formulate a novel PUF system model that uncouples PUF measurement from PUF identifier formation. We show the enhanced CRP generation capability of the new function using a statistical hypothesis test. An implementation of our technique on a low-cost FPGA platform shows at least 2 times savings in area compared to the traditional RO-PUF. The proposed technique is validated using a population of 125 chips, and its reliability over varying environmental conditions is shown. View full abstract»

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  • Fast Matrix Embedding by Matrix Extending

    Page(s): 346 - 350
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (625 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    When designing steganographic schemes, matrix embedding is an efficient method for increasing the embedding efficiency that is de- fined as an average number of bits embedded via per change on the cover. Random linear code-based matrix embedding can achieve high embedding efficiency but cost much in computation. In this paper, we propose a method to increase the embedding speed of matrix embedding by extending the matrix via some referential columns. Compared with the original matrix embedding, the proposed method can exponentially reduce the computational complexity for equal increment of embedding efficiency. Experimental results also show that this novel method achieves higher embedding efficiency and faster embedding speed than previous fast matrix embedding methods, and thus is more suitable for real-time steganogaphic systems. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security Edics

    Page(s): 351
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  • IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security information for authors

    Page(s): 352 - 353
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  • Leading the field since 1884 [advertisement]

    Page(s): 354
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  • 2012 IEEE membership form

    Page(s): 355 - 356
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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security covers the sciences, technologies, and applications relating to information forensics, information security, biometrics, surveillance and systems applications that incorporate these features.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Mauro Barni
University of Siena, Italy