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Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date Feb. 2012

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 61
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): C1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics publication information

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 473 - 475
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  • Special Section on Robust Operation of Electrical Drives

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 476 - 478
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (80 KB)  

    The 12 papers in this special section on robust operation of electrical drives can be divided into four groups: power drives and sensors; converter systems; drive systems; and sensorless controlled drives. View full abstract»

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  • Turn-Off Time as an Early Indicator of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor Latch-up

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 479 - 489
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1299 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, effects preceding a latch-up fault in insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) are studied. Primary failure modes associated with IGBT latch-up faults are reviewed. Precursors to latch-up, primarily an increase in turn-off time as a consequence of elevated junction temperature, are examined for an IGBT. The relationship between junction temperature and turn-off time is explained by modeling the parasitic properties of an IGBT. A metric is derived from the model to standardize the relative estimates in junction temperature from measurements of turn-off time. To evaluate the effects preceding latch-up in-situ, seeded fault testing is conducted on a three-phase power inverter using aged transistors induced with a fault located in the die-attach solder layer. Experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of using the proposed metric as a precursor to transistor latch-up. View full abstract»

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  • Easy and Fast Sensor Fault Detection and Isolation Algorithm for Electrical Drives

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 490 - 499
    Cited by:  Papers (23)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1255 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper focuses on sensor fault detection and isolation (FDI) for electrical systems. A new, easy and fast FDI algorithm is proposed, keeping system performances unchanged under certain faulty sensor conditions when reconfigurations are available. The proposed FDI algorithm is derived from a parity space approach and is based on temporal redundancies. It is insensitive to parameter variations since no model knowledge is required. Also, it is available for a large class of electrical systems such as single- or three-phase power converters, dc or ac electrical drives, etc. Moreover, the residual threshold used for FDI is accurately defined and is suitable for the whole operating range. Simulations results are presented to illustrate the good functionality of theoretical developments. Numerous experimental results are also shown to validate the effectiveness of the proposed FDI algorithm and to highlight its advantages for the control of electrical systems. View full abstract»

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  • Fault-Tolerant Voltage Source Inverter for Permanent Magnet Drives

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 500 - 508
    Cited by:  Papers (41)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1286 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a two-level fault-tolerant voltage source inverter (VSI) for permanent magnet drives is systematically designed and tested. A standard two-level inverter consists of three legs. In this case of fault-tolerant inverter, a redundant leg is added that replaces the faulted leg. Faulted leg isolation and redundant leg insertion are done by using independent back-to-back-connected thyristors. The proposed inverter provides tolerance to both short-circuit and open-circuit faults of the switching devices. The postfault performance is the same as the normal prefault operation and fault compensation is fast enough such that there is negligible disturbance in the drive operation. The fault tolerance of the inverter is verified using field-oriented control of a permanent magnet synchronous motor. View full abstract»

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  • Switching Strategies for Fault Tolerant Operation of Single DC-link Dual Converters

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 509 - 518
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1128 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a method that allows the operation with direct torque control under incipient faults of the power switching devices in single dc-link dual inverters. Once the fault onset of the switching device is detected, the troubled devices are put under trigger suppression to regain operation. The proposed control algorithm makes use of additional states, termed opportunistic states, to maintain control of the induction machine. Simulations and experimental results confirm the capabilities of the technique for up to six devices under trigger suppression. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and Design of Active NPC (ANPC) Inverters for Fault-Tolerant Operation of High-Power Electrical Drives

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 519 - 533
    Cited by:  Papers (23)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1914 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Compared with neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverters, active NPC (ANPC) inverters enable a substantially increased output power and an improved performance at zero speed for high-power electrical drives. This paper analyzes the operation of three-level (3L) ANPC inverters under device failure conditions, and proposes the fault-tolerant strategies to enable continuous operating of the inverters and drive systems under single and multiple device open- and short-failure conditions. Therefore, the reliability and robustness of the electrical drives are greatly improved. Moreover, the proposed solution adds no additional components to standard 3L-ANPC inverters; thus, the cost for robust operation of drives is lower. Simulation and experiment results are provided for verification. Furthermore, a comprehensive comparison for the reliability function of 3L-ANPC and 3L-NPC inverters is presented. The results show that 3L-ANPC inverters have higher reliability than 3L-NPC inverters when a derating is allowed for the drive system under fault-tolerant operation. If a derated operation is not allowed, the two inverters have similar reliability for device open failure, while 3L-NPC inverters have higher reliability than 3L-ANPC inverters for device short failure. View full abstract»

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  • Markov Reliability Modeling for Induction Motor Drives Under Field-Oriented Control

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 534 - 546
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1543 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a Markov reliability model of induction motor drives operating under field-oriented control. The model includes faults in the power electronics, machine, speed encoder, and current sensors. The procedure can be extended for more detail, to other machines and to other drive topologies. To develop the model, faults are first identified, and then, a simulation model of the setup is developed and experimentally verified. Faults are injected into the model in sequential levels and the system performance is assessed after each fault. Fault coverage-the probability that the system survives given a fault has occurred-is studied. A complete Markov reliability model is developed to assess the mean time to failure of the system and other reliability factors. This analysis is shown to be simple and useful for assessing the reliability of motor drives and is expected to help in designing fault-tolerance mechanisms for specific drives, where reliability can be evaluated after every design. View full abstract»

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  • Development and Control of an Integrated and Distributed Inverter for a Fault Tolerant Five-Phase Switched Reluctance Traction Drive

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 547 - 554
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1043 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A concept of an integrated and distributed inverter for switched reluctance machines is introduced. The application at hand is an outer-rotor direct drive designed for railway traction applications. A five-phase switched reluctance machine was developed and is used to demonstrate the function of the integrated and distributed inverter. The distribution is achieved by supplying each phase coil with its own modular inverter. Each inverter module is placed evenly around the end of the stator stack next to its dedicated coil. This increases the redundancy of the drive significantly. The likelihood of phase-to-phase faults is reduced, because no overlapping end-turns are necessary. Also, the integration of machine and inverter is simplified, because the semiconductors can be evenly distributed around the machine. The concept reduces the amount of terminals between drive and vehicle to communication, power supply, and cooling, independent of the number of machine phases. With the integrated and distributed inverter new control strategies can be developed to influence machine vibration and radiated noise. In this paper, the design of the prototype, the direct torque control of the five-phase machine, and the behavior in the case of a fault inside a module is analyzed. View full abstract»

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  • A Lyapunov Function-Based Robust Direct Torque Controller for a Switched Reluctance Motor Drive System

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 555 - 564
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2053 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel Lyapunov function-based direct torque controller for minimization of torque ripples in a switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive system is reported in this paper. SRM magnetization characteristics are highly nonlinear, where torque is a complex and coupled function of the phase currents and rotor position. The direct torque control (DTC) scheme avoids the complex process of torque-to-current conversion as required in indirect torque control scheme. The traditional DTC scheme uses a hysteresis-type torque controller and it leads to large amount of torque ripples when implemented digitally. The proposed controller is intended to take care of the nonlinear system dynamics of magnetic characteristics associated with accurate torque control using DTC scheme for the SRM drive system. In the Lyapunov function-based controller, the feedback gain is varied using a heuristic technique. The stability of the proposed controller is ensured by the direct method of Lyapunov. Experimental results for a 1-hp, 4-phase SRM are provided to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed torque control scheme. View full abstract»

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  • Control of Multiphase Induction Motors With an Odd Number of Phases Under Open-Circuit Phase Faults

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 565 - 577
    Cited by:  Papers (42)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1059 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a control scheme for multiphase induction motor drives is presented and assessed. This control scheme ensures the operation of a multiphase drive under an open-circuit phase fault that can occur in one or more phases at the same time. A fault-tolerant control strategy is developed. The mathematical analysis is based on the space vector representation of the multiphase system and is valid either in transient or steady-state operating conditions. The feasibility of the drive is verified by means of experimental tests carried out on a prototype of seven-phase induction motor. View full abstract»

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  • Position Control of a Sensorless Stepper Motor

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 578 - 587
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1596 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the experimental results of position control of the hybrid stepper motor without a mechanical sensor are exhibited. Use of the steady-state extended Kalman filter to estimate the mechanical variables of the motor is shown. With this method the computing time is reduced. The initial rotor position is estimated by the impulse voltage technique. For position control, a simple state feedback control that can compensate the load torque variations was designed. The robustness against the motor parameters variation was also studied. A field-oriented control strategy is chosen. It is known that the mechanical position is crucially important to achieve this strategy. Finally, favorable experimental results are shared. View full abstract»

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  • Stability and Dynamic Performance Improvement of Adaptive Full-Order Observers for Sensorless PMSM Drive

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 588 - 600
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1535 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Stability and good dynamic performances of adaptive full-order observers are of utmost importance for the sensorless PMSM drive. In this paper, to accomplish both requirements, the analytical stability conditions are firstly derived to provide a general framework for the feedback gain design. Closed-form solutions of the stabilizing feedback gains are consequently given, and are used in the zero and pole placement design to obtain an adequate and constant damping factor along with the stability at all operating frequencies. New design rules for the adaptation of PI gains to satisfy the required performances are also proposed. The robustness of the adaptive full-order observer against stator resistance and inductance variations is also investigated. Validity of the designed sensorless control is confirmed by simulation and experiment. View full abstract»

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  • A Combined Position and Stator-Resistance Observer for Salient PMSM Drives: Design and Stability Analysis

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 601 - 609
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (764 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A reduced-order position observer with stator-resistance adaptation is proposed for motion-sensorless permanent-magnet synchronous motor drives. A general analytical solution for the stabilizing observer gain and stability conditions for the stator-resistance adaptation are derived. Under these conditions, the local stability of the position and stator-resistance estimation is guaranteed at every operating point except the zero frequency, if other motor parameters are known. Furthermore, the effect of inaccurate model parameters on the local stability of the position estimation is studied, and an observer gain design that makes the observer robust is proposed. The proposed observer is experimentally tested using a 2.2-kW motor drive; stable operation at very low speeds under different loading conditions is demonstrated. View full abstract»

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  • A 200-MHz Integrated Buck Converter With Resonant Gate Drivers for an RF Power Amplifier

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 610 - 613
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (373 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    High switching frequency dc-dc converters are present in many applications where wide regulation bandwidth and high efficiency are needed. A resonant gate driver is presented for improvement of efficiency at light-to-medium load conditions. Gate power losses that are a main contributor to total losses are reduced thanks to energy recovery. A testchip designed in 0.25- BiCMOS shows as much as a 30% decrease in power losses compared to a conventional driver at 200-MHz switching frequency. The proposed resonant gate driver is fully integrated with its inductor unlike earlier works. The limitation in the reduction of gate losses is detailed and confirmed experimentally. View full abstract»

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  • Current Control for High-Dynamic High-Power Multiphase Buck Converters

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 614 - 618
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (962 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    When it comes to high-power current sources, multiphase buck converters become an attractive alternative to deliver high currents. However, large variations in current reference or load voltage lead to disturbances that require high dynamics in the transitory response of current control. This letter presents a current control for high-dynamic, high-power multiphase buck converters. The control proposed is based on the synchronization of zero-crossing current ripples with a time reference pattern. This control forces a correct interleaving and is capable of responding, with a reduced transitory time, to major changes in current reference and load voltage. Experimental results validate the proposal. View full abstract»

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  • Accurate Extraction Method of Reverse Recovery Time and Stored Charge for Ultrafast Diodes

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 619 - 622
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (347 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This letter presents a novel extraction method to accurately determine a reverse recovery time and a stored charge for ultrafast diodes. To obtain this, a test circuit to measure those parameters was accurately modeled by considering an inductance and a parasitic resistance, which are inherently embedded in the test circuit and lead to oscillation. The experimental results showed that the corrected reverse recovery time was reduced by 1.2 ns for an Si fast recovery diode, while by 6.8 ns for an SiC Schottky barrier diode, compared to their measured reverse recovery time. View full abstract»

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  • An Integrated High-Performance Active Rectifier for Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesting Systems

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 623 - 627
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (706 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this letter, a highly efficient active full-bridge rectifier is proposed for piezoelectric (PE) vibration energy harvesting systems. By replacing the passive diodes with an operational amplifier-controlled active counterpart and adding a switch in parallel with the transducer, the proposed rectifier solves the dc-offset problem of the comparator-based active diode, minimizes the voltage drop along the conduction path, and extracts more power from the transducer, all of which lead to better power extraction and conversion capability. The proposed rectifier, implemented in 0.18-μm CMOS technology, shows 90% power conversion efficiency and 81 μW output power, with values corresponding to 1.5 times and 3.4 times the values for a conventional full-bridge rectifier. View full abstract»

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  • Comparator-Controlled Rectification at Monolithic Buck Converters for Higher Input Voltages

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 628 - 631
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (593 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An integrated CMOS buck converter for input voltages up to 20 V is presented. It uses an improved comparator to control the low-side switch for asynchronous rectification. To protect the comparator under high voltage condition without relevant power dissipation (losses), a high-ohmic voltage limiter is used. To overcome the speed limitation resulting for the zero-voltage detection, the comparator exploits small-area input transistors and auto-zero circuitry to combine fast decision and low offset voltage. Simulations show a power consumption of 110 μW of the comparator. The measurements of the whole buck converter show up to 92% efficiency with 330-ns pulses at 314-mA output current for 20-V input voltage and 3.6-V output voltage. View full abstract»

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  • Behavioral Average Modeling and Equivalent Circuit Simulation of Switched Capacitors Converters

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 632 - 636
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (505 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A generic behavioral average circuit model of a switched capacitor converter (SCC) is proposed and demonstrated by a unity conversion SCC. The model is based on the average currents concept and can be used to calculate or simulate the average values of the SCC variables such as output voltage, capacitor voltages, and subcircuit currents. The model is valid for all operational ranges of an SCC (complete, partial, and no charge) and is compatible with any circuit simulator that includes dependent sources. Excellent agreement was found between full switched-circuit simulation, average simulation by proposed model, and experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • Digital Lamp Balance System With Individual Lamp Current Control Capability for an LCD TV

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 637 - 641
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (718 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A digital lamp balance system that equalizes lamp current of liquid crystal display (LCD) backlight is implemented in this letter. The proposed digital balance circuit consists of a balance switch which is in series with the lamp and a dc-blocking capacitor which also acts as a ballast capacitor for parallel lighting. The parasitic capacitance of the balance switch is used as parallel impedance which makes the lamp current decrease. Microcontroller unit controls each lamp current by changing the pulsewidth modulation duty ratio of a balance switch. The specified circuit, analysis, balance principles, and experimental results of the proposed system will be presented for a 46-in LCD TV. View full abstract»

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  • A Carrier-Based PWM Strategy With Zero-Sequence Voltage Injection for a Three-Level Neutral-Point-Clamped Converter

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 642 - 651
    Cited by:  Papers (51)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1506 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Performance of a carrier-based pulsewidth modulation (CB-PWM) strategy can be improved by the inclusion of a zero-sequence voltage in the modulation-reference signal. This paper proposes a new CB-PWM strategy for a three-level neutral-point-clamped (NPC) converter, which is based on a zero-sequence voltage injection. By inclusion of the zero-sequence voltage, the sinusoidal-modulation reference is modified to 1) carry out the voltage-balancing task of the dc-link capacitors, with no additional control effort, 2) reduce the switching losses, and 3) reduce the low-frequency voltage oscillations of the neutral point. The proposed strategy is an alternative approach to the nearest three-vector (NTV) space-vector modulation (SVM) strategy and is obtained by the analysis of the NTV-SVM strategy and establishing a correlation between the NTV-SVM and the CB-PWM strategies. The salient features of the proposed scheme, as compared with the NTV-SVM strategy, are: 1) its reduced computational processing time which is attractive for digital implementation and 2) its reduced switching losses. Compared with the existing CB-PWM strategies, the proposed strategy offers 1) capability to balance the capacitor voltages and reduce the NP voltage oscillations and 2) reduced switching losses. Performance of the proposed CB-PWM strategy for a three-level NPC converter based on time-domain simulation studies in the MATLAB/SIMULINK environment is evaluated and also experimentally verified. View full abstract»

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  • Operation and Control of a Hybrid Seven-Level Converter

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 652 - 660
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1247 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper introduces a novel hybrid seven-level converter that is based on the upgrade of the five-level active neutral-point-clamped converter concept and is suitable for high-power applications. The paper provides a comprehensive analysis for the operation of the converter. Based on the analysis, a space vector modulation (SVM)-based switching strategy that takes advantage of redundant switching vectors of the SVM strategy to counteract the voltage drift phenomenon of the proposed converter is proposed. The limit to the range of operation of the seven-level converter based on the proposed SVM strategy is also presented. It is shown that the ability to stabilize the dc-link capacitor voltages and the per-phase flying capacitors is a function of the converter operating indices, i.e., the load power factor and modulation index. The salient feature of the proposed SVM-based control strategy is that it enables proper operation of the converter with no requirements for additional controls or auxiliary power circuitry, within the specified range of operation. Performance of a converter under various operating conditions, based on the proposed SVM strategy, in the MATLAB/Simulink environment, is evaluated and experimentally demonstrated. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics covers fundamental technologies used in the control and conversion of electric power.

Full Aims & Scope