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Components, Hybrids, and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date Jun 1993

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Displaying Results 1 - 16 of 16
  • Practical scheduling and line optimization technology for ASIC manufacturing lines

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 407 - 411
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (484 KB)  

    The problem of obtaining quick product turnaround time (TAT) as well as high throughput on application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) manufacturing lines, is addressed. To achieve both, efficient lot management and line operation are required. An automatic scheduler and method of customization to increase scheduling efficiency, which have been developed for satisfying these requirements, simultaneously are described. Simulations with the scheduler yielded the concept of line performance curves (LPCs). Based on the techniques discussed, a line management algorithm that places emphasis on TAT has been developed. It employs a due date management chart (DMC) and a lot release control chart (LCC). These developments make possible huge improvements in the efficiency of ASIC manufacturing lines View full abstract»

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  • Computer-aided process planning in printed circuit card assembly

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 370 - 376
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (732 KB)  

    The goal of the research reported here is to develop a general approach and the necessary methodologies and tools to allow circuit card assembly manufacturers to determine the optimal strategy for operating an assembly line, and to rapidly generate optimal or near-optimal line setups. The objective is to maximize total production rate over a desired product mix subject to capacity, technological, and production requirement constraints for the planning horizon. The authors develop the decision problems required for process planning, discuss their approaches to solving the decision problems, and present some case study results View full abstract»

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  • Packaging alternatives for high lead count, fine pitch, surface mount technology

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 396 - 401
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (588 KB)  

    It is noted that increasing demand for more powerful, small-form-factor personal computers is driving the need for highly integrated, high-performance, high-density, and low-cost component packaging, and that surface mount technology (SMT) has proved effective in meeting these needs. At the same time component technology is being relied upon to deliver high integration and high performance. While the future direction for packaged surface mount components seems clearly dominated by plastic encapsulation, there are a number of options using direct attachment of unpackaged die that achieve greater system density. The authors review both the alternatives and issues associated with the growing number of fine pitch surface mount and direct attach technologies that seem applicable for assembly of high-lead-count, high-integration IC devices View full abstract»

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  • Thermal analysis of electrode heating and melting due to a spark

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 456 - 466
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (752 KB)  

    A thermal analysis has been carried out to estimate the temperature distribution in an electrode and the shape and size of molten metal pool due to heat from a single spark. Analytical solutions for heat conduction in a semi-infinite solid subjected to various boundary heat sources (point source, disk source, and Gaussian source-all instantaneous and semicontinuous) have been compiled and listed. In all cases, but one, the latent heat of melting has been assumed to be zero. The analysis shows that the instantaneous point source results in the largest radius and depth of the molten metal pool, and the highest efficiency of melting (about 61%). The maximum error in the calculated volume of the pool, assuming zero latent heat of melting, is estimated to be less than 15%. A comparison of the calculated radius of the molten metal pool with the crater dimensions of eroded surfaces shows that the point heat source does not satisfactorily account for the crater dimensions View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of thin film MCM materials for high-speed applications

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 388 - 391
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB)  

    The role of material properties in thin-film multichip module (MCM-D) performance as signal frequencies increase above 100 MHz is examined. Specifically, the impact on system performance of dielectric constant, dielectric loss tangent, interconnect metal resistance, and interconnect metal skin depth is discussed. These properties are compared for common MCM-D materials View full abstract»

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  • Making contact to aged surfaces

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 424 - 430
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (600 KB)  

    A Monte Carlo analysis of aged crossed rod copper (Cu) contacts was conducted to evaluate the effects from a number of variables such as film thickness, contact force, microhardness and geometry. The analysis was conducted using two previously developed models that employ material properties and design parameters as constraints in a statistical model of degradation. It was shown, using a power law model to describe the surface concentration of oxides, that the degradation model could be calibrated to produce results that showed good agreement with a wide range of laboratory data. In addition it was found that the recently observed difference in performance of soft and hard Cu contacts could be explained within the framework of the degradation model. It was concluded that the mechanism which causes oxide accumulation in the surface layer is affected by microhardness in a way which is less favorable to the performance of soft Cu contacts. The reason for this type of behavior was not determined and warrants further investigation View full abstract»

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  • Computer-aided planning systems for integrated electronic and mechanical design

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 377 - 383
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (604 KB)  

    The data processing requirements that arise when integrating housing and circuitry by means of three-dimensional molded interconnection devices (3-D-MIDs) are addressed. An overview of these requirements is given, and promising steps for integrating the functionality of CAD systems for electronic (ECAD) and mechanical (MCAD) applications are described View full abstract»

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  • Failure analysis of power modules: a look at the packaging and reliability of large IGBTs

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 412 - 417
    Cited by:  Papers (21)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (788 KB)  

    Power cycling tests on power modules consisting of insulated-gate bipolar transistors chips connected in parallel are reported. The following problems were found to degrade the properties of the modules: (1) Thick wire connections debonded after a low number of cycles because of mechanical strain. (2) Substrate assemblies deformed due to bimetallic effects, leading to poor thermal contact to the heatsink, and in some cases, to a cracking of electrical interconnects. (3) Soldering of substrates to large copper plates was of poor quality. The high number of large voids created intolerable differences in thermal resistance between the paralleled chips. It appears that the packaging technologies used are insufficient for power modules with paralleled chips when a high number of load cycles is expected View full abstract»

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  • Surface mounting of very fine pitch components: a new challenge

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 402 - 406
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    Based on their experience in developing and using 16- and 12.5-mil peripheral pitch custom compact single chip packages (CSCPs), the authors analyze the evolution and today's limits of package and board technologies and assembly techniques, with an emphasis on manufacturability. The manufacturing approach employed and the quality and reliability results obtained for 16- and 12.5-mil peripheral ceramic leaded packages are presented. A detailed analysis of packaging processes and limitations is performed for high-pin-count ceramic and plastic packages. Competitive packaging methods, namely PGA, LGA, and TAB, are compared, and future trends are analyzed View full abstract»

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  • Sliding contact characteristics between self-lubricating composite materials and copper

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 442 - 448
    Cited by:  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (744 KB)  

    Previous investigations of a composite material (CM-1) containing 20% of MoS2 and 20% of WS2 showed that whereas the coefficient of friction was reduced to that between pure copper metals by the incorporation of solid lubricants, contact resistance was increased by 1-2 orders of magnitude due to the presence of copper oxide film. Coefficients of friction and contact resistivities of two types of composite materials CM-4 (WS2 8%) and CM-5 (WS2 45%), with low resistivities were measured simultaneously using an experimental tester. It was found that the contact resistances were reduced to as low as 1/10 that of CM-1. Although coefficients of friction of 0.4-0.5, which were slightly higher than that of CM-1 (0.3), were obtained, it was found that those composite materials could be applied to the sliding electric contacts where occurrence of welding must be prevented by lowering frictional force and wear rate. It was further found that CM-5 showed better lubricating performances than CM-4 and was more suitable as the material for sliding electric contacts View full abstract»

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  • Screening ICs on the bare chip level: temporary packaging

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 392 - 395
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (388 KB)  

    Several different temporary packaging concepts for integrated circuits (ICs) for pretest at speed and burn-in are introduced. Temporary packaging is achieved using standard labor and equipment resources already employed in permanent packaging. Experiments were carried out to validate the pretest process, and results are presented for the various materials used in the pretest process. The preferred method for temporary packaging along with the selected materials used is presented. Temporary packaging of integrated circuits for pretest with reasonable yield is demonstrated as feasible View full abstract»

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  • A numerical model for thermal processes in an electrode submitted to an arc in air and its experimental verification

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 449 - 455
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (512 KB)  

    The energy transferred to the electrodes, based on the determination of the liquid and vapor quantities created by the arc root, is evaluated by numerical computation and compared with measurements. With the help of a high-speed laser cinematography technique, the authors confirmed the assumption of a concentrated and quasi-circular arc root in air at atmospheric pressure, so an axial symmetry is adopted in the numerical model for both arc root and electrode. This modeling takes into account the huge power focused onto a small area of the electrode surface, producing intense surface heating, liquefaction, evaporation, and subsequent crater formation. This is a typical ablation problem with moving boundaries, and a method is presented here which overcomes the difficulties related to state changes and the ablation problem. The model is used to account for the results obtained with an original experimental device designed to obtain directly the amount of liquid and vapor formed, and finally, to provide a good approximation of the energy brought by the arc to the electrodes View full abstract»

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  • Large capacitance electric double layer capacitor using activated carbon/carbon composite

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 431 - 436
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (544 KB)  

    An electric double-layer capacitor with large capacitance, 1000 F at 5.5 V, has been developed. It uses activated carbon/carbon (AC/C) composite as the polarizable electrodes and sulfuric acid as the electrolyte. The AC/C composite was synthesized through a simple process, namely, a cured mixture of activated carbon and phenol-formaldehyde resin was carbonized. The AC/C composite has a large surface area, 1300 mg, and low resistivity, 0.01 Ω-cm. Two kinds of pores exist in the AC/C composite: macropores with submicrometer diameters, and micropores with below 4-nm diameter. The micropores are impregnated with the sulfuric acid aqueous solution through the macropores open to the outer surface. The electric double-layer capacitance per unit volume for the AC/C composite in sulfuric acid is greater than that for activated carbon powder as a raw material. The capacitor is expected to be used as an energy storage device and a supplementary power source View full abstract»

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  • Formation of SiO2 on contact surface and its effect on contact reliability

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 437 - 441
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (404 KB)  

    Electrical contact failure due to thermal decomposition of low-molecular-weight silicone vapor evaporated from such silicone products as oils and rubbers was investigated in a simulated environment. A glassy film deposit was found on the contact surface after exposure to elevated temperature in an atmosphere containing an extremely small quantity of the silicone. The film was clearly identified as amorphous SiO2 by ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The growth of the film was directly related to the concentration of silicone vapor and temperature. The growth law was an exponential function of the exposure time. The film increases static contact resistance when it is thicker than 800 Å and the load is less than 5 g. The relationship between the concentration of the vapor, temperature, film thickness, and contact resistance is represented schematically View full abstract»

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  • Relaxation effects in high-voltage barium titanate nonlinear ceramic disk capacitors

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 418 - 423
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (480 KB)  

    Room-temperature capacitance-voltage-frequency measurements are reported for an 85-nF barium titanate high-voltage ceramic-disk nonlinear capacitor, intended for use in a power electronics turnoff snubber circuit. Bias-voltage excursions are from 0 to 1500 V DC, and the frequency responses are measured from quasi-DC to 1000 Hz. The observed C-V-frequency responses are modeled in terms of series-capacitance contributions from ferroelectric grains and p-n junction grain boundaries, involving 16 parameter variables. The ferroelectric capacitance terms are given by a modified Langevin function, and the grain-boundary capacitances are modeled by back-to-back p-n junction diodes on either side on an insulator boundary. The observed frequency dependence of the C-V response is attributed here to a Debye-type relaxation of the compensation regions at the grain boundaries, with time constant 15 ms. Good agreement between theory and experiment is obtained over the 0-1500-V bias range View full abstract»

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  • Thermal design for high-speed high-density multichip module

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 384 - 387
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (544 KB)  

    The boundary conditions of models for finite element analysis of the thermal design of high-speed high-density multichip modules are examined, principally the thermal via and heat sink, and a model that improves the accuracy of heat transfer analysis simulation is investigated. It is found that in evaluating the effectiveness of thermal vias in heat loss, simulation can be made to yield results close to observed values by considering the substrate a compound material with a uniform thermal conductivity coefficient determined by the ratio of thermal via cross section area to substrate area. A thermal via area ratio of 10% is satisfactory both from the standpoint of manufacturing and for effectiveness in decreasing thermal resistance. Also, in the present model the heat transfer coefficient of the heat sink can be determined by using air speeds and comparison with observed results. It is concluded that the model is capable of highly accurate simulation of thermal via and heat sink conditions and can be effective in the thermal design of high-speed, high-density multichip modules View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transaction ceased production in 1993. The current publication is titled IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology.

Full Aims & Scope