By Topic

Sustainable Energy, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 2012

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 27
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (214 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy

    Page(s): C2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (37 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Control of DFIG Wind Turbine With Direct-Current Vector Control Configuration

    Page(s): 1 - 11
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2855 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbine is a variable speed wind turbine widely used in the modern wind power industry. At present, commercial DFIG wind turbines primarily make use of the technology that was developed a decade ago. But, it is found in this paper that there is a limitation in the conventional vector control technique. This paper presents a direct-current vector control method in a DFIG wind turbine, based on which an integrated control strategy is developed for wind energy extraction, reactive power, and grid voltage support controls of the wind turbine. A transient simulation system using SimPowerSystem is built to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control method. The conventional control approach is compared with the proposed control technique for DFIG wind turbine control under both steady and gust wind conditions. The paper shows that under the dc vector control configuration, a DFIG system has a superior performance in various aspects. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • DFIG-Based Wind Power Conversion With Grid Power Leveling for Reduced Gusts

    Page(s): 12 - 20
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1293 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new control strategy for a grid-connected doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind energy conversion system (WECS). Control strategies for the grid side and rotor side converters placed in the rotor circuit of the DFIG are presented along with the mathematical modeling of the employed configuration of WECS. The proposed topology includes a battery energy storage system (BESS) to reduce the power fluctuations on the grid due to the varying nature and unpredictability of wind. The detailed design, sizing, and modeling of the BESS are given for the grid power leveling. Existing control strategies like the maximum power point extraction of the wind turbine, unity power factor operation of the DFIG are also addressed along with the proposed strategy of “grid power leveling.” An analysis is made in terms of the active power sharing between the DFIG and the grid taking into account the power stored or discharged by the BESS, depending on the available wind energy. The proposed strategy is then simulated in MATLAB-SIMULINK and the developed model is used to predict the behavior. An effort is made to make the work contemporary and unique, compared to the existing literature related to issues governing grid fed DFIG-based WECS. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Assessment of Perturb and Observe MPPT Algorithm Implementation Techniques for PV Pumping Applications

    Page(s): 21 - 33
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3077 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The energy utilization efficiency of commercial photovoltaic (PV) pumping systems can be significantly improved by employing simple perturb and observe (P&O) maximum power point tracking algorithms. Two such P&O implementation techniques, reference voltage perturbation and direct duty ratio perturbation, are commonly utilized in the literature but no clear criteria for the suitable choice of method or algorithm parameters have been presented. This paper presents a detailed theoretical and experimental comparison of the two P&O implementation techniques on the basis of system stability, performance characteristics, and energy utilization for standalone PV pumping systems. The influence of algorithm parameters on system behavior is investigated and the various advantages and drawbacks of each technique are identified for different weather conditions. Practical results obtained using a 1080-Wp PV array connected to a 1-kW permanent magnet dc motor-centrifugal pump set show very good agreement with the theoretical analysis and numerical simulations. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Sizing Energy Storage to Accommodate High Penetration of Variable Energy Resources

    Page(s): 34 - 40
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (633 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The variability and nondispatchable nature of wind and solar energy production presents substantial challenges for maintaining system balance. Depending on the economic considerations, energy storage can be a viable solution to balance energy production with consumption. This paper proposes to use discrete Fourier transform to decompose the required balancing power into different time-varying periodic components, i.e., intraweek, intraday, intrahour, and real-time. Each component can be used to quantify the maximum energy storage requirement for different types of energy storage. This requirement is the physical limit that could be theoretically accommodated by a power system. The actual energy storage capacity can be further quantified within this limit by the cost-benefit analysis (future work). The proposed approach has been successfully used in a study conducted for the 2030 Western Electricity Coordinating Council system model. Some results of this study are provided in this paper. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Three-Phase Steady-State Model of Type-3 Wind Generation Unit—Part II: Model Validation and Applications

    Page(s): 41 - 48
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1046 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the implementation and validation of the sequence-frame model of the Type-3 wind generation unit and the sequential sequence-frame power-flow solver (sequential-SFPS) algorithm, developed in the Part I of this paper. A set of case studies are reported to (1) validate the numerical accuracy of the developed model and the power-flow algorithm, (2) quantify the impact of the Type-3 control strategy on the steady-state three-phase power-flow solution, and (3) demonstrate the computational efficiency of the sequential-SFPS. Three test systems of different topologies, sizes, and parameters are examined. Where applicable, the results are validated based on comparison with the exact time-domain solution, using the PSCAD/EMTDC software tool. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Cooperation of a Grid-Connected Wind Farm and an Energy Storage Unit—Demonstration of a Simulation Tool

    Page(s): 49 - 56
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1257 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As installed wind capacity of the world increases, more and more issues are revealed during operation. One of these issues is related to the stochastic nature of wind speed that results in low accuracy of wind power forecasts. That is why energy storage becomes increasingly important. In this paper, a simulation tool is introduced developed to simulate the cooperation of a grid-connected wind farm and a generic energy storage unit. The aim of the tool is to decrease the difference between forecasted and actual wind power production. After the introduction of today's forecasting methods, the rule-based simulation tool is detailed. The operation of the tool is demonstrated using data of the Hungarian wind farms. Rated power and capacity is then calculated for a generic energy storage unit that is able to keep the resulting output of Hungarian wind farms and the belonging energy storage inside the ±50% range of the forecasted power, 95% of the time. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Estimation of Effective Wind Speed for Fixed-Speed Wind Turbines Based on Frequency Domain Data Fusion

    Page(s): 57 - 64
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1226 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The rotator of the wind turbine is subject to a spatially and temporally distributed wind field; the wind speed varies significantly at different points over the blades plane. This makes a direct measurement of effective wind speed impossible. We analyze the spectrums of the measurement of the anemometer and generator power of a wind turbine, and point out that the characteristics of these two signals are complementary in the frequency domain. Then an observer for effective wind speed is proposed based on frequency-domain data fusion. The observer design is formulated as a mixed-sensitivity problem with linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Simulations were carried out to assess the performance under a realistic wind speed profile. The simulation results show that the observer can not only guarantee the static accuracy, but also improve the dynamic accuracy of the measurements of the effective wind. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Method for Assessing Grid Frequency Deviation Due to Wind Power Fluctuation Based on “Time-Frequency Transformation”

    Page(s): 65 - 73
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1544 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Grid frequency deviation caused by wind power fluctuation has been a major concern for secure operation of a power system with integrated large-scale wind power. Many approaches have been proposed to assess this negative effect on grid frequency due to wind power fluctuation. Unfortunately, most published studies are based entirely on deterministic methodology. This paper presents a novel assessment method based on “Time-Frequency Transformation” to overcome shortcomings of existing methods. The main contribution of the paper is to propose a stochastic process “simulation” model which is a better alternative of the existing dynamic frequency deviation simulation model. In this way, the method takes the stochastic wind power fluctuation into full account so as to give a quantitative risk assessment of grid frequency deviation to grid operators, even without using any dynamic simulation tool. The case studies show that this method can be widely used in different types of wind power system analysis scenarios. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Determination of Short-Term Power Dispatch Schedule for a Wind Farm Incorporated With Dual-Battery Energy Storage Scheme

    Page(s): 74 - 84
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1197 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A battery energy storage scheme to enable short-term dispatch commitment from a grid-connected wind-turbine generating power station is considered. Among the various types of energy storage medium, technical factors leading to the selection of battery are explained. The scheme utilizes two battery energy storage systems (BESS) in which the generated wind power charges one BESS while concurrently, the second BESS is to discharge power into the grid. The role of the two BESS interchanges when the BESS reaches specified state of charge/discharge. Furthermore, based on forecasted charging wind power and the monitored states of charge of the two BESS, the discharge power level from the generating station is determined and scheduled a few hours ahead. The dispatch scheme maximizes wind energy harnessed, achieved with the minimum number of the BESS switch-overs. The design thus prolongs the service life of the BESS. Numerical examples to demonstrate the performance of the scheme are also included. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Round-the-Year Security Analysis With Large-Scale Wind Power Integration

    Page(s): 85 - 93
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2166 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The ongoing liberalization process together with the growing penetration of renewable energy sources (RES), e.g., wind power, require an internationally oriented transmission planning approach that considers the increased uncertainties in terms of trade, location of generation, and output of intermittent generation. This paper identifies and ranks bottlenecks, which is the first step of the transmission planning process for interconnected high-voltage grids. A round-the-year approach is proposed by combining market simulations with static security analysis. Many combinations of load and generation (including RES) are created and analyzed, using unit dispatch based on cost optimization. For each combination, the branch loadings are determined for normal and contingency situations. A statistical risk-based approach for ranking the most severe bottlenecks is developed. The method is illustrated on a modified New England test system where wind power was added at several buses. The risk of overload versus amount of installed wind power is also assessed. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Wind Turbine Condition Assessment Through Power Curve Copula Modeling

    Page(s): 94 - 101
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (871 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Power curves constructed from wind speed and active power output measurements provide an established method of analyzing wind turbine performance. In this paper, it is proposed that operational data from wind turbines are used to estimate bivariate probability distribution functions representing the power curve of existing turbines so that deviations from expected behavior can be detected. Owing to the complex form of dependency between active power and wind speed, which no classical parameterized distribution can approximate, the application of empirical copulas is proposed; the statistical theory of copulas allows the distribution form of marginal distributions of wind speed and power to be expressed separately from information about the dependency between them. Copula analysis is discussed in terms of its likely usefulness in wind turbine condition monitoring, particularly in early recognition of incipient faults such as blade degradation, yaw, and pitch errors. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Multiunit Planning Assessment of Wind Power: Sensitivity to Wind Regimes

    Page(s): 102 - 111
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1330 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    If proposed wind park configurations are planned through a globally coordinated approach across a utility service area, then electricity can be fed into the grid with substantial cost advantages. This paper shows that by four important measures, such optimal multiunit plans are sensitive to wind regimes presented by candidate sites to available makes of wind energy conversion systems (WECS). As part of the work, a pre-qualification process based on expected full-load hours (EFLH) is introduced for available makes of WECS with reference to candidate sites. It is shown that application of the pre-qualification prior to optimal multiunit planning leads to substantial improvement by the four measures. Application of the pre-qualification and planning to the state of Andhra Pradesh (India) is presented as an example case. Possible refinements and augmentations over the basic approach are discussed. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Distribution System Planning With Incorporating DG Reactive Capability and System Uncertainties

    Page(s): 112 - 123
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1983 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Distributed generation (DG) systems are considered an integral part in future distribution system planning. The active and reactive power injections from DG units, typically installed close to the load centers, are seen as a cost-effective solution for distribution system voltage support, energy saving, and reliability improvement. This paper proposes a novel distribution system expansion planning strategy encompassing renewable DG systems with schedulable and intermittent power generation patterns. The reactive capability limits of different renewable DG systems covering wind, solar photovoltaic, and biomass-based generation units are included in the planning model and the system uncertainties such as load demand, wind speed, and solar radiation are also accounted using probabilistic models. The problem of distribution system planning with renewable DG is formulated as constrained mixed integer nonlinear programming, wherein the total cost will be minimized with optimal allocation of various renewable DG systems. A solution algorithm integrating TRIBE particle swarm optimization (TRIBE PSO) and ordinal optimization (OO) is developed to effectively obtain optimal and near-optimal solutions for system planners. TRIBE PSO, OO, and the proposed algorithm are applied to a practical test system and results are compared and presented. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Wind Turbine Generator Condition-Monitoring Using Temperature Trend Analysis

    Page(s): 124 - 133
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1635 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Condition monitoring can greatly reduce the maintenance cost for a wind turbine. In this paper, a new condition-monitoring method based on the nonlinear state estimate technique for a wind turbine generator is proposed. The technique is used to construct the normal behavior model of the electrical generator temperature. A new and improved memory matrix construction method is adopted to achieve better coverage of the generator's normal operational space. Generator incipient failure is indicated when the residuals between model estimates and the measured generator temperature become significant. Moving window averaging is used to detect statistically significant changes of the residual mean value and standard deviation in an effective manner; when these parameters exceed predefined thresholds, an incipient failure is flagged. Examples based on data from the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition system at a wind farm located at Zhangjiakou in northern China have been used to validate the approach and examine its sensitivity to key factors that influence the performance of the approach. It is demonstrated that the technique can identify dangerous generator over temperature before damage has occurred that results in complete shutdown of the turbine. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Application of Auto-Regressive Models to U.K. Wind Speed Data for Power System Impact Studies

    Page(s): 134 - 141
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (855 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Scientific research to characterize the long-term wind energy resource is plentiful. However, if the impact of wind power on the electric power system is the goal of modeling, consideration must be given to diurnal and seasonal effects, as well as the correlation of wind speed between geographical areas. This paper provides such detail by modeling these effects explicitly, enabling accurate evaluations of wind power impact on future power systems to be carried out. This is increasingly important in the context of ambitious wind energy targets driven in the U.K., for example, by the requirement for 20% of Europe's energy to be met from renewable energy sources by 2020. Both univariate and multivariate auto-regressive models are presented here and it is shown how they can be applied to geographically dispersed wind speed data. These models are applied to suitably de-trended data. The accuracy of the models is assessed both by inspection of the residuals and by assessment of the forecasting accuracy of the models. Finally, it is shown how the models can be used to synthesize wind speed and thus wind power time series with the correct seasonal, diurnal, and spatial diversity characteristics. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Simulation of Correlated Wind Speed Data for Economic Dispatch Evaluation

    Page(s): 142 - 149
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (873 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Economic Dispatch problem consists of minimizing the cost of producing the power demanded by an electrical power system, by means of the suitable dispatching of the power production between the available generators. The difficulty in predicting wind power generation means that penalty and reserve costs must be considered when it is included in the evaluation. Analyzing the output power of each wind turbine individually is not enough when evaluating these costs and the correlation between wind speed values must be considered as another input because it also has an influence. This paper introduces a new method for generating correlated wind power values and explains how to apply the method when evaluating Economic Dispatch. A case study is provided to analyze whether considering correlation in the problem has any influence or not. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A Data-Mining Approach to Monitoring Wind Turbines

    Page(s): 150 - 157
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1388 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The rapid expansion of wind farms has generated interest in operations and maintenance. An operating wind turbine undergoes various state changes, including transformation from a normal to a fault mode. Condition-based maintenance tools are needed to identify potential faults in the system. The prediction of turbine fault modes is of particular interest. In this research, data-mining algorithms are employed to construct prediction models for wind turbine faults. A three-stage prediction process is followed: 1) prediction of a fault of any kind; 2) prediction of specific faults of the system; and 3) identification on unseen faults. A comparative analysis of various data-mining algorithms is reported based on the data collected at a large wind farm. Random forest algorithm models provided the best accuracy among all algorithms tested. The robustness of the predictive model is validated for faults that have occurred at turbines with previously unseen data. The research results discussed in this paper have been derived from data collected at 17 wind turbines. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Wind Power Projects Planning Considering Real Options for the Wind Resource Assessment

    Page(s): 158 - 166
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (941 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Investments in wind power projects (WPPs) have increased in the last few years. This trend is partially due to the availability of support schemes, which increase the economic attractiveness of WPPs. Alternatively, the value of WPPs can be enhanced by improving available techniques used for their planning and design. After reviewing WPP literature, it was concluded that available tools for the planning and design of WPP could be improved by addressing the uncertainty of the wind resource assessment (WRA), and this source of uncertainty could be used to enhance the value of WPPs with real options (ROs) theory. ROs theory is known for its potential to increase the expected worth of projects by exploiting the value of flexibility within the projects' investment decisions and designs. Nevertheless, ROs literature has to be extended to properly address the design of WPPs. Based on the gaps in ROs theory and WPPs planning, this paper proposes a methodology that relies on ROs theory to incorporate WRA uncertainty in the planning and design process of WPPs. The methodology is illustrated with a small case study and its potential to increase the value of WPPs under different conditions is analyzed for a wide range of case studies. The results illustrate the circumstances and assumptions that can improve and weaken the effectiveness of the methodology. It is concluded that the application of the proposed ROs methodology results in increased value for WPPs in most scenarios. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Nemiah Valley Photovoltaic-Diesel Mini-Grid: System Performance and Fuel Saving Based on One Year of Monitored Data

    Page(s): 167 - 175
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1284 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Canada's first battery-free photovoltaic (PV)-diesel mini-grid was installed in the Nemiah Valley of British Columbia, Canada in the fall of 2007. Since loads in this community are relatively small (peak load of ≈75 kW), PV penetration on the mini-grid is much higher than what has been achieved in any large-scale centralized grid: the 27.36 kW of PV represent 36% of peak load, and supply roughly 11% of the electricity used in the community on a yearly basis. The goal of this research was both to assess the performance of this PV-diesel mini-grid over a one-year period, as well as to highlight some of the lessons learned and inform the design and operation of other such systems. In particular, this case study examined fuel savings that were achieved through a number of modifications to a preexisting mini-grid, including the addition of PV, the removal of a dump load, the reconfiguration of the commercial load feeder and the use of a smaller genset during weeknights and weekends. The fuel savings achieved amount to about 26 000 L per year, or a reduction of ≈25% over business-as-usual. With respect to PV systems performance, the main issue encountered was the occurrence of conditions under which PV output would, if not curtailed, exceed system load. It was estimated that the PV system would deliver about 10% more energy on a yearly basis if all of its output could be absorbed (as in the case of connection to a large, centralized grid). Given that this effect will worsen as PV penetration levels are pushed beyond this system's, a number of avenues for mitigating this loss are discussed. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A Study of the Prediction Requirements in Real-Time Control of Wave Energy Converters

    Page(s): 176 - 184
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1454 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    It is widely acknowledged that real-time control of wave energy converters (WECs) can benefit from prediction of the excitation force. The prediction requirements (how far ahead into the future do we need to predict?) and the achievable predictions (how far ahead can we predict?) are quantified when unconstrained reactive control is implemented. The fundamental properties of the floating system that influence the length of the required forecasting horizon, as well as the achievable prediction, are characterized. The possibility of manipulating the control, based on prior knowledge of the wave spectral distribution, is also proposed for the reduction of the prediction requirements, such that they are within the range of predictability offered by simple stochastic predictors. The proposed methodology is validated on real wave data and heaving buoys with different geometries. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A Simple Approach to Modeling and Simulation of Photovoltaic Modules

    Page(s): 185 - 186
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (435 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An accurate model is essential when designing photovoltaic (PV) systems. PV models rely on a set of transcendental nonlinear equations which add to the model complexity. This letter proposes a simple and easy-to-model approach for implementation in simulations of PV systems. It takes advantage of the simplicity of ideal models and enhances the accuracy by deriving a mathematical representation, capable of extracting accurate estimates of the model parameters, directly related to manufacturer datasheets. Experimental measurements proved the effectiveness of the proposed approach. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • IEEE Foundation [advertisement]

    Page(s): 187
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (320 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Quality without compromise [advertisement]

    Page(s): 188
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (324 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy is a cross disciplinary and internationally archival journal aimed at disseminating results of research on sustainable energy that relates to, arises from, or deliberately influences energy generation, transmission, distribution and delivery.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Dr. Bikash C. Pal,  Ph.D.
Imperial College