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Communications Surveys & Tutorials, IEEE

Issue 4 • Date Fourth Quarter 2011

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Displaying Results 1 - 11 of 11
  • Fourth Quarter 2011 IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials

    Page(s): 521 - 523
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Green Cellular Networks: A Survey, Some Research Issues and Challenges

    Page(s): 524 - 540
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (812 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Energy efficiency in cellular networks is a growing concern for cellular operators to not only maintain profitability, but also to reduce the overall environment effects. This emerging trend of achieving energy efficiency in cellular networks is motivating the standardization authorities and network operators to continuously explore future technologies in order to bring improvements in the entire network infrastructure. In this article, we present a brief survey of methods to improve the power efficiency of cellular networks, explore some research issues and challenges and suggest some techniques to enable an energy efficient or "green" cellular network. Since base stations consume a maximum portion of the total energy used in a cellular system, we will first provide a comprehensive survey on techniques to obtain energy savings in base stations. Next, we discuss how heterogenous network deployment based on micro, pico and femtocells can be used to achieve this goal. Since cognitive radio and cooperative relaying are undisputed future technologies in this regard, we propose a research vision to make these technologies more energy efficient. Lastly, we explore some broader perspectives in realizing a "green" cellular network technology. View full abstract»

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  • A Survey on the Application of FPGAs for Network Infrastructure Security

    Page(s): 541 - 561
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3632 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Given the rapid evolution of attack methods and toolkits, software-based solutions to secure the network infrastructure have become overburdened. The performance gap between the execution speed of security software and the amount of data to be processed is ever widening. A common solution to close this performance gap is through hardware implementation of security functions. Possessing the flexibility of software and high parallelism of hardware, reconfigurable hardware devices, such as Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), have become increasingly popular for this purpose. FPGAs support the performance demands of security operations as well as enable architectural and algorithm innovations in the future. This paper presents a survey of the state-of-art in FPGA-based implementations that have been used in the network infrastructure security area, categorizing currently existing diverse implementations. Combining brief descriptions with intensive case-studies, we hope this survey will inspire more active research in this area. View full abstract»

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  • A Survey on Trust Management for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Page(s): 562 - 583
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (575 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Managing trust in a distributed Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is challenging when collaboration or cooperation is critical to achieving mission and system goals such as reliability, availability, scalability, and reconfigurability. In defining and managing trust in a military MANET, we must consider the interactions between the composite cognitive, social, information and communication networks, and take into account the severe resource constraints (e.g., computing power, energy, bandwidth, time), and dynamics (e.g., topology changes, node mobility, node failure, propagation channel conditions). We seek to combine the notions of "social trust" derived from social networks with "quality-of-service (QoS) trust" derived from information and communication networks to obtain a composite trust metric. We discuss the concepts and properties of trust and derive some unique characteristics of trust in MANETs, drawing upon social notions of trust. We provide a survey of trust management schemes developed for MANETs and discuss generally accepted classifications, potential attacks, performance metrics, and trust metrics in MANETs. Finally, we discuss future research areas on trust management in MANETs based on the concept of social and cognitive networks. View full abstract»

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  • Vehicular Networking: A Survey and Tutorial on Requirements, Architectures, Challenges, Standards and Solutions

    Page(s): 584 - 616
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    Vehicular networking has significant potential to enable diverse applications associated with traffic safety, traffic efficiency and infotainment. In this survey and tutorial paper we introduce the basic characteristics of vehicular networks, provide an overview of applications and associated requirements, along with challenges and their proposed solutions. In addition, we provide an overview of the current and past major ITS programs and projects in the USA, Japan and Europe. Moreover, vehicular networking architectures and protocol suites employed in such programs and projects in USA, Japan and Europe are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Overcoming Adversaries in Sensor Networks: A Survey of Theoretical Models and Algorithmic Approaches for Tolerating Malicious Interference

    Page(s): 617 - 641
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    Interference is an unavoidable property of the wireless communication medium and, in sensor networks, such interference is exacerbated due to the energy-starved nature of the network devices themselves. In the presence of antagonistic interference, reliable communication in sensor networks becomes an extremely challenging problem that, in recent years, has attracted significant attention from the research community. This survey presents the current state of affairs in the formulation of theoretical models for adversarial interference in sensor networks and the different algorithmic remedies developed by the research community. There is a particular focus on jamming adversaries and Byzantine faults as these capture a wide range of benign faults as well as malicious attacks. The models in the literature are examined and contrasted with the aim of discerning the underlying assumptions that dictate analytical bounds with regards to feasibility and a number of performance metrics such as communication complexity, latency, and energy efficiency. Limitations are also highlighted with a focus on how various results impact real world applications and, conversely, how the current sensor network technology informs newer models. Finally, directions for future research are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • A Survey of Protocols to Support IP Mobility in Aeronautical Communications

    Page(s): 642 - 657
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (776 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The aviation industry is currently at the beginning of a modernization phase regarding its communication systems. This involves a transition to IP-based networks for Air Traffic Control and Airline Operational Communications. Due to the heterogeneous nature of the communication environment, support for mobility between different access technologies and access networks becomes necessary. We first introduce the aeronautical communications environment and present domain specific requirements. The main part of this article is a survey of different protocols that can be used to solve the IP mobility problem within the aeronautical environment. These protocols are assessed with regard to the introduced requirements. We conclude with the identification of a particular protocol as the most suited solution and also identify areas for further work. View full abstract»

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  • Mitigating Packet Dropping Problem in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Proposals and Challenges

    Page(s): 658 - 672
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    In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), nodes usually cooperate and forward each other's packets in order to enable out of range communication. However, in hostile environments, some nodes may deny to do so, either for saving their own resources or for intentionally disrupting regular communications. This type of misbehavior is generally referred to as packet dropping attack or black hole attack, which is considered as one of the most destructive attacks that leads to the network collapse. The special network characteristics, such as limited battery power and mobility, make the prevention techniques based on cryptographic primitives ineffective to cope with such attack. Rather, a more proactive alternative is required to ensure the safety of the forwarding function by staving off malicious nodes from being involved in routing paths. Once such scheme fails, some economic-based approaches can be adopted to alleviate the attack consequences by motivating the nodes cooperation. As a backup, detection and reaction schemes remain as the final defense line to identify the misbehaving nodes and punish them. In this paper, we make a comprehensive survey investigation on the state-of-the-art countermeasures to deal with the packet dropping attack. Furthermore, we examine the challenges that remain to be tackled by researchers for constructing an in-depth defense against such a sophisticated attack. View full abstract»

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  • Networked Wireless Sensor Data Collection: Issues, Challenges, and Approaches

    Page(s): 673 - 687
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (656 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been applied to many applications since emerging. Among them, one of the most important applications is Sensor Data Collections, where sensed data are collected at all or some of the sensor nodes and forwarded to a central base station for further processing. In this paper, we present a survey on recent advances in this research area. We first highlight the special features of sensor data collection in WSNs, by comparing with both wired sensor data collection network and other WSN applications. With these features in mind, we then discuss the issues and prior solutions on the utilizations of WSNs for sensor data collection. Based on different focuses of previous research works, we describe the basic taxonomy and propose to break down the networked wireless sensor data collection into three major stages, namely, the deployment stage, the control message dissemination stage and the data delivery stage. In each stage, we then discuss the issues and challenges, followed by a review and comparison of the previously proposed approaches and solutions, striving to identify the research and development trend behind them. In addition, we further discuss the correlations among the three stages and outline possible directions for the future research of the networked wireless sensor data collection. View full abstract»

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  • From MANET To IETF ROLL Standardization: A Paradigm Shift in WSN Routing Protocols

    Page(s): 688 - 707
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    In large networks, a data source may not reach the intended sink in a single hop, thereby requiring the traffic to be routed via multiple hops. An optimized choice of such routing path is known to significantly increase the performance of said networks. This holds particularly true for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consisting of a large amount of miniaturized battery-powered wireless networked sensors required to operate for years with no human intervention. There has hence been a growing interest on understanding and optimizing WSN routing and networking protocols in recent years, where the limited and constrained resources have driven research towards primarily reducing energy consumption, memory requirements and complexity of routing functionalities. To this end, early flooding-based and hierarchical protocols have migrated within the past decade to geographic and self-organizing coordinate-based routing solutions. The former have been brought to standardization through the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET) working group; the latter are currently finding their way into standardization through the IETF Routing Over Low power and Lossy networks (ROLL) working group. This article thus surveys this paradigm shift for routing in WSNs and, unlike previous milestone surveys, follows a rather chronological organization within the given protocol taxonomy. For each protocol family, we provide a didactic presentation of the basic concept, a discussion on the enhancements and variants on that concept, and a detailed description of the latest state-of-the-art protocols of that family. We believe that this organization sheds some light on the design choices of emerging IETF ROLL protocols and also provides design parameters of interest to the WSN engineer, essentially enabling the design and implementation of more reliable and efficient WSN solutions. View full abstract»

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  • Impact of MIMO Techniques on the Interoperability between UMTS-HSDPA and WLAN Wireless Systems

    Page(s): 708 - 720
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    Next generation wireless communication networks integrate in a seamless manner existing technologies such as 3G wireless networks and WLANs in order to create a heterogeneous system with improved capacity and complementary coverage. Besides, they support more mobile users and a variety of services with variable bandwidth and QoS "anytime anywhere". In this paper, we first present a survey of the most recent methods that achieve interoperability between 3G and WLAN systems. Motivated by the above presented methods, we propose a mechanism that achieves interoperability between an HSDPA cellular system and a WLAN radio access network. The mechanism is based on the definition and calculation of a cost function which uses suitable metrics to trigger interoperability. The performance of the interoperability mechanism is evaluated by means of system level simulations, assuming that both HSDPA and WLAN are enhanced with MIMO space-time coded techniques. Extensive simulations have shown that the incorporation of MIMO schemes greatly affects the inter-system handovers while significant performance enhancements can be achieved at the system level. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials is an online journal published by the IEEE Communications Society for tutorials and surveys covering all aspects of the communications field. Telecommunications technology is progressing at a rapid pace, and the IEEE Communications Society is committed to providing researchers and other professionals the information and tools to stay abreast.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Ekram Hossain, Ph.D., P.Eng.
Professor
University of Manitoba