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Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date April 2012

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 42
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - 1685
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  • IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Guest Editorial

    Page(s): 1686 - 1688
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  • Analysis and Design of the Integrated Double Buck–Boost Converter as a High-Power-Factor Driver for Power-LED Lamps

    Page(s): 1689 - 1697
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (616 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, an integrated double buck-boost (IDBB) converter is proposed as a high-power-factor offline power supply for power-LED lamps. The IDBB converter features just one controlled switch and two inductors and is able to supply a solid-state lamp from the mains, providing high power factor and good efficiency. In this paper, the IDBB converter is analyzed, and a design methodology is proposed. It is demonstrated that, with a careful design of the converter, the filter capacitances can be made small enough so that film capacitors may be used. In this way, the converter mean time between failures can be made as high as that of the solid-state lamp. A design example for a 70-W converter supplied from a 230 V/50 Hz mains for street lighting applications is shown. Finally, experimental results from a laboratory prototype are also presented. View full abstract»

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  • Symmetric Current-Balancing Circuit for LED Backlight With Dimming

    Page(s): 1698 - 1707
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    One of the key challenges in driving multiple light-emitting-diode (LED) strings for a liquid-crystal-display (LCD) backlight system is to ensure uniform current control. Unequal current sharing between the strings is due to manufacturing spread and temperature variations. In this paper, a novel current-balancing circuit for LED backlights is proposed. A smart combination of an inherent symmetry of circuit and capacitive balancing mechanism enables an efficient and cost-effective current balancing. The operating principle of the proposed method is analyzed, and an appealing generalization is made. The feasibility of the proposed scheme is verified by developing a hardware prototype with a dimming feature to drive a 100-W edge-type backlight system, having six LED strings for a large-scale LCD panel. View full abstract»

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  • A Capacitor-Isolated LED Driver With Inherent Current Balance Capability

    Page(s): 1708 - 1716
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1512 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a capacitor-isolated light-emitting diode (LED) driver with inherent current-balancing capability. Based on a series resonant converter, the resonant capacitor can be used both for safety isolation and the current balancing with the proposed two-output rectifier structure. Compared to the conventional current-sharing technique, the proposed LED driver circuit is simple and has low cost and high performance. Also, the capacitor-isolated structure is more efficient and compact compared to the conventional transformer isolation. The detailed theoretical analysis and design considerations of the proposed circuit are presented. The performance of the proposed circuit is validated by the experimental results from a 60-W prototype with two balanced outputs. View full abstract»

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  • PWM Series Dimming for Slow-Dynamics HPF LED Drivers: the High-Frequency Approach

    Page(s): 1717 - 1727
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1423 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with the capability of pulse width modulation (PWM) dimming operation added to the high-power factor-integrated buck-flyback converter (IBFC), which was developed in previous works for LED lighting applications. First, the two main dimming techniques will be introduced, namely, analog dimming and PWM dimming. Then, the three main PWM dimming schemes found in the literature, that is, enable dimming, series dimming, and parallel dimming, will be briefly discussed. Afterwards, the IBFC topology will be tested performing both analog and enable dimming. In addition, a new proposal is introduced: the high-frequency series PWM dimming technique, which overcomes all the challenges faced when developing PWM dimming capabilities in low slew-rate constant-current fixed-frequency-controlled converters and offers all the advantages of PWM dimming over analog dimming while maintaining good efficiency. The proposed dimming-technique control loop, as well as the laboratory tests, will be presented, discussed, and compared to analog dimming and PWM dimming, showing satisfactory results in terms of dimming ratio, input current total harmonic distortion (THDI), and power factor. View full abstract»

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  • Compact Emergency Lamp Using Power LEDs

    Page(s): 1728 - 1738
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1509 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a compact emergency lamp using light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The goal is to develop a compact and low-cost electronic circuit to drive and control the current of LEDs arranged in a single enclosure. The main advantage of the proposed idea is to use the same equipment in the daily activities, supplied by the ac line, and under a mains failure, supplied by a battery. The proposal also aims to achieve energy saving, higher luminous efficacy, and higher useful life when replacing traditional fluorescent-based emergency lighting systems. The use of the E-27 socket provides the advantage of easy installation, with the simple replacement of the lamp without any change in the electrical wiring. Buck and boost converters were employed in order to supply the LEDs by mains and by battery, respectively. However, the converters are designed in order to work without electrolytic capacitors, which have advantages such as reducing size and cost of the circuit, THD reduction, and increasing the useful life of the driver. The battery can be composed of three rechargeable Ni-MH batteries (1.2 V) or a Li-ion battery (3.6 V). The design complies with the Brazilian and international standards for emergency lighting systems and IEC 61000-3-2. The proposed circuit was implemented, and the experimental results were satisfactory. View full abstract»

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  • Dimmable Solid State Ballast With Integral Capacitive Occupancy Sensor

    Page(s): 1739 - 1750
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (756 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes and demonstrates an LED lighting system with an integral capacitive sensor that can detect occupancy both lighted and in the dark, and a driver (“ballast”) that is dimmable over a wide range. Sensing in the dark is accomplished by taking advantage of the logarithmic relationship between LED voltage and current. The ballast uses an inductor pre-charge technique to maintain efficiency during dimming, while maintaining relevant parameters for quality of lighting (e.g., chromaticity/color cast). View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic Photoelectrothermal Theory for Light-Emitting Diode Systems

    Page(s): 1751 - 1759
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1201 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a dynamic photoelectrothermal theory for light-emitting diode (LED) systems. In addition to photometric, electrical, and thermal aspects, this theory incorporates the time domain into the generalized equations. A dynamic model for a general LED system is developed for system analysis. This theory highlights the fact that the luminous output of an LED system will decrease with time from the initial operation to the steady state due to the rising temperature of the heat sink and the LED devices. The essential thermal time constants involved in the LED systems are explained. The time factor is critical in understanding how much the luminous output will decrease with time and is essential to the optimal designs of the LED systems that are operated continuously (e.g., general lighting) or momentarily (e.g., traffic lights). Experiments on several LED systems at different time frames have been conducted, and the practical measurements confirm the validity of this theory. View full abstract»

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  • Near-Unity Power Factor Electronic Ballast Based on Integration Techniques to Drive High-Intensity Discharge Metal Halide (HID–MH) Lamps

    Page(s): 1760 - 1769
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1375 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a single-stage converter to drive high-intensity discharge metal halide lamps. The integration of two discontinuous conduction mode boost converters, in an interleaved way, with a half-bridge voltage inverter and the use of a square-current waveform applied to the lamp, results in an electronic ballast with high power factor and reduced power spectrum spread, avoiding fluctuations inside the discharge tube. To stabilize the lamp current and power, a feedback control loop was designed and implemented. The overall result was a ballast with an efficiency of 90% and a power factor above 0.98. View full abstract»

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  • Power-Mode Control of Multiphase Resonant Electronic Ballast

    Page(s): 1770 - 1778
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (945 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A wide-bandwidth power-mode-controlled triple LCpCs resonant inverter is proposed for minimizing the light flicker caused by utility voltage fluctuation in industrial environments and compensating the dc bus ripple as an alternative rather than increasing the dc bus capacitance. To keep its efficiency, the inverter is controlled at a constant switching frequency by the phase displacement Ψ of the output voltage of one class-D section referred to the others. An approximate explicit form of the small-signal transfer function from the control angle Ψ to the output power is obtained by using a reduced-order model. This transfer function presents the main pole at a frequency high enough for the loop gain to exhibit wide bandwidth with a simple integral control action that compensates the voltage fluctuations in the frequency range where human perception is sensitive to light flicker. Experimental results are given using a 400-W high-pressure sodium lamp as the load. View full abstract»

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  • Microcontroller-Based High-Power-Factor Electronic Ballast to Supply Metal Halide Lamps

    Page(s): 1779 - 1788
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1246 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The analysis, design, and implementation of a microcontroller-based electronic ballast to supply metal halide (MH) lamps are presented. The proposed topology is based on the integration of the buck and flyback converters, the former providing power factor correction and the latter controlling lamp power. The lamp is supplied by a low-frequency square-waveform current, which is a convenient way to avoid acoustic resonances in high-intensity discharge lamps. Both converters operate in discontinuous conduction mode, thus allowing the use of only one high-frequency switch and simplifying the control. The electronic ballast is digitally controlled by using a low-cost microcontroller PIC16F684. The microcontroller performs all the necessary tasks during starting, warming-up, and steady state, including closed-loop control of lamp current and protections. The closed-loop control takes into account the lamp dynamical impedance. Experimental results for a 35-W MH lamp are presented, and the obtained overall efficiency is 90%. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Implementation of Novel Single-Stage Charge-Pump Power-Factor-Correction Electronic Ballast for Metal Halide Lamp

    Page(s): 1789 - 1798
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1073 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a novel single-stage charge-pump (CP) power-factor-correction (PFC) electronic ballast for metal halide (MH) lamps driven with the low-frequency square-wave current to avoid the acoustic-resonance problem. In order to achieve high power factor (PF) and meet the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) regulation, the CP PFC technique is applied to the full-bridge inverter of the conventional electronic ballast. Based on the analyses of the operational modes for the proposed electronic ballast, the design criteria of the CP components and the main inductor in the full-bridge inverter for the proposed electronic ballast are presented. A prototype circuit for a 35-W MH lamp is implemented to confirm the presented design criteria. View full abstract»

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  • HID Lamp Electronic Ballast Based on Chopper Converters

    Page(s): 1799 - 1807
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1057 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes some topologies for developing electronic ballasts, supplying high-intensity discharge lamps fed by a pulsewidth-modulation ac-ac converter, implemented with bidirectional switches. The lamp operates directly from the ac mains; thus, operation with low frequency so as to prevent the occurrence of destructive acoustic resonance is provided. The features of the proposed solution are high efficiency, high power factor, low cost, and the absence of electrolytic capacitors. This paper includes the design of passive elements, the transfer function, and the development of the control strategy. The experimental results qualify the viability of the system feasibility. View full abstract»

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  • Improvement of Power-Conversion Efficiency of a DC–DC Boost Converter Using a Passive Snubber Circuit

    Page(s): 1808 - 1814
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (434 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a method of improving the power-conversion efficiency of a direct-current-direct-current boost converter. The proposed method uses a passive snubber circuit, which consists of two inductors, a capacitor, and a diode, to reduce switching loss. The proposed boost converter was built and tested on 42-, 47-, and 55-in edge-lit light-emitting-diode (LED) backlight units (BLUs). The power-conversion efficiency for an input voltage of 24 V was measured as 96%, 95.1%, and 93.7% for the 42-, 47-, and 55-in edge-lit LED BLUs, respectively; these values were 2.3%, 2.2%, and 2% higher than those of the conventional boost converters in the corresponding BLUs. The proposed boost converter ensured reliable operation and high-power efficiency under a ±10% variation of input voltage and a ±20% variation of the passive snubber component values. View full abstract»

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  • Modified Synchronous-Buck Converter for a Dimmable HID Electronic Ballast

    Page(s): 1815 - 1824
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (882 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a simple and effective way of increasing the efficiency of a three-stage low-frequency dimmable high-intensity-discharge (HID) electronic ballast is proposed. To increase the efficiency at all dimming levels, a modified synchronous-buck converter operating in a new critical conduction mode is presented. The proposed modified topology of the synchronous-buck converter operates in a soft-switching mode and therefore significantly increases the efficiency of the three-stage low-frequency HID electronic ballast at all dimming levels. Analytical and experimental results for a dimmable 400-W HID lamp are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Electronic Ballast for Metal Halide Lamps Using a Quasi-Resonant Inverter With Digital Control

    Page(s): 1825 - 1840
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2648 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A digital control electronic ballast for the metal halide lamp is proposed based on the low-frequency square wave, and a comprehensive control strategy is employed for the zero-voltage-switching quasi-square-wave dual buck converter. To achieve the self-adaptive zero-voltage-switching control, the digital control method is used, which greatly reduces the switching losses of the circuit. A single-cycle-peak-current control method is adopted to restrain the overcurrent generated by reversing during the low-frequency transition from the turn-on to the steady state. The complicated process of igniting is analyzed in detail, and a constant-current control method is proposed to diminish the power overshoot and to decrease the current and voltage stress in the transition stage. A power closed-loop duty ratio control method is adopted, and its correctness is proved. An experimental prototype of 70 W is implemented, and the system can achieve reliable operation from the transient state to the steady state, with the highest efficiency of 92% and with no acoustic resonance occurring. View full abstract»

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  • Comparison of Central Dimmer Systems Based on Multiple-Tapped Autotransformer and High-Frequency Switching Converter

    Page(s): 1841 - 1848
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (998 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper compares two central dimmer system technologies used in street lighting. These dimmers are utilized in adaptive lighting systems based on high-intensity-discharge lamps and magnetic ballasts. The first technology is based on a multiple-tapped autotransformer which is commonly used for these types of installations. The second technology is based on a high-frequency switch converter (more specifically in a single-phase matrix converter topology) and represents a novelty for this type of application. Tests were conducted to determine the main features of both dimmer technologies, and the obtained results are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Design of a Single Ultra-Low-Loss Magnetic Ballast for a Wide Range of T5 High-Efficiency Fluorescent Lamps

    Page(s): 1849 - 1858
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2460 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A patent-pending single design of an ultralow-loss (ULL) magnetic ballast for T5 high-efficient (T5-HE) fluorescent lamps rated from 14 to 35 W is presented. Based on the use of a nonlinear physical low-pressure discharge lamp model, it is discovered that the same set of ballast parameters can be chosen for operating T5-HE 14-, 21-, 28-, and 35-W lamps at their respective rated power at a mains voltage in the range of 220-240 V. With energy efficiency higher than and lifetime much longer than their electronic counterparts and being recyclable, the ULL ballasts offer a more environmentally friendly solution to T5-HE lamps than electronic ballasts. This single-ballast design offers great convenience to both ballast manufacturers and users, because only one product design can cover a range of the most popular T5-HE lamps. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results are included to confirm the validity of the proposal. View full abstract»

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  • An Auxiliary Self-Oscillating Preheating System for Self-Oscillating Fluorescent Lamp Electronic Ballasts

    Page(s): 1859 - 1868
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    The fluorescent lamp lifetime is very dependent of the start-up lamp conditions. The lamp filament current and temperature during warm-up and at steady-state operation are important to extend the life of a hot-cathode fluorescent lamp, and the preheating circuit is responsible for attending to the start-up lamp requirements. The usual solution for the preheating circuit used in self-oscillating electronic ballasts is simple and presents a low cost. However, the performance to extend the lamp lifetime is not the most effective. This paper presents an effective preheating circuit for self-oscillating electronic ballasts as an alternative to the usual solution. View full abstract»

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  • Feedforward Regulation Method for Self-Oscillating Electronic Ballast for Fluorescent Lamps

    Page(s): 1869 - 1878
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (976 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a feedforward fluorescent lamp power regulation method for self-oscillating electronic ballast for different line voltages. The proposed method consists in maintaining the lamp power regulated through the feedforward switching frequency variation using the output resonant filter feature and self-oscillating gate driver circuit. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed solution that allows regulating the lamp power in a wide input voltage range (110 to 220 Vrms ) with an error of up to 12%. View full abstract»

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  • A Dimmable High Power Factor Single-Switch Electronic Ballast for Compact Fluorescent Lamps With Incandescent Phase-Cut Dimmers

    Page(s): 1879 - 1888
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    A novel dimmable high-power-factor compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) electronic ballast that is compatible with standard incandescent lamp dimmers is proposed in this paper. In the proposed system, the dimming controller uses the phase angle of the dimmer as the input feedforward parameter for the duty ratio control of the switch in the power circuit. As a result, a wide range of light output can be achieved with a small range of phase angles of the phase-cut dimmer. The ballast power circuit is a single-switch single-stage resonant inverter, which is essentially a fusion of a SEPIC converter and a single-switch current-fed inverter. Detailed operating principles of the proposed system will be discussed in this paper. System stability analysis that includes the effects of the phase-cut dimmer is also provided. Experimental results are given for a 13-W CFL to demonstrate and highlight the merits of the proposed work. View full abstract»

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  • Influence of Auxiliary Heating on the Degradation of Fluorescent Lamp Electrodes Under Dimming Operation

    Page(s): 1889 - 1897
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    Saving energy using dimmable electronic ballasts for fluorescent lamps is becoming a popular solution. Under dimming operation, lamp lifetime can be drastically reduced, if electrode auxiliary heating is not correctly set. In this paper, electrode degradation of a dimmed fluorescent lamp is investigated. Electrode degradation is evaluated by a simple electrical measurement, giving indirectly a measure of barium losses from the electrode surface. This paper shows how the experimental setup has been implemented. Then it shows experimental results obtained on a test run, and finally discusses setup limits. It is shown that strong electrode degradation caused by excessive heating conditions is identifiable within 500 h of operation using this technique. View full abstract»

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  • A Retrofit Capacitive Sensing Occupancy Detector Using Fluorescent Lamps

    Page(s): 1898 - 1911
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    This paper presents a retrofit system that exploits a fluorescent lamp's own stray electric fields for capacitive sensing. Occupancy detection for demand-side energy management is a key application. The experimental system demonstrates a detection range of 10 ft. between the lamp and the nearest edge of the occupant. A full system model is presented including the simulation of a lumped element capacitive model. The full system model is validated against experimental data. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics encompasses the applications of electronics, controls and communications, instrumentation and computational intelligence for the enhancement of industrial and manufacturing systems and processes.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Carlo Cecati
DISIM - Univ. degli Studi dell'Aquila
67100 Aquila, Italy
c.cecati@ieee.org
Phone: +39 0862 434 450
Fax: +39 0862 1960 411