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Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date March 2012

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 38
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - 1329
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  • IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Guest Editorial

    Page(s): 1330 - 1332
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  • Advances on Single-Phase Line-Start High Efficiency Interior Permanent Magnet Motors

    Page(s): 1333 - 1345
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1245 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The past 25 years have been a significant period with advances in the development of interior permanent magnet (IPM) machines. Line-start small IPM synchronous motors have expanded their presence in the domestic marketplace from few specialized niche markets in high efficiency machine tools, household appliances, small utility motors, and servo drives to mass-produced applications. A closer examination reveals that several different knowledge-based technological advancements and market forces as well as consumer demand for high efficiency requirements have combined, sometimes in fortuitous ways, to accelerate the development of the improved new small energy efficient motors. This paper provides a broad explanation of the various factors that lead to the current state of the art of the single-phase interior permanent motor drive technology. A unified analysis of single-phase IPM motor that permits the determination of the steady-state, dynamic, and transient performances is presented. The mathematical model is based on both d-q axis theory and finite-element analysis. It leads to more accurate numerical results and meets the engineering requirements more satisfactorily than any other methods. Finally, some concluding comments and remarks are provided for efficiency improvement, manufacturing, and future research trends of line-start energy efficient permanent magnet synchronous motors. View full abstract»

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  • Active Mitigation of Electromagnetic Vibration Radiated by PMSM in Fractional-Horsepower Drives by Optimal Choice of the Carrier Frequency

    Page(s): 1346 - 1354
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1129 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel approach to quickly evaluate the electromagnetic vibration emitted by a permanent-magnet synchronous machine in A fractional-horsepower drive is detailed. Field reconstruction method and mechanical impulse response are used. The impulse response for rapid evaluation of vibrations at critical points is used after the design of a torque and speed controller. The vibration obtained using a three-phase pulsewidth-modulation technique and nonclassic space-vector modulations are compared by simulation results. An optimal choice of the carrier frequency, by an optimization method, for the two modulation techniques allows for a 35% reduction of the vibration in the targeted machine under different operating conditions. The peak-to-peak force-magnitude reduction reaches 8%. View full abstract»

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  • Sensorless Control of PMSM Fractional Horsepower Drives by Signal Injection and Neural Adaptive-Band Filtering

    Page(s): 1355 - 1366
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2317 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a sensorless technique for permanent-magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) based on high-frequency pulsating voltage injection. Starting from a speed estimation scheme well known in the literature, this paper proposes the adoption of a neural network (NN) based adaptive variable-band filter instead of a fixed-bandwidth filter, needed for catching the speed information from the sidebands of the stator current. The proposed NN filter is based on a linear NN adaptive linear neuron (ADALINE), trained with a classic least mean squares (LMS) algorithm, and is twice adaptive. From one side, it is adaptive in the sense that its weights are adapted online recursively. From another side, its bandwidth is made adaptive during the running of the drive, acting directly on the learning rate of the NN filter itself. The immediate consequence of adopting a variable-band structure is the possibility to enlarge significantly the working speed range of the sensorless drive, which can be increased by a factor of five. The proposed observer has been tested experimentally on a fractional horsepower PMSM drive and has been compared also with a fixed-bandwidth structure. View full abstract»

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  • Air-Gap Convection in Rotating Electrical Machines

    Page(s): 1367 - 1375
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (455 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reviews the convective heat transfer within the air gap of both cylindrical and disk geometry rotating electrical machines, including worked examples relevant to fractional horsepower electrical machines. Thermal analysis of electrical machines is important because torque density is limited by maximum temperature. Knowledge of surface convective heat transfer coefficients is necessary for accurate thermal modeling, for example, using lumped parameter models. There exists a wide body of relevant literature, but much of it has traditionally been in other application areas, dominated by mechanical engineers, such as gas turbine design. Particular attention is therefore given to the explanation of the relevant nondimensional parameters and to the presentation of measured convective heat transfer correlations for a wide variety of situations from laminar to turbulent flow at small and large gap sizes for both radial-flux and axial-flux electrical machines. View full abstract»

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  • Bearingless 300-W PMSM for Bioreactor Mixing

    Page(s): 1376 - 1388
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1727 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a novel exterior rotor topology of a bearingless brushless synchronous motor with rated power of 300 W. Owing to the large possible magnetic gap and the absence of mechanical bearings, this motor is especially qualified for high-purity and low-shear applications (e.g., bioreactor mixing). Both torque and magnetic bearing forces are created inside this disk-shaped motor using a sophisticated control (proportional-integral-differential vector control) with superimposed drive and bearing currents fed to the concentrated combined stator coils. Optimal design is derived based on an electromagnetic analysis using the three-dimensional finite element method (3D-FEM), and the simulation results are verified with a prototype mixer setup. View full abstract»

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  • Small Linear PM Oscillatory Motor: Magnetic Circuit Modeling Corrected by Axisymmetric 2-D FEM and Experimental Characterization

    Page(s): 1389 - 1396
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (948 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Linear permanent-magnet (PM) actuators with short strokes represent an excellent alternative to pneumatic or hydraulic actuators in different fields of application, whenever fast response, flexibility, high reliability, and safety are required. The purpose of this paper is to present a new hybrid model and a testing sequence to rather completely characterize a small PM oscillatory motor for compressor-like applications. The hybrid model is composed of an iterative nonlinear magnetic circuit method which is corrected by an axisymmetric (2-D) finite-element method (FEM) model. The benefit that this hybrid model has is its low computation time when compared with similar analysis using 3-D FEM. This characteristic is very significant for industrial usage. View full abstract»

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  • A New Method for Sensorless Estimation of the Speed and Position in Brushed DC Motors Using Support Vector Machines

    Page(s): 1397 - 1408
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1043 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Currently, for many applications, it is necessary to know the speed and position of motors. This can be achieved using mechanical sensors coupled to the motor shaft or using sensorless techniques. The sensorless techniques in brushed dc motors can be classified into two types: 1) techniques based on the dynamic brushed dc motor model and 2) techniques based on the ripple component of the current. This paper presents a new method, based on the ripple component, for speed and position estimation in brushed dc motors, using support vector machines. The proposed method only measures the current and detects the pulses in this signal. The motor speed is estimated by using the inverse distance between the detected pulses, and the position is estimated by counting all detected pulses. The ability to detect ghost pulses and to discard false pulses is the main advantage of this method over other sensorless methods. The performed tests on two fractional horsepower brushed dc motors indicate that the method works correctly in a wide range of speeds and situations, in which the speed is constant or varies dynamically. View full abstract»

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  • Development of Drive Systems Based on Electromagnetic Microactuators

    Page(s): 1409 - 1417
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1220 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electromagnetic microactuators discussed in this paper have been the topic of research during the last decade. Their fabrication is based on batch processes like photolithography and etching of copper and iron, which is deposited on substrates. Resulting from these microfabrication techniques and the small size of motors, the drive system designer faces a very different task when compared to conventional drive systems. Those differences have to be considered in the electromagnetic design of the microactuator itself, as well as in the power supply and the control of the drive. This paper presents an overview of design options for these components of a miniaturized drive system and discusses their advantages and disadvantages from a system point of view. View full abstract»

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  • A Lyapunov-Function-Based Control for a Three-Phase Shunt Hybrid Active Filter

    Page(s): 1418 - 1429
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (995 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, an energy-based Lyapunov function control technique is developed for a three-phase shunt hybrid active filter (SH-AF) to compensate harmonics generated by nonlinear loads and is applied for balanced operation. The method provides compensation for harmonic load current components. The strategy determines the control law that makes the derivative of the Lyapunov function always negative for all values of the states. The dc bus voltage of the SH-AF is maintained to 50 V, which is significantly lower than that of the conventional hybrid active filter. The rating of the active filter in the SH-AF system is much smaller than the one used in the conventional shunt active power filter because the passive filter takes care of the major burden of compensation. The SH-AF performances, during both nominal and severe operating conditions, are then evaluated using a dSPACE DS1104 controller board, supported by a Matlab/Simulink Real-Time Workshop environment. A significantly high correlation between the experimental results and the theoretical model, implemented with Simulink/Matlab, is obtained. View full abstract»

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  • DC Link Active Power Filter for Three-Phase Diode Rectifier

    Page(s): 1430 - 1442
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1930 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a dc link active power filter (APF) for three-phase diode rectifier is proposed. The proposed dc link APF, which is composed of two series-connected bidirectional boost converters, intends to eliminate the input current harmonics. It is paralleled at the dc link of the diode rectifier and is coupled to the ac input with three line-frequency switches. Compared with the full power processed power factor correction (PFC) solution, the dc link APF is partially power processed in that it only compensates for the harmonic current component at the dc link. Thus, it features with lower power processing. Moreover, it exhibits better total harmonic distortion of the ac line current when compared with the traditional ac side shunt APF. Voltage and current loop models are developed for average current control, and the selection of the current loop bandwidth is presented. Switching stresses of the ac APF, the dc link APF, and the six-switch PFC are also calculated and analyzed. Experimental and simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of this dc link APF. View full abstract»

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  • Generalized Design of High Performance Shunt Active Power Filter With Output LCL Filter

    Page(s): 1443 - 1452
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1361 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper concentrates on the design, control, and implementation of an LCL-filter-based shunt active power filter (SAPF), which can effectively compensate for harmonic currents produced by nonlinear loads in a three-phase three-wire power system. With an LCL filter added at its output, the proposed SAPF offers superior switching harmonic suppression using much reduced passive filtering elements. Its output currents thus have high slew rate for tracking the targeted reference closely. Smaller inductance of the LCL filter also means smaller harmonic voltage drop across the passive output filter, which in turn minimizes the possibility of overmodulation, particularly for cases where high modulation index is desired. These advantages, together with overall system stability, are guaranteed only through proper consideration of critical design and control issues, like the selection of LCL parameters, interactions between resonance damping and harmonic compensation, bandwidth design of the closed-loop system, and active damping implementation with fewer current sensors. These described design concerns, together with their generalized design procedure, are applied to an analytical example, and eventually verified by both simulation and experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • Development and Optimization of High-Voltage Power Supply System for Industrial Magnetron

    Page(s): 1453 - 1461
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (714 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes the design and analysis of a 42-kW (14 kV, 3 A) high-voltage power supply for a 30-kW industrial magnetron drive. The design is based on a series resonant converter in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) to take advantage of both the superior arc protection stemming from the current source characteristics and the high power density owing to the use of parasitic elements such as the leakage inductance in the high-voltage transformer. The detailed design procedure for the resonant tank and high-voltage transformer with respect to the input and output specifications is described on the basis of a simplified analysis of the DCM series resonant converter. Special considerations for designing high-power high-voltage power supplies are provided, such as series stacking of diodes for a voltage doubling rectifier and insulation between each winding of the high-voltage transformer. In addition, a comparative study using theoretical equations, simulation, and experimental results was carried out. This study yielded the output voltage and current characteristics at different switching frequencies and verified the advantages of this topology, such as arc protection without an additional protection circuit and high efficiency due to zero-current or zero-voltage switching. Moreover, the parallel operation of two converters with phase shifted gating signal is proposed to reduce the output current ripple and increase power capability for higher power magnetron drive. Additionally, the design considerations of two auxiliary power supplies (a filament power supply: 15 V, 150 A and a magnet power supply: 50 V, 5 A) are also provided and optimized for effective driving industrial magnetron. Finally, the developed power supply was tested with a 30-kW industrial magnetron, and the results prove the reliability and robustness of the proposed scheme. View full abstract»

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  • Medium Voltage–High Power Converter Topologies Comparison Procedure, for a 6.6 kV Drive Application Using 4.5 kV IGBT Modules

    Page(s): 1462 - 1476
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2473 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a general comparison procedure for medium voltage - high power multilevel converter topologies and semiconductors, which is mainly based on analyzing the performance limits of the converters output characteristics such as the output voltage, current, active power, efficiency, etc. Afterwards, the general procedure is applied to compare some of the most relevant converter topologies oriented to a 6.6 kV drive application supplying quadratic torque loads and using 4.5 kV IGBT modules. The paper concludes evaluating the comparison factors of the different converter topologies and selected semiconductors obtained by the proposed procedure. The proposed procedure can potentially be extrapolated to any desired application framework. View full abstract»

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  • Novel Switching Sequences for a Space-Vector-Modulated Three-Level Inverter

    Page(s): 1477 - 1487
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1832 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A three-level inverter produces six active vectors, each of normalized magnitudes 1, 0.866, and 0.5, besides a zero vector. The vectors of relative length 0.5 are termed pivot vectors. The three nearest voltage vectors are usually used to synthesize the reference vector. In most continuous pulsewidth-modulation (PWM) schemes, the switching sequence begins from a pivot vector and ends with the same pivot vector. Thus, the pivot vector is applied twice in a subcycle or half-carrier cycle. This paper proposes and investigates alternative switching sequences, which use the pivot vector only once but employ one of the other two vectors twice within the subcycle. The total harmonic distortion (THD) in the fundamental line current pertaining to these novel sequences is studied theoretically as well as experimentally over the whole range of modulation. Compared with centered space vector PWM, two of the proposed sequences lead to reduced THD at high modulation indices at a given average switching frequency. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamics of Front-and-Rear-Wheel-Independent-Drive-Type Electric Vehicles at the Time of Failure

    Page(s): 1488 - 1499
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2499 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the failsafe performance of front-and-rear-wheel-independent-drive-type electric vehicles (FRID EVs) is clarified from a practical viewpoint through vehicle dynamics analysis under various road conditions and experiments on a running test course. Dynamic analyses at the time of failure were performed under severe road conditions by comparing the vehicle trajectories of FRID EVs with those of conventional EVs, i.e., two- and four-wheel motor drive-type EVs. The analyzed results show that after failure, FRID EVs continue to run safely and stably; all of the conventional EVs deviate from the travel lane in less than 2 s, which is not sufficient time for an ordinary driver to steer the vehicle to safety after being notified about vehicle failure. Using a prototype FRID EV with practical specifications, failsafe performance at the time of failure was evaluated on test courses, including roads having an ultra-low friction coefficient (μ). The experimental results showed that even if failure occurred while cornering and when running on low- μ roads, the FRID EV continued to run stably. These results proved that FRID EVs could ensure safety at the time of failure under practical running conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Model Reference Adaptive Control of Five-Phase IPM Motors Based on Neural Network

    Page(s): 1500 - 1508
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (538 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a novel model reference adaptive control of five-phase interior-permanent-magnet (IPM) motor drives. The primary controller is designed based on an artificial neural network (ANN) to simulate the nonlinear characteristics of the system without knowledge of accurate motor models or parameters. The proposed motor drive decouples the torque and flux components of five-phase IPM motors by applying multiple-reference-frame transformation. Therefore, the motor can be easily driven below the rated speed with the maximum-torque-per-ampere operation or above the rated speed with the flux weakening operation. The ANN-based primary controller consists of a radial basis function network which is trained online to adapt system uncertainties. The complete IPM motor drive is simulated in Matlab/Simulink environment and implemented experimentally utilizing a dSPACE DS1104 controller board on a five-phase prototype IPM motor. View full abstract»

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  • Anti-Windup PID Controller With Integral State Predictor for Variable-Speed Motor Drives

    Page(s): 1509 - 1516
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1167 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The windup phenomenon appears and results in performance degradation when the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller output is saturated. Integral windup is analyzed on the PI plane, and a new anti-windup PID controller is proposed to improve control performance of variable-speed motor drives and is experimentally applied to the speed control of a vector-controlled induction motor driven by a pulse width-modulated voltage source inverter. The steady-state value of the integral state is predicted while the PID controller output is saturated, and this value is utilized as an initial value of the integral state when the PID controller begins to operate in a linear range. Simulation and experiments result in more similar speed responses against load conditions and step reference change over conventional anti-windup schemes. Control performance, such as overshoot and settling time, is very similar to that determined by PID gain in the linear range. View full abstract»

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  • A Single-Switch AC/DC Flyback Converter Using a CCM/DCM Quasi-Active Power Factor Correction Front-End

    Page(s): 1517 - 1526
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    This paper discusses the major issues that exist in the single-stage ac/dc converters with power factor correction (PFC) and presents a novel converter based on a quasi-active PFC scheme. Two additional windings wound in the transformer of a conventional dc/dc flyback converter are used to drive and achieve continuous current mode operation of an input inductor. In addition, direct energy transfer paths are provided through the additional windings to improve the conversion efficiency and to reduce the dc bus capacitor voltage below 450 V for universal line applications. The proposed converter can be easily designed to comply with IEC 61000-3-2 Class D requirement and to achieve fast output voltage regulation. By properly tuning the converter parameters, a good tradeoff between efficiency, dc bus capacitor voltage stress, and harmonic content can be achieved. Operating principles, analysis, and experimental results of the proposed method are presented. View full abstract»

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  • A State Equation Model of a Single-Phase Grid-Connected Inverter Using a Droop Control Scheme With Extra Phase Shift Control Action

    Page(s): 1527 - 1537
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    This paper presents a state equation model of a single-phase pulsewidth modulation inverter connected to the grid, using frequency-active power and voltage-reactive power droops, including an extra phase shift loop. The influence of the control parameters on the system's behavior can be studied using the proposed state equation model, which was obtained from the small-signal analysis. The model's results are compared with numerical simulations of the nonlinear system to verify their accuracy. Comparisons are also made with experimental data reported in the literature. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and Design of Single-Stage AC/DC LLC Resonant Converter

    Page(s): 1538 - 1544
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (641 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Analysis and design of a single-stage LLC resonant converter are proposed. A single-stage converter uses only one control signal to drive two power converters, a power factor corrector (PFC) converter and a dc/dc converter, for reducing the cost of the system. However, this simplicity induces power imbalance between two converters, and then, the bus voltage between two converters drifts and becomes unpredictable. To ensure that the bus capacitor voltage can be kept in a tolerable region, the characteristics of a PFC converter and an LLC tank are investigated, and then, a design procedure is proposed correspondingly. Finally, a single-stage LLC resonant converter is implemented to verify the analysis. View full abstract»

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  • New Digital-Controlled Technique for Battery Charger With Constant Current and Voltage Control Without Current Feedback

    Page(s): 1545 - 1553
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    The main theme of this paper is to present a new digital-controlled technique for battery charger to achieve constant current and voltage control while not requiring current feedback. The basic idea is to achieve constant current charging control by limiting the duty cycle of charger. Therefore, the current feedback signal is not required and thereby reducing the cost of A/D converter, current sensor, and computation complexity required for current control. Moreover, when the battery voltage is increased to the preset voltage level using constant current charge, the charger changes the control mode to constant voltage charge. A digital-controlled charger is designed and implemented for uninterrupted power supply (UPS) applications. The charger control is based upon the proposed control method in software. As a result, the UPS control, including boost converter, charger, and inverter control can be realized using only one low cost MCU. Experimental results demonstrate that the effectiveness of the design and implementation. View full abstract»

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  • Sliding-Mode Input–Output Linearization Controller for the DC/DC ZVS CLL-T Resonant Converter

    Page(s): 1554 - 1564
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1851 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A sliding-mode input-output linearization controller for the dc/dc zero-voltage switching (ZVS) CLL-T resonant converter is presented. The proposed controller significantly improves the transient response and disturbance rejection of the converter while preserving the closed-loop stability. An averaged large-signal dynamic model of the converter operating with a novel discrete ZVS modulation technique is developed and used as starting point for the controller design. Since the model derivation process does not include small signal approximations, it can be used for large-signal analysis, providing accurate predictions of the converter dynamic behavior. The combination of the proposed controller and modulation technique provides ZVS operation over a wide load range, narrowed regulating frequency range, robustness, and fast transient response against transient load changes. Experimental and simulation results are reported to validate the theoretical predictions and to confirm the superior performance of the nonlinear controller when it is compared with a conventional linear controller. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics encompasses the applications of electronics, controls and communications, instrumentation and computational intelligence for the enhancement of industrial and manufacturing systems and processes.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Carlo Cecati
DISIM - Univ. degli Studi dell'Aquila
67100 Aquila, Italy
c.cecati@ieee.org
Phone: +39 0862 434 450
Fax: +39 0862 1960 411