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Knowledge and Data Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date Aug 1993

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Displaying Results 1 - 15 of 15
  • A network level channel abstraction for multimedia communication in real-time networks

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 590 - 599
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (980 KB)  

    The design of communication protocols to support guaranteed real-time communication for distributed multimedia systems is examined. A network level abstraction called φ-channel that supports the requirements of real-time applications is proposed. A φ-channel represents a fractional, simplex, end-to-end communication channel between a source and a destination. The channel is characterized by a set of specific performance parameters associated with its traffic. The required performance characteristics of a φ-channel are specified in terms of the packet maximum end-to-end delay and the maximum number of packets that can be sent over that delay. The primary attribute supported by the φ-channel is the on-time reliability. Based on the specified parameters, the underlying delivery system verifies the feasibility of supporting such a channel. The performance of an accepted φ-channel is guaranteed under any conditions, barring hardware failures. The basic scheme that the model uses to verify the feasibility of accepting a φ-channel and the run-time support used to guarantee its performance are described. The results of a simulation experiment implementing the basic functionalities of the proposed scheme are also presented View full abstract»

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  • SuiteSound: a system for distributed collaborative multimedia

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 600 - 610
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (800 KB)  

    SuiteSound, a programming environment with integrated support for multimedia, is discussed. SuiteSound is built in the Suite object-based system on a conventional UNIX operating system. SuiteSound objects incorporate multimedia by creating flows and filters. Flows are streams of multimedia data moving through a sequence of objects. They bridge the gap between objects representing the state of an entity at a discrete point in time and space and continuous media such as live audio or video. Filters are intermediate objects between the source and destination of a flow. They take flow as input, perform one of several operations such as multiplex-in, multiplex-out, gain control, or silence deletion on it, and send the resulting flow to its destination. In effect, they provide a virtual device interface for the application programmer that is uniform and independent of any physical device. The design and implementation of SuiteSound on the Sun SparcStation are described. Experiments performed to determine the network and CPU load of the sound tool are reviewed View full abstract»

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  • Electronic `how things work' articles: two early prototypes

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 611 - 618
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (792 KB)  

    The electronic encyclopedia exploratorium (E3) is a vision of a future computer system-an electronic book describing how thing work. Typical articles in E3 will describe such mechanisms as compression refrigerators, engines, telescopes, and mechanical linkages. Each article will provide simulations, three-dimensional animated graphics that the user can manipulate, laboratory areas that allow a user to modify the device or experiment with related artifacts, and a facility for asking questions and receiving customized, computer-generated English-language explanations. Some of the foundational technology is discussed, focusing on topics in artificial intelligence, graphics, and user interfaces. The initial prototype system and the technical lessons learned from it, as well as the second prototype currently under construction, are described View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive structuring of binary search trees using conditional rotations

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 695 - 704
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (968 KB)  

    Consider a set A={A1,A2 ,. . ., An} of records, where each record is identified by a unique key. The records are accessed based on a set of access probabilities S=[s1,s2 ,. . ., sN] and are to be arranged lexicographically using a binary search tree (BST). If S is known a priori, it is well known that an optimal BST may be constructed using A and S. The case when S is not known a priori is considered. A new restructuring heuristic is introduced that requires three extra integer memory locations per record. In this scheme, the restructuring is performed only if it decreases the weighted path length (WPL) of the overall resultant tree. An optimized version of the latter method, which requires only one extra integer field per record has, is presented. Initial simulation results comparing this algorithm with various other static and dynamic schemes indicates that this scheme asymptotically produces trees which are an order of magnitude closer to the optimal one than those produced by many of the other BST schemes reported in the literature View full abstract»

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  • A balanced hierarchical data structure for multidimensional data with highly efficient dynamic characteristics

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 682 - 694
    Cited by:  Papers (12)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (976 KB)  

    A new multidimensional data structure, multidimensional tree (MD-tree), is proposed. The MD-tree is developed by extending the concept of the B-tree to the multidimensional data, so that the MD-tree is a height balanced tree similar to the B-tree. The theoretical worst-case storage utilization is guaranteed to hold more than 66.7% (2/3) of full capacity. The structure of the MD-tree and the algorithms to perform the insertion, deletion, and spatial searching are described. By the series of simulation tests, the performances of the MD-tree and conventional methods are compared. The results indicate that storage utilization is more than 80% in practice, and that retrieval performance and dynamic characteristics are superior to conventional methods View full abstract»

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  • A visual information management system for the interactive retrieval of faces

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 619 - 628
    Cited by:  Papers (30)  |  Patents (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (944 KB)  

    The complex nature of two-dimensional image data has presented problems for traditional information systems designed strictly for alphanumeric data. Systems aimed at effectively managing image data have generally approached the problem from two different views: They either possess a strong database component with little image understanding, or they serve as an image repository for computer vision applications, with little emphasis on the image retrieval process. A general architecture for visual information-management systems (VIMS), which combine the strengths of both approaches, is presented. The system utilizes computer vision routines for both insertion and retrieval and allows easy query-by-example specifications. The vision routines are used to segment and evaluate objects based on domain-knowledge describing the objects and their attributes. The vision system can then assign feature values to be used for similarity-measures and image retrieval. A VIMS developed for face-image retrieval is presented to demonstrate these ideas View full abstract»

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  • The knowledge-based object-oriented PICQUERY+ language

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 644 - 657
    Cited by:  Papers (22)  |  Patents (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1132 KB)  

    PICQUERY+, a high-level domain-independent query language for pictorial and alphanumeric database management, is introduced. The PICQUERY+ language and its underlying stacked image data model are enhanced with major advances that include: convenient specification of the data domain space among a multimedia database federation, visualization of underlying data models, knowledge-based hierarchies, and domain rules, understanding of high-level abstract data types, ability to perform data object matches based on imprecise or fuzzy descriptors, imprecise relational correlators, and temporal and object evolutionary events, specification of alphanumeric and image processing algorithms on data, and specification of alphanumeric and image visualization methods for user presentation. The power of PICQUERY+ is illustrated using examples drawn from the medical imaging domain. A graphical menu-driven user interface is demonstrated for this domain as an example of the menu interface capabilities of PICQUERY+ View full abstract»

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  • Toward an art and science of knowledge engineering: a case for belief networks

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 705 - 712
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (972 KB)  

    The knowledge engineering of belief networks is discussed. Several design issues that arose during the construction of two belief network-based systems, Pathfinder and ARCO1, are described. The issues of accuracy, consistency, and calibration as they emerged during the design of these systems are addressed, and the ways in which compatibility of all networks designed for the same domain suggests an architecture for combining the recommendations of independently designed knowledge bases into a single, consensus recommendation are discussed View full abstract»

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  • Mefisto: a functional model for statistical entities

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 670 - 681
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1112 KB)  

    There have been numerous proposals aimed at correcting the deficiency in existing database models in order to manipulate statistical data. The manipulation of these data, such as statistical tables that are widely used in many statistical database application areas, is examined. A functional model Mefisto, which is based on a data structure called statistical entity and on a set of operations capable of manipulating this data structure, is proposed. The characteristics that an aggregate data model has are discussed and a brief survey of the main proposals in literature is made. The operators that allow statistical entities to be manipulated both from the descriptive and from the summary data point of view are discussed, and some examples are given. Each operator can be seen as a family of operators, and each is able to automatically compute the summary values of the statistical entity obtained by its application. A brief discussion regarding the limitations of the relational model for this type of data and a comparison with other proposals are presented. The advantages of the Mefisto model over those proposals are illustrated. It is shown that it is possible to define user friendly query languages based on the Mefisto model View full abstract»

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  • Interval-based conceptual models for time-dependent multimedia data

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 551 - 563
    Cited by:  Papers (88)  |  Patents (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1164 KB)  

    Multimedia data often have time dependencies that must be satisfied at presentation time. To support a general-purpose multimedia information system, these timing relationships must be managed to provide utility to both the data presentation system and the multimedia author. New conceptual models for capturing these timing relationships, and managing them as part of a database are proposed. Specifically, n-ary and reverse temporal relations are introduced and defined along with their temporal constraints. These new relations are a generalization of earlier temporal models and establish the basis for conceptual database structures and temporal access control algorithms to facilitate forward, reverse, and partial-interval evaluation during multimedia object playout. The proposed relations are defined to ensure a property of monotonically increasing playout deadlines to facilitate both real-time deadline-driven playout scheduling or optimistic interval-based process playout. A translation of the conceptual models to a structure suitable for a relational database is presented View full abstract»

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  • Efficient storage techniques for digital continuous multimedia

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 564 - 573
    Cited by:  Papers (57)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (904 KB)  

    The problem of collocational storage of media strands, which are sequences of continuously recorded audio samples or video frames, on disk to support the integration of storage and transmission of multimedia data with computing is examined. A model that relates disk and device characteristics to the playback rates of media strands and derives storage patterns so as to guarantee continuous retrieval of media strands is presented. To efficiently utilize the disk space, mechanisms for merging storage patterns of multiple media strands by filling the gaps between media blocks of one strand with media blocks of other strands are developed. Both an online algorithm suitable for merging a new media strand into a set of already stored strands and an offline merging algorithm that can be applied a priori to the storage of a set of media strands before any of them have been stored on disk are proposed. As a consequence of merging, storage patterns of media strands may become perturbed slightly. To compensate for this read-ahead and buffering are required so that continuity of retrieval remains satisfied are also presented View full abstract»

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  • OVID: design and implementation of a video-object database system

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 629 - 643
    Cited by:  Papers (77)  |  Patents (30)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1304 KB)  

    A video-object data model and the design and implementation of a prototype video-object database system named OVID based on the model are described. Notable features of the video-object data model are a mechanism to share common descriptional data among video-objects, called interval-inclusion based inheritance, and operations to composite video-objects. The OVID system offers a browsing/inspection tool called VideoChart, and adhoc query facility called VideoSQL, and a video-object definition tool View full abstract»

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  • Continuous retrieval of multimedia data using parallelism

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 658 - 669
    Cited by:  Papers (43)  |  Patents (23)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1140 KB)  

    Most implementations of workstation-based multimedia information systems cannot support a continuous display of high resolution audio and video data and suffer from frequent disruptions and delays termed hiccups. This is due to the low I/O bandwidth of the current disk technology, the high bandwidth requirement of multimedia objects, and the large size of these objects, which requires them to be almost always disk resident. A parallel multimedia information system and the key technical ideas that enable it to support a real-time display of multimedia objects are described. In this system, a multimedia object across several disk drives is declustered, enabling the system to utilize the aggregate bandwidth of multiple disks to retrieve an object in real-time. Then, the workload of an application is distributed evenly across the disk drives to maximize the processing capability of the system. To support simultaneous display of several multimedia objects for different users, two alternative approaches are described. The first approach multitasks a disk drive among several requests while the second replicates the data and dedicates resources to each individual request. The trade-offs associated with each approach are investigated using a simulation model View full abstract»

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  • Delay compensation protocols for synchronization of multimedia data streams

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 574 - 589
    Cited by:  Papers (29)  |  Patents (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1228 KB)  

    Temporal synchronization of various data streams in multimedia information supporting voice, video, graphics and text, that are exchanged between users over a high speed network are discussed. During delivery of such data, maintaining the required association between data units across various streams in real-time is necessary to sustain quality of service in the presence of data loss and/or delay in the network. Solving this synchronization problem requires framing of data streams whereby various points in the data streams deliverable simultaneously to a user are identified. A solution in which the temporal axis of an application is segmented into intervals in which each interval is a unit of synchronization and holds a data frame is presented. Simultaneous data delivery involves delivering all data segments belonging to an interval within a certain real-time delay, as specifiable by the application. Based on the approach, end-to-end transport protocols that compensate for the data skew that may arise due to data loss/delay is described. Simulation experiments confirm the viability of the protocols. Major uses of the protocols are in broadband ISDNs and metropolitan area networks (MANs) View full abstract»

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  • Block access estimation for clustered data

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 712 - 718
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (552 KB)  

    A method is proposed for dealing with nonuniform data distributions in database organizations in order to estimate the expected number of blocks containing the tuples requested by a query. When tuples with equal attribute value are not uniformly distributed over the blocks of secondary memory that store the relation, a clustering effect is observed. This can be detected by means of a single parameter, the clustering factor, which can be stored in the system catalog. The method can be applied to uniform data distributions as well, since it is shown that a uniform distribution can be viewed as a particular instance of a class of clustered distributions. In this case the proposed method allows considerable reduction of the number of computational steps needed to compute the estimated result View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering (TKDE) informs researchers, developers, managers, strategic planners, users, and others interested in state-of-the-art and state-of-the-practice activities in the knowledge and data engineering area.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Jian Pei
Simon Fraser University

Associate Editor-in-Chief
Xuemin Lin
University of New South Wales

Associate Editor-in-Chief
Lei Chen
Hong Kong University of Science and Technology