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# IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science

## Issue 5  Part 1 • Oct. 2011

This issue contains several parts.Go to:  Part 2

## Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 29
• ### [Front cover]

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s): C1
| PDF (80 KB)
• ### IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science publication information

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s): C2
| PDF (40 KB)

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):2137 - 2138
| PDF (153 KB)
• ### Improved Nearest Neighbor Methods for Gamma Photon Interaction Position Determination in Monolithic Scintillator PET Detectors

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):2139 - 2147
Cited by:  Papers (37)
| | PDF (1393 KB) | HTML

Monolithic scintillator detectors have been shown to provide good performance and to have various practical advantages for use in PET systems. Excellent results for the gamma photon interaction position determination in these detectors have been obtained by means of the k -nearest neighbor (k -NN) method. However, the practical use of monolithic scintillator detectors and the ... View full abstract»

• ### Parallel Beam Approximation for Calculation of Detection Efficiency of Crystals in PET Detector Arrays

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):2148 - 2154
Cited by:  Papers (1)
| | PDF (2398 KB) | HTML

In this work we propose a parallel beam approximation for the computation of the detection efficiency of crystals in a PET detector array. In this approximation the detection efficiency of a crystal is estimated using the distance between source and the crystal and the pre-calculated detection cross section of the crystal in a crystal array which is calculated for a uniform parallel beam of gammas... View full abstract»

• ### Timing Performance Evaluation of PMT-Quadrant-Sharing LYSO Detectors for Time-of-Flight PET

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):2155 - 2160
Cited by:  Papers (6)
| | PDF (1119 KB) | HTML

Time-of-flight (TOF) data can improve the imaging quality of positron emission tomography (PET) cameras by estimating the location of the positron annihilation. In this study, we measured the TOF resolution of lutetium yttrium orthosilicate (LYSO) blocks based on the photomultiplier-quadrant-sharing (PQS) design, which has no external light guide and therefore has higher light collection efficienc... View full abstract»

• ### Design and Characteristics of an Integrated Multichannel Ramp ADC Using Digital DLL Techniques for Small Animal PET Imaging

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):2161 - 2168
Cited by:  Papers (15)
| | PDF (1509 KB) | HTML

This paper presents a novel design of an integrated 12-bit multi-channel single-slope ramp analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for a small animal positron emission tomography(PET) imaging system. The proposed ADC is a part of a monolithic front-end readout application-specific integrated circuit(ASIC) which is dedicated to the detector modules consisting of LYSO scintillation crystals read out on bo... View full abstract»

• ### Temperature Dependent Operation of PSAPD-Based Compact Gamma Camera for SPECT Imaging

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):2169 - 2174
Cited by:  Papers (3)
| | PDF (494 KB) | HTML

We investigated the dependence of image quality on the temperature of a position sensitive avalanche photodiode (PSAPD)-based small animal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) gamma camera with a CsI:Tl scintillator. Currently, nitrogen gas cooling is preferred to operate PSAPDs in order to minimize the dark current shot noise. Being able to operate a PSAPD at a relatively high tempe... View full abstract»

• ### Evaluation of a 16:3 Signal Multiplexor to Acquire Signals From a SPM Array With Dual and Single Layer LYSO Crystal Blocks

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):2175 - 2180
Cited by:  Papers (16)
| | PDF (1078 KB) | HTML

For many years most PET scanners have used a large number of crystals with some form of light sharing technique to couple them to four photo-multiplier tubes (PMT). While the resolution of the scanners was improved by using a larger number of smaller crystals, the PMT size had remained about the same since it is not practical to make PMTs very small. Avalanche photo-diodes (APD) and silicon photo-... View full abstract»

• ### Development of a 3D Brain PET Scanner Using CdTe Semiconductor Detectors and Its First Clinical Application

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):2181 - 2189
Cited by:  Papers (12)  |  Patents (1)
| | PDF (2134 KB) | HTML

Targeting improved spatial resolution, a three-dimensional positron-emission-tomography (PET) scanner employing CdTe semiconductor detectors and using depth-of-interaction (DOI) information was developed, and its physical performance was evaluated. This PET scanner is the first to use semiconductor detectors dedicated to the human brain and head-and-neck region. Imaging performance of the scanner ... View full abstract»

• ### PET Demonstrator for a Human Brain Scanner Based on Monolithic Detector Blocks

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):2190 - 2197
Cited by:  Papers (10)
| | PDF (976 KB) | HTML

We have implemented and evaluated a positron emission tomography (PET) demonstrator using two monolithic detector blocks operating in coincidence with dedicated application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) readout. Each detector is composed of a monolithic lutetium yttrium orthosilicate (LYSO) scintillator coupled to a pair of Hamamatsu S8550-02 APD arrays. The front-end electronics of this demo... View full abstract»

• ### New Daily Detector Uniformity Quality Control Methodology for Cardiac SPECT Using Solid-State Detectors

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):2198 - 2204
Cited by:  Papers (1)
| | PDF (749 KB) | HTML

Detector non-uniformity can potentially introduce detectable artifacts into SPECT images. The degree of the non-uniformity and the extent and position of the non-uniform area on the detector surface determine the position and severity of the introduced artifacts. The commonly used daily uniformity quality control (QC) procedure follows the NEMA methodology but acquires fewer counts than the latter... View full abstract»

• ### Adaptive Angular Sampling for SPECT Imaging

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):2205 - 2218
Cited by:  Papers (10)
| | PDF (3551 KB) | HTML

This paper presents an analytical approach for performing adaptive angular sampling in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. It allows for a rapid determination of the optimum sampling strategy that minimizes image variance in regions-of-interest (ROIs). The proposed method consists of three key components: (a) a set of close-form equations for evaluating image variance and r... View full abstract»

• ### Towards Quantification of Functional Breast Images Using Dedicated SPECT With Non-Traditional Acquisition Trajectories

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):2219 - 2225
Cited by:  Papers (3)
| | PDF (1695 KB) | HTML

Quantification of radiotracer uptake in breast lesions can provide valuable information to physicians in deciding patient care or determining treatment efficacy. Physical processes (e.g., scatter, attenuation), detector/collimator characteristics, sampling and acquisition trajectories, and reconstruction artifacts contribute to an incorrect measurement of absolute tracer activity and distribution.... View full abstract»

• ### Collimator Interchange System for Adaptive Cardiac Imaging in C-SPECT

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):2226 - 2233
Cited by:  Papers (7)
| | PDF (1466 KB) | HTML

Compared to imaging the heart with conventional cameras, dedicated cardiac SPECT systems can achieve much higher performance through use of a small field of view. To realize this potential, however, the heart must be reliably placed in the appropriate small FOV prior to imaging, thus requiring a separate scout operation to locate the heart and estimate its size. Furthermore, to achieve high perfor... View full abstract»

• ### Optimization and Calibration of Slat Position for a SPECT With Slit-Slat Collimator and Pixelated Detector Crystals

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):2234 - 2243
Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (3)
| | PDF (1799 KB) | HTML

To expand the availability of SPECT for biomedical research, we developed a SPECT imaging system on an existing animal PET detector by adding a slit-slat collimator. As the detector crystals are pixelated, the relative slat-to-crystal position (SCP) in the axial direction affects the photon flux distribution onto the crystals. The accurate knowledge of SCP is important to the axial resolution and ... View full abstract»

• ### Resolution Properties of a Prototype Continuous Miniature Crystal Element (cMiCE) Scanner

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):2244 - 2249
Cited by:  Papers (12)
| | PDF (1479 KB) | HTML

Continuous miniature crystal element (cMiCE) detectors are a potentially lower cost alternative for high resolution discrete crystal PET detector designs. We report on performance characteristics of a prototype PET scanner consisting of two cMiCE detector modules. Each cMiCE detector is comprised of a 50 × 50 × 8 mm3 LYSO crystal coupled to a 64 channel multi-anode PMT. Th... View full abstract»

• ### Verification of High Dose Rate $^{192}$Ir Source Position During Brachytherapy Treatment Using Silicon Pixel Detectors

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):2250 - 2256
Cited by:  Papers (6)
| | PDF (1001 KB) | HTML

A system for in-vivo tracking of 192Ir source during high dose rate or pulsed dose rate brachytherapy treatment was built using 1 mm thick silicon pad detectors as image sensors and knife-edge lead pinholes as collimators. With source self-images obtained from a dual-pinhole system, location of the source could be reconstructed in three dimensions in real time. The system was tested wit... View full abstract»

• ### GPU-Based Fast Iterative Reconstruction of Fully 3-D PET Sinograms

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):2257 - 2263
Cited by:  Papers (11)
| | PDF (963 KB) | HTML

This work presents a graphics processing unit (GPU)-based implementation of a fully 3-D PET iterative reconstruction code, FIRST (Fast Iterative Reconstruction Software for [PET] Tomography), which was developed by our group. We describe the main steps followed to convert the FIRST code (which can run on several CPUs using the message passing interface [MPI] protocol) into a code where the main ti... View full abstract»

• ### Properties and Mitigation of Edge Artifacts in PSF-Based PET Reconstruction

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):2264 - 2275
Cited by:  Papers (25)
| | PDF (2017 KB) | HTML

PSF (point spread function) based image reconstruction causes an overshoot at sharp intensity transitions (edges) of the object. This edge artifact, or ringing, has not been fully studied. In this work, we analyze the properties of edge artifacts in PSF-based reconstruction in an effort to develop mitigation methods. Our study is based on 1D and 2D simulation experiments. Two approaches are adopte... View full abstract»

• ### A Particle Filter Approach to Respiratory Motion Estimation in Nuclear Medicine Imaging

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):2276 - 2285
Cited by:  Papers (10)
| | PDF (715 KB) | HTML

With the continual improvement in spatial resolution of Nuclear Medicine (NM) scanners, it has become increasingly important to accurately compensate for patient motion during image acquisition. Respiratory motion produced by normal lung ventilation is a major source of artefacts in NM emission imaging that can affect large parts of the abdominal thoracic cavity. As such, a particle filter (PF) is... View full abstract»

• ### Quantitative PET Imaging Using a Comprehensive Monte Carlo System Model

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):2286 - 2295
Cited by:  Papers (1)
| | PDF (1086 KB) | HTML

We present the complete image generation methodology developed for the RatCAP PET scanner, which can be extended to other PET systems for which a Monte Carlo-based system model is feasible. The miniature RatCAP presents a unique set of advantages as well as challenges for image processing, and a combination of conventional methods and novel ideas developed specifically for this tomograph have been... View full abstract»

• ### Automatic Alignment of Myocardial Perfusion Images With Contrast-Enhanced Cardiac Computed Tomography

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):2296 - 2302
Cited by:  Papers (2)
| | PDF (990 KB) | HTML

Explicit fusion of perfusion data from Positron Emission Tomography (PET) or Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) with coronary artery anatomy from Computed Tomographic Coronary Angiography (CTA) has been shown to improve the diagnostic yield for coronary artery disease (CAD) compared to either modality alone. However, most clinically available methods were developed for multimodal s... View full abstract»

• ### Automated Least-Squares Calibration of the Coregistration Parameters for a Micro PET-CT System

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):2303 - 2307
Cited by:  Papers (3)
| | PDF (367 KB) | HTML

PET-CT coregistration parameters can be derived from PET and CT images of a four-point-source calibration phantom for a micro PET-CT scanner. An automated segmentation method has been developed, based on thresholding and application of constraints on the sizes of point sources in the images. After point sources are identified on PET and CT images, coregistration is performed using an analytic rigi... View full abstract»

• ### Evaluation of Attenuation and Scatter Correction Requirements as a Function of Object Size in Small Animal PET Imaging

Publication Year: 2011, Page(s):2308 - 2314
Cited by:  Papers (10)
| | PDF (838 KB) | HTML

In human emission tomography, an additional transmission scan (x-ray CT or external gamma-source) is often required to obtain accurate attenuation maps for attenuation correction (AC) and scatter correction (SC). These transmission-based correction methods have been translated to small animal imaging although the impact of photon interactions on the mouse/rat-reconstructed images is substantially ... View full abstract»

## Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science focuses on all aspects of the theory and applications of nuclear science and engineering, including instrumentation for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; particle accelerators and their controls; nuclear medicine and its application; effects of radiation on materials, components, and systems; reactor instrumentation and controls; and measurement of radiation in space.

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## Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Paul Dressendorfer
11509 Paseo del Oso NE
Albuquerque, NM  87111  USA