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Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date Oct. 2011

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 97
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - 2071
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  • IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Fault Location on Double-Circuit Series-Compensated Lines Using Two-End Unsynchronized Measurements

    Page(s): 2072 - 2080
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (807 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an accurate fault-location algorithm for double-circuit series-compensated lines. Use of two-end current and voltage signals is taken into account and a more general case of unsynchronized measurements is studied. Different options for analytical synchronization of the measurements are considered. The algorithm applies two subroutines, designated for locating faults on particular line sections, and in addition, the procedure for selecting the valid subroutine. The subroutines are formulated with the use of the generalized fault-loop model, leading to compact formulas. Consideration of the distributed parameter line model ensures high accuracy of the fault location. The proposed selection procedure allows for reliable selection of the valid subroutine. The developed fault-location algorithm has been thoroughly tested using signals taken from Alternate Transients Program-Electromagnetic Transients Program versatile simulations of faults on a double-circuit series-compensated transmission line. The presented fault-location evaluation shows the validity of the derived fault-location algorithm and its high accuracy. View full abstract»

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  • Fault Location in Multitapped Transmission Lines Using Unsynchronized Data and Superposition Theorem

    Page(s): 2081 - 2089
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    Lines with several taps are frequent and involve a large number of small towns and customers. With the need for costs reduction, this solution has been adopted in Brazilian utilities, with measurements only at the two terminal substations of the main line. The relevance of the problem is related to the long time for fault location when there are several secondary tap lines, depriving a large number of customers of energy during this period. Since there is not yet an adequate approach for this configuration, without additional hardware and measurements in tap lines, this paper presents a low-cost solution focusing on the synchronization of data measurements and the fault location in the main line or in the tap lines. The algorithm can handle the critical condition of zero-sequence infeed of star-delta transformers connected to tap lines, detecting the faulty section through the superposition theorem and finally obtaining the fault distance. Simple and accurate enough expressions were developed for fault location in order to help computer implementation of the algorithm. The algorithm also enables fault location in double-circuit main lines with several tap lines. The results, considering various line configurations and fault types, are presented, showing the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal Distributed Generation Allocation and Sizing in Distribution Systems via Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

    Page(s): 2090 - 2101
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1113 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Distributed generation (DG) has been utilized in some electric power networks. Power loss reduction, environmental friendliness, voltage improvement, postponement of system upgrading, and increasing reliability are some advantages of DG-unit application. This paper presents a new optimization approach that employs an artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm to determine the optimal DG-unit's size, power factor, and location in order to minimize the total system real power loss. The ABC algorithm is a new metaheuristic, population-based optimization technique inspired by the intelligent foraging behavior of the honeybee swarm. To reveal the validity of the ABC algorithm, sample radial distribution feeder systems are examined with different test cases. Furthermore, the results obtained by the proposed ABC algorithm are compared with those attained via other methods. The outcomes verify that the ABC algorithm is efficient, robust, and capable of handling mixed integer nonlinear optimization problems. The ABC algorithm has only two parameters to be tuned. Therefore, the updating of the two parameters towards the most effective values has a higher likelihood of success than in other competing metaheuristic methods. View full abstract»

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  • Phenomena and Mechanism Analysis on Overvoltages Caused by 40.5-kV Vacuum Circuit Breakers Switching Off Shunt Reactors

    Page(s): 2102 - 2110
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    In view of frequent and severe overvoltage failures of 40.5-kV vacuum circuit breakers (CBs) while switching off the shunt reactors in the 35-kV distribution systems in China, a series of field tests was carried out to determine the mechanism of this kind of disruption. The transient process and phenomena were analyzed and summarized based on the overvoltage waveforms obtained from the field tests. The experimental results indicated that the probability of reignition is greater for a 40.5-kV CB than in a 12 kV one. The interphase overvoltage was especially critical. The causes of severe overvoltages were analyzed, and it was indicated that the difference of CBs, multireignitions by the interphase coupling, and the different application conditions were the main effect factors. In addition, some suggestions were given. View full abstract»

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  • Original Real-Time Observations of Aeolian Vibrations on Power-Line Conductors

    Page(s): 2111 - 2117
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    Measurements of overhead conductor vibration, caused by Von Karman vortex shedding, were carried out with a new experimental device, developed by the authors, capable of continuous monitoring of acceleration over a wide range of frequency and amplitude. Continuous real-time observations showed the important influence of wind direction and turbulence as well as some divergence in predictions of the Strouhal equation. View full abstract»

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  • Aeolian Vibrations on Power-Line Conductors, Evaluation of Actual Self Damping

    Page(s): 2118 - 2122
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    Aeolian vibrations of power lines are induced by Von Karman vortex shedding. Without dampers, the amplitude of vibration very much depends on conductor self damping, which may be very low. The purpose of this paper is to show measurements of these vibrations carried out by a new experimental device which is able to perform continuous measurements in the full range of frequencies and amplitudes. In this paper, 550 h of continuous recording on four different conductors placed in similar conditions is detailed. An evaluation of self damping power, based on observations, is proposed. View full abstract»

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  • Diagnosing Shorted Turns on the Windings of Power Transformers Based Upon Online FRA Using Capacitive and Inductive Couplings

    Page(s): 2123 - 2133
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    Interturn faults are a significant problem in power transformers that can eventually burgeon into catastrophic faults and likely result in an overall network failure. The main problem with SFRA as one of the well-recognized diagnostic tools for detecting winding faults is its restriction to the domain of offline testing since the method requires injection of a test signal into the transformer windings through the high-voltage bushings. To address the difficulties arising from this issue, in this contribution, a new technique for online transfer function monitoring of the power transformers windings through a quite simple, economic, and noninvasive capacitive sensor installed on the surface of the transformer bushing is presented. Interturn faults with various levels of severity were imposed on the winding of a 35-kV/400-V, 100-kVA oil-immersed distribution transformer to evaluate the feasibility and sensitivity of the method. The experimental results proved that the newly developed online monitoring system is feasible and sensitive to detect unambiguously interturn faults even down to 0.2% shorted turns along the winding. As such, the proposed approach in this paper enables timely warning of a rising failure and serves a better purpose in assessing the health of a faulty transformer. View full abstract»

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  • An Adaptive Decision Logic to Enhance Distance Protection of Transmission Lines

    Page(s): 2134 - 2144
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    This paper introduces adaptive decision-making logic to improve the performance of distance protection of transmission lines. The proposed approach incorporates the trajectory of the measured impedance into the relay final decision-making logic through a weighting procedure. Two criteria are used to weigh the impedance plane appropriately, where higher weights are assigned to the faults occurring at the interior areas of the relay protective zone and low resistance faults. The weights assigned to impedance samples are added together considering the amount of smoothness of the measured impedance trajectory. An adaptive neurofuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is used to implement the proposed decision logic. Meanwhile, the fault current amplitude is considered as the other input of the ANFIS network to accelerate the relay operation for close-in faults and to incorporate an index for the source-to-line impedance ratio into the final decision-making logic. Extensive simulation studies using PSCAD/EMTDC software indicate that the proposed approach provides a very reliable technique to make the distance protective scheme faster and smarter. It helps to achieve the optimal compromise between the protective relay operation time and security. View full abstract»

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  • Fuzzy Logic and Immune-Based Algorithm for Placement and Sizing of Shunt Capacitor Banks in a Distorted Power Network

    Page(s): 2145 - 2153
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    This paper presents an effective procedure based on fuzzy logic and the immune algorithm for the placement and sizing of shunt capacitor banks in a distorted power network. In the study, the power-loss index associated with each bus, the root mean square (rms) voltage, the total harmonic voltage distortion at each bus, and the capacitor site suitability are modeled as fuzzy membership functions. The suitability of each candidate capacitor location is first calculated. Then, the associated capacitor size at each candidate bus is scheduled by the hybrid immune- and fuzzy logic-based algorithm, in which two fuzzy-logic-determined indices representing the binding strength percentages of the constraint intensity and the total cost are proposed to improve the solution procedure. Results are then compared with those obtained by two other fuzzy- and genetic algorithm-based approaches to show the superiority of the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • Comprehensive Distribution Network Fault Location Using the Distributed Parameter Model

    Page(s): 2154 - 2162
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (582 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A typical low- or medium-voltage distribution feeder consists of numerous branches as well as laterals and heterogenic conductor lines. The lack of measurement points and the presence of unbalanced loads make it more complicated for the construction of fault-location algorithms. In this paper, a brief and comprehensive review is presented which introduces and compares published papers in this area to date. In addition, the authors have devised a single-end fault-location algorithm using the distributed parameter model to overcome all of the aforementioned limitations in distribution feeders. The validity of the devised algorithm is studied within the PSCAD-EMTDC environment. This model provides more accurate results as the distributed nature of losses and capacitive effects are considered whereas in the available algorithms, these are ignored. A comparison which is made between the proposed method and two of the most complete available algorithms shows the superiority of our algorithm. Also, the proposed algorithm is able to locate various fault types in the network that has different phase laterals unbalanced loads and heterogeneity of the feeder line. View full abstract»

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  • A Fiber Bragg Grating Tension and Tilt Sensor Applied to Icing Monitoring on Overhead Transmission Lines

    Page(s): 2163 - 2170
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1132 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel ice monitoring system for the overhead transmission lines based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing is proposed in this paper. Compared to the existing systems, this system has several unique advantages, such as unnecessary power supply onsite, excellent ability for avoiding electromagnetic interference, and long lifespan. First, two near-elliptical-shaped concavities with FBG in each side are designed on the column structure to improve accuracy in measuring eccentric load. Then, a high reliability and high resolution tilt sensing section is developed based on a beam of uniform strength where an FBG is fixed on. Finally, an unforced FBG is placed in the sensor to solve the cross-sensitivity of strain and temperature in FBG sensing. Tension and angle experiments are conducted in our laboratory to calibrate the sensor. The tension experiment results indicate that the sensor is sensitive to tension, and the sensitivity and resolution of the sensor are 0.0413 pm/N and 24.21 N. The results of the tilt angle experiment show that the sensitivity and resolution of the sensor is 16.17 pm/° and 0.0619°. The temperature effect on the tension and angle measurement, evaluated by putting the sensor in an oven, is less than ±0.3% and ±0.38% separately. A 250-h outdoor experiment was carried out in the testing field, and the results prove the sensor can work properly in harsh environments and no creep is observed during the experiment. View full abstract»

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  • A Reliability-Centered Approach to an Optimal Maintenance Strategy in Transmission Systems Using a Genetic Algorithm

    Page(s): 2171 - 2179
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1196 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electric power transmission utilities try to maximize profit by reducing electricity supply costs and operation costs while maintaining their reliability. Developing maintenance strategies is one of the effective ways to achieve these profitable goals. The reliability-centered maintenance approach is a key method in providing optimal maintenance strategies. It considers the tradeoffs between the upfront maintenance costs and the potential costs of reliability losses. Since a transmission system is a group of different kinds of equipment and the reliability of the electric facilities varies with time, an equipment state model using a modified semi-Markov chain is proposed. In addition, a genetic algorithm is used to find the optimal maintenance strategies from a large class of possible maintenance scenarios. These optimal maintenance strategies have been tested on an IEEE 9-bus system and an IEEE 118-bus system; the results show that the proposed method minimizes the total expected costs. View full abstract»

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  • A Model for Uprating Transmission Lines by Using HTLS Conductors

    Page(s): 2180 - 2188
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    This paper presents a new method for calculating tensions and sags on a tension section with different conductors on level and nonlevel spans of equal or unequal lengths and at any temperature, including the situation where the conductor temperature varies on the entire tension section. The model involves the application of high-temperature low-sag conductors on specific spans. As the conductor temperature and electrical current are intrinsically associated with ground clearances, a comparative study of steady-state ampacity models and a sensibility analysis with meteorological parameters were performed. This method results in a gain of ground clearance as well as horizontal tensions less than those calculated for the original line, depending on the type of floating dead end used. The results of a cost-benefit analysis prove very attractive, since the original conductors would not be discarded. Added to which, the large-scale installation of new towers is not necessary. The developed model represents, therefore, a significant contribution to low-cost uprating of transmission lines while, at the same time, avoiding the need to expand the transmission system. View full abstract»

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  • Incorporating Temperature Variations Into Transmission-Line Models

    Page(s): 2189 - 2196
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (466 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper discusses a transmission-line modeling approach that incorporates available ambient temperature information. Several proposed line modeling techniques are studied and include distributed and lumped parameter models. In order to capture the nonuniformity of line parameters caused by temperature gradients, a model with multiple nonuniform segments is also proposed. An automated tool has been developed to obtain appropriate line model segmentation and parameter values of each segment, given a set of temperature measurements and their locations along the line. View full abstract»

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  • Design Formulas for the Leakage Inductance of Toroidal Distribution Transformers

    Page(s): 2197 - 2204
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    In this paper, design formulas for the calculation of the leakage inductance of toroidal transformers are presented. The formulas are obtained from the analytical integration of the stored energy. The formulas are sufficiently simple and accurate to be introduced in the loop of a design program avoiding expensive finite element simulations. It is found that toroidal transformers naturally produce the minimum leakage inductance possible for medium-voltage power transformers. To limit the short-circuit currents in power and distribution systems, a larger than the minimum leakage inductance is often required. This paper presents two methodologies to increase the leakage inductance of toroidal distribution transformers: selectively enlarging the inter-winding spacing and inserting a piece of ferromagnetic material in the leakage flux region between the windings. Extensive validation with 2D and 3D finite element simulations is performed. Additionally, experimental verification of both formulas and numerical simulations was carried out comparing the calculations against measurements on prototypes. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Reference Signal Generation Method for Power-Quality Improvement of Unified Power-Quality Conditioner

    Page(s): 2205 - 2214
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    This paper proposes a novel reference signal generation method for the unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) adopted to compensate current and voltage-quality problems of sensitive loads. The UPQC consists of a shunt and series converter having a common dc link. The shunt converter eliminates current harmonics originating from the nonlinear load side and the series converter mitigates voltage sag/swell originating from the supply side. The developed controllers for shunt and series converters are based on an enhanced phase-locked loop and nonlinear adaptive filter. The dc link control strategy is based on the fuzzy-logic controller. A fast sag/swell detection method is also presented. The efficacy of the proposed system is tested through simulation studies using the Power System Computer Aided Design/Electromagnetic Transients dc analysis program. The proposed UPQC achieves superior capability of mitigating the effects of voltage sag/swell and suppressing the load current harmonics under distorted supply conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of the Sampling Rate on the Assessment of Flicker Severity Due to Phase Jumps

    Page(s): 2215 - 2222
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    This paper presents an analysis of the effect of the sampling rate on the calculation by a digital flickermeter of the flicker severity caused by phase jumps. The new edition of the IEC 61000-4-15 standard includes an innovative test aimed at verifying that a flickermeter works properly during a phase jump event. Since phase jumps are rapid angle changes, it seems that a high sampling rate should be used by a digital instrument. This requirement could be too demanding, so we have studied this hypothesis by defining three analytical signal models. One is based on the characterization of ideal phase jump sequences and the other two are based on the definition of realistic band-limited signals containing phase jumps. We found that the minimum sampling rate necessary to pass that test is not as demanding as expected. Practical experiments made by an actual generation and acquisition system confirm this conclusion. A typical sampling rate of 3200 S/s, usually used in commercial flickermeters, becomes clearly sufficient to pass the test. However, we give notice that passing this test could not guarantee accurate results when the phase jumps are different from those specified by the standard. View full abstract»

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  • Voltage Shift Acceleration Control for Anti-Islanding of Distributed Generation Inverters

    Page(s): 2223 - 2234
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1949 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes voltage-shift acceleration control for islanding detection of distributed-generation (DG) inverters. The proposed method is conceptually based on a traditional dq -based voltage positive feedback control. A main improvement of the proposed control is that the anti-islanding performance and its impact on inverter output control can be consistent regardless of inverter operation points. An analytical approach based on a small-signal model of an inverter controller is used to prove the proposed control. Also, an analytical design method is proposed to obtain proper control gain that satisfies two conflicting issues: successful anti-islanding and limited impact on inverter control. Simulation and experimental tests were conducted to validate the proposed detection algorithm and its design method. In addition, simulation results on a two DGs system are shown to investigate the performance in multiple DGs operation. View full abstract»

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  • Probabilistic Modeling and Simulation of Transmission Line Temperatures Under Fluctuating Power Flows

    Page(s): 2235 - 2243
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (537 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Increasing shares of fluctuating renewable energy sources induce higher and higher power flow variability at the transmission level. The question arises as to what extent existing networks can absorb additional fluctuating power injection without exceeding thermal limits. At the same time, the resulting power flow characteristics call for revisiting classical approaches to line temperature prediction. This paper presents a probabilistic modeling and simulation methodology for estimating the occurrence of critical line temperatures in the presence of fluctuating power flows. Cumbersome integration of the dynamic thermal equations at each Monte Carlo simulation trial is sped up by a specific algorithm that makes use of a variance reduction technique adapted from the telecommunications field. The substantial reduction in computational time allows estimations closer to real time, relevant to short-term operational assessments. A case study performed on a single line model provides fundamental insights into the probability of hitting critical line temperatures under given power flow fluctuations. A transmission system application shows how the proposed method can be used for a fast, yet accurate operational assessment. View full abstract»

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  • The Syntactical Pattern Recognition for the Leakage Current of Transmission-Line Insulators

    Page(s): 2244 - 2250
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1040 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For the current analytical method of the leakage current on the insulator, the online monitoring system could not be used to accurately judge the contamination severity on the surface of insulators, and a novel method, syntactical pattern recognition, was proposed in this paper. The geometric primitives were extracted by piecewise linearization from the leakage current signals. In accordance with the given grammar, these primitives are constituted into a language recognition unit with the name of finite automaton, where after the finite automaton, the leakage current signals were judged to be the corresponding pattern. The syntactical pattern-recognition module was embed into the “Acqs” software, and a series of experiments for validating this method's performance were made under the following three different conditions: 1) the leakage current of polluted insulators under the different humidity degrees; 2) the leakage current under the different voltage values with moderate humidity; and 3) the polarity effect. The results showed that the structure information of the leakage current could be roundly obtained by the syntactical pattern-recognition method. Consequently, the surface discharge characteristics of insulators could be deeply grasped and the polarity effect of the leakage current of insulators could be accurately and fully recognized. View full abstract»

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  • Phase Asymmetry: A New Parameter for Detecting Single-Phase Earth Faults in Compensated MV Networks

    Page(s): 2251 - 2258
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    Traditionally, the detection of high-resistance earth faults has been a difficult task in compensated medium-voltage (MV) distribution networks, mainly due to its very low-current fault. To date, several techniques have been proposed to detect them: using current injection in the neutral, superposing voltage signals, varying the value of the arc suppression coil, etc. These techniques use different detection parameters, such as fault resistance to earth, line asymmetries, or partial residual neutral voltages. In this paper, phase asymmetry is defined as a new parameter that can be used, together with the aforementioned techniques, in order to improve the reliability and efficiency of the detection process in single-phase earth faults, especially for compensated networks. The use of this parameter has been validated through extensive simulations of resistive faults up to 15 kΩ , with the use of RESFAL software, which is based on Matlab/Simulink. View full abstract»

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  • A PLC-Based Method for Data Transmission Over a Pulsewidth-Modulated Network

    Page(s): 2259 - 2266
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    The use of power networks as a communication medium is currently under development. Power line communication (PLC) is a recent technology that allows interconnecting high-speed multimedia equipment while using the conventional domestic electric network. This paper deals with the use of this technology over pulsewidth-modulation (PWM) networks in motor-drive applications. The originality stands on the frontier of two distinct domains-communication and energy. First, the performance of the PLC technology conceived for domestic applications is evaluated when used over a PWM network. Operating limits and main difficulties encountered are underlined. Based on the requirements of the PWM network, new PLC modems are developed and tested. Experimental results presented in this paper show the capacity of these modems to overcome the hostile environment due to the inverter and to guarantee reliable communication over the PWM network. View full abstract»

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  • Estimation of Parameters of a Three-Phase Distribution Feeder

    Page(s): 2267 - 2276
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (463 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For meaningful distribution system analysis, correct information of the feeder parameter is necessary. However, in many cases (especially in the developing countries), these parameters are not known accurately. To address this issue, a methodology for estimating the feeder parameters from the measured values of power flow and node voltages is proposed in this paper. It is shown that the resulting system of equations is extremely ill-conditioned in nature and to solve this ill-conditioned system of equations, an optimization-based procedure is developed. The feasibility of the proposed methodology has been validated on the IEEE 123-bus three-phase unbalanced radial distribution system. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Installation and operation of apparatus, equipment, structures, materials and systems for the safe, reliable and economic generation, transmission, distribution, conversion, measurement and control of electric energy.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Wilsun Xu
Ph.D., P.Eng.
Dept. Electrical and Computer Eng.
University of Alberta
(9107 - 116 Street)
Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 Canada
wxu@ualberta.ca
Phone:780-492-5965
Fax:780-492-1811