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Sustainable Energy, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date Oct. 2011

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 25
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy

    Page(s): C2
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  • Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator-Based Standalone Wind Energy Supply System

    Page(s): 361 - 373
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2125 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a novel algorithm, based on dc link voltage, is proposed for effective energy management of a standalone permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG)-based variable speed wind energy conversion system consisting of battery, fuel cell, and dump load (i.e., electrolyzer). Moreover, by maintaining the dc link voltage at its reference value, the output ac voltage of the inverter can be kept constant irrespective of variations in the wind speed and load. An effective control technique for the inverter, based on the pulsewidth modulation (PWM) scheme, has been developed to make the line voltages at the point of common coupling (PCC) balanced when the load is unbalanced. Similarly, a proper control of battery current through dc-dc converter has been carried out to reduce the electrical torque pulsation of the PMSG under an unbalanced load scenario. Based on extensive simulation results using MATLAB/SIMULINK, it has been established that the performance of the controllers both in transient as well as in steady state is quite satisfactory and it can also maintain maximum power point tracking. View full abstract»

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  • Voltage Control of Photovoltaic Generator in Combination With Series Reactor

    Page(s): 374 - 382
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1083 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper examines voltage control of photovoltaic (PV) generators. Small PV generators are generally connected to service lines whose impedances are mostly resistive. Accordingly, it is hard to cancel voltage rise due to PV generation by changing power factor. This paper first proposes to insert a series reactor in a service line. Its value and effect are considered. Second, a combination of constant voltage control with unity power factor control is proposed to reduce line loss. The unity power factor control usually operates, but if the voltage exceeds an operating range, the constant voltage control starts. Two control block diagrams are drawn and rules for switching controls are derived. Some experimental results are demonstrated and compared with simulation results to verify its effectiveness. View full abstract»

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  • MW Resource Assessment Model for a Hybrid Energy Conversion System With Wind and Solar Resources

    Page(s): 383 - 391
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1588 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The combined utilization of renewables such as solar and wind energy is becoming increasingly attractive. Proper methods need to be employed that consider the inherent variability of these two technologies while determining the performance of a wind-solar hybrid energy conversion system (ECS). In this paper, a stochastic approach has been utilized to develop the megawatt resource assessment model (MWRAM) of a wind-solar hybrid ECS at any selected location. The parameters required to define the probabilistic models have been computed from site-specific data using the maximum likelihood estimation method. The wind portion consists of several interconnected wind turbines while the solar component is a parabolic trough solar thermal electric generating system. Different applications of the model to assess resource benefits including capacity factors and reserve requirements from effective utilization of both wind and solar energy have been explored at different levels with varying wind-solar proportions. View full abstract»

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  • A Review of Hybrid Renewable/Alternative Energy Systems for Electric Power Generation: Configurations, Control, and Applications

    Page(s): 392 - 403
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    This paper, prepared by a special task force of the IEEE PES Renewable Technologies Subcommittee, is a review of hybrid renewable/alternative energy (RE/AE) power generation systems focusing on energy sustainability. It highlights some important issues and challenges in the design and energy management of hybrid RE/AE systems. System configurations, generation unit sizing, storage needs, and energy management and control are addressed. Statistics on the current status and future trend of renewable power generation, as well as some critical challenges facing the widespread deployment of RE/AE power generation technologies and vision for future research in this area are also presented. The comprehensive list of references given at the end of the paper should be helpful to researchers working in this area. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Implementation of Neuro-Fuzzy Vector Control for Wind-Driven Doubly-Fed Induction Generator

    Page(s): 404 - 413
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2356 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wound-rotor induction generators have numerous advantages in wind power generation over other types of generators. One scheme is realized when a converter cascade is used between the slip-ring terminals and the utility grid to control the rotor power. This configuration is called the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG). In this paper, a vector control scheme is developed to control the rotor side voltage source converter that allows independent control of the generated active and reactive power as well as the rotor speed to track the maximum wind power point. A neuro-fuzzy gain tuner is proposed to control the DFIG. The input for each neuro-fuzzy system is the error value of generator speed, active or reactive power. The choice of only one input to the system simplifies the design. Experimental investigations have also been conducted on a laboratory DFIG to verify the calculated results. View full abstract»

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  • Flicker Evaluation of the SeaGen Tidal Power Plant

    Page(s): 414 - 422
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2462 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the power quality evaluation of a 1.2-MW tidal power plant. The results show that the unit works well and that the power quality impact is moderate to low and for future units which most likely will have more turbines, the power quality impact will be very low. The wind turbine power quality standard IEC 61400-21 was used in this investigation, and was adequate; however, regarding the connecting transients, there could be a need for a specific standard. It is found that the power level is well controlled at higher water speeds; the maximum 10-min power is found to be 1.21 MW. The maximum 2-s value is found to be 1.46 MW and the maximum 60-s value is found to be 1.30 MW. The reactive power exchange with the grid is negligible; at full load, the power factor is 0.99. The flicker coefficient is between 1 and 5, depending on the grid impedance angle. Finally, it can be said that the maximum total harmonic distortion (THD) for the voltages is found to be 1.2% and for the current 0.65% during operation with the complete power plant. View full abstract»

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  • A Control Design Approach for Three-Phase Grid-Connected Renewable Energy Resources

    Page(s): 423 - 432
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2998 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a method to design a control system for a three-phase voltage source converter (VSC) that connects a renewable energy source to the utility grid through an output L-type or LCL-type filter. The well-known abc/dq transformation method creates coupling terms that are visible and can readily be canceled in the L-type filter. Such terms, however, are very complicated when an LCL filter is used. This paper, first revisits the derivation of the decoupling control method for an L-ype output filter and then, for the first time, derives the decoupling terms for an LCL-type filter. Having successfully decoupled the real and reactive power loops, feedback controllers are presented and designed to achieve desirable performance. The proposed controller provides active damping of the LCL resonance mode, robustness with respect to grid frequency, and impedance uncertainty. Moreover, a new controller is designed to improve the startup transient of the system. The methodology used in this paper is inspired from the feedback linearization theory and it provides a clear design method for the nonlinear systems. Simulation results are presented to confirm the analytical results. View full abstract»

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  • Incorporating Uncertainty of Wind Power Generation Forecast Into Power System Operation, Dispatch, and Unit Commitment Procedures

    Page(s): 433 - 442
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2067 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An approach to evaluate the uncertainties of the balancing capacity, ramping capability, and ramp duration requirements is proposed. The approach includes three steps: forecast data acquisition, statistical analysis of retrospective information, and prediction of grid balancing requirements for a specified time horizon and a given confidence level. An assessment of the capacity and ramping requirements is performed using a specially developed probabilistic algorithm based on histogram analysis, capable of incorporating multiple sources of uncertainty - both continuous (wind and load forecast errors) and discrete (forced generator outages and startup failures). A new method called the “flying-brick” technique is developed to evaluate the look-ahead required generation performance envelope for the worst-case scenario within a user-specified confidence level. A self-validation process is used to validate the accuracy of the confidence intervals. To demonstrate the validity of the developed uncertainty assessment methods and its impact on grid operation, a framework for integrating the proposed methods with an energy management system (EMS) is developed. Demonstration through EMS integration illustrates the applicability of the proposed methodology and the developed tool for actual grid operation and paves the road for integration with EMS systems in control rooms. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic Modeling and Performance Analysis of a Grid-Connected Current-Source Inverter-Based Photovoltaic System

    Page(s): 443 - 450
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1641 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Voltage-source inverter (VSI) topology is widely used for grid interfacing of distributed generation (DG) systems. However, when employed as the power conditioning unit in photovoltaic (PV) systems, VSI normally requires another power electronic converter stage to step up the voltage, thus adding to the cost and complexity of the system. To make the proliferation of grid-connected PV systems a successful business option, the cost, performance, and life expectancy of the power electronic interface need to be improved. The current-source inverter (CSI) offers advantages over VSI in terms of inherent boosting and short-circuit protection capabilities, direct output current controllability, and ac-side simpler filter structure. Research on CSI-based DG is still in its infancy. This paper focuses on modeling, control, and steady-state and transient performances of a PV system based on CSI. It also performs a comparative performance evaluation of VSI-based and CSI-based PV systems under transient and fault conditions. Analytical expectations are verified using simulations in the Power System Computer Aided Design/Electromagnetic Transient Including DC (PSCAD/EMTDC) environment, based on a detailed system model. View full abstract»

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  • Reactive Power Management of a DFIG Wind System in Microgrids Based on Voltage Sensitivity Analysis

    Page(s): 451 - 458
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2652 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper addresses the problem of voltage regulation in microgrids that include doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind generation. Due to significant line resistances in microgrids, active power variations produced by wind turbines can lead to significant fluctuations in voltage magnitudes. This paper proposes a voltage sensitivity analysis-based scheme to achieve voltage regulation at a target bus in such microgrids. The target voltage can be of an important central bus, or a bus with sensitive voltage loads. The method is local and can be implemented in the absence of a widespread communication system or remote measurements. The performance of the method is illustrated on the IEEE-13 bus distribution network. Dynamic models are considered for the DFIG, converters, and internal controllers along with their operational limits. Stochastic fluctuations in wind speed are modeled with NREL Turbsim while accounting for tower shadow and wind shear. Dynamic simulations (in PSCAD/EMTDC) are presented to assess the voltage regulation characteristics under different load conditions and network contingencies. View full abstract»

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  • Stability Analysis and Improvements for Variable-Speed Multipole Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator-Based Wind Energy Conversion System

    Page(s): 459 - 467
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1559 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper discusses the stability issues of the permanent magnetic synchronous generator (PMSG)-based direct driven wind energy conversion system (WECS) and presents a torque compensation strategy to improve the system stability. The stability analysis shows that the drive train dynamics can significantly affect the system stability by introducing a low-frequency oscillatory mode and the stability margin can be enlarged with the slower generator torque control loop or the reduced power converter response. The torque compensation strategy contains a feed-forward compensator in the torque control loop, which is formulated based on the dc current injected into the dc link capacitor of the converters. With such compensation, the oscillatory mode is effectively suppressed and the stability of the WECS is improved. The simulation results verify the theoretical analysis as well as the small-signal and transient performance of the strategy. View full abstract»

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  • Combined Operations of Renewable Energy Systems and Responsive Demand in a Smart Grid

    Page(s): 468 - 476
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1169 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The integration of renewable energy systems (RESs) in smart grids (SGs) is a challenging task, mainly due to the intermittent and unpredictable nature of the sources, typically wind or sun. Another issue concerns the way to support the consumers' participation in the electricity market aiming at minimizing the costs of the global energy consumption. This paper proposes an energy management system (EMS) aiming at optimizing the SG's operation. The EMS behaves as a sort of aggregator of distributed energy resources allowing the SG to participate in the open market. By integrating demand side management (DSM) and active management schemes (AMS), it allows a better exploitation of renewable energy sources and a reduction of the customers' energy consumption costs with both economic and environmental benefits. It can also improve the grid resilience and flexibility through the active participation of distribution system operators (DSOs) and electricity supply/demand that, according to their preferences and costs, respond to real-time price signals using market processes. The efficiency of the proposed EMS is verified on a 23-bus 11-kV distribution network. View full abstract»

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  • Three-Phase Steady-State Model of Type-3 Wind Generation Unit—Part I: Mathematical Models

    Page(s): 477 - 486
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    This paper develops a comprehensive mathematical steady-state fundamental-frequency model of the Type-3 wind driven unit, i.e., a doubly fed asynchronous generator (DFAG) and its associated converter system, for three-phase power-flow analysis. First, a novel steady-state, sequence frame-based model of the generic Type-3 unit, to represent 1) the control capabilities and 2) the operating limits of the rotor-side and the grid-side converters under balanced and unbalanced conditions, is developed. Then, new strategies to determine the reference set-points of the controllers for compliance with the operating limits, are also presented. The model, including the proposed strategies/algorithms, is incorporated in a three-phase, sequence frame-based, power-flow algorithm. Applications and validation of the developed model and the set-points update strategies, and evaluation of the computational efficiency of the power-flow algorithm will be presented in Part II of this paper. View full abstract»

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  • Quantification of Over-Speed Risk in Wind Turbine Fleets

    Page(s): 487 - 494
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1361 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The effective life management of large and diverse fleets of wind turbines is a new problem facing power system utilities. More specifically, the minimization of over-speed risk is of high importance due to the related impacts of possible loss of life and economic implications of over-speed, such as a loss of containment event. Meeting the goal of risk minimization is complicated by the large range of turbine types present in a typical fleet. These turbines may have different pitch systems, over-speed detection systems, and also different levels of functional redundancy, implying different levels of risk. The purpose of this work is to carry out a quantitative comparison of over-speed risk in different turbine configurations, using a Markov process to model detection of faults and repair actions. In the medium-long term, the risk associated with different assets can be used as a decision-making aid. For example, if the operator is a utility, it may want to avoid purchasing high-risk sites in the future, or may need to develop mitigation strategies for turbines at high risk of over-speed. View full abstract»

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  • A New Index for Absolute Comparison of Standalone Photovoltaic Systems Installed at Different Locations

    Page(s): 495 - 500
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (889 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Photovoltaic (PV) system performance assessment is an important issue in determining how much energy is effectively used by PV-load systems. International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 61724 establishes the reference yield as the global irradiation in the plane of the PV array. Therefore, the performance ratio obtained is only valid where the PV system is located and does not allow the comparison between the performance of PV systems installed at different locations. Adopting a reference yield that is common to any location on Earth, a new absolute performance ratio (APR) is introduced. It uses the average annual irradiation in an extraterrestrial surface equipped with a Sun-Tracking System. The interest of the new index is demonstrated through a simple example were two identical standalone photovoltaic (SAPV) systems are compared. While the IEC method shows both systems to have similar performance, the APR points out that the cost of the energy produced by one system is half that produced by the other. View full abstract»

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  • Aggregated Impact of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Electricity Demand Profile

    Page(s): 501 - 508
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (750 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution in urban areas, and dependence on fossil fuels are among the challenges threatening the sustainable development of the transportation sector. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technology is one of the most promising solutions to tackle the situation. While PHEVs partially rely on electricity from the power grid, they raise concerns about their negative impacts on power generation, transmission, and distribution installations. On the other hand, they have the potential to be used as a distributed energy storage system for the grid. Therefore, they can pave the way for a more sustainable power grid in which renewable resources are widely employed. Positive and negative impacts of PHEVs on the power grid cannot be thoroughly examined unless extensive data on the utilization of each individual PHEV are available. For instance, in order to estimate the aggregated impact of PHEVs on the electricity demand profile, one needs to know 1) when each PHEV would begin its charging process, 2) how much electrical energy it would require, and 3) how much power would be needed. This paper extracts and analyzes the data that are available through national household travel surveys (NHTS). Three charging scenarios are considered in order to obtain various PHEV charging load profiles (PCLPs). Further, the characteristics of each developed PCLP are studied. Finally, the effects of three suggested policies on the derived PCLPs are examined. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling and Validation of DFIG 3-MW Wind Turbine Using Field Test Data of Balanced and Unbalanced Voltage Sags

    Page(s): 509 - 519
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2630 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A complete model of a doubly fed induction generator-based wind turbine generation system and its control scheme are developed. All components such as converters, dc-link, protections, and grid are modeled. Control techniques for torque, reactive power, and dc-link voltage are analyzed for balanced and unbalanced faults ride-through performance. Simulation results are validated and compared with field test measurements of an operational 3-MW wind turbine. Balanced and unbalanced voltage sags have been provoked and the data required by the grid codes to perform a validation process have been sampled by means of a data acquisition system. A comparison between field test data and simulation results is done and the variables used to validate the model are plotted showing their evolution along the voltage dip and after the fault clearance. The results are validated according to Spanish and German grid codes. View full abstract»

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  • Reliability Modeling and Control Schemes of Composite Energy Storage and Wind Generation System With Adequate Transmission Upgrades

    Page(s): 520 - 526
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    The intermittency of wind generation and the potential need for adequate transmission expansion are the major concerns in wind generation integration to power system. One solution being considered is to build on-site energy storage with the wind farms. The idea of building such a composite system is not only to minimize the real-time variation of the composite system output, but also to optimize the transmission upgrades needed for delivery of the wind generation. A novel probabilistic reliability assessment method is proposed in this paper for determining the adequate size of on-site energy storage and the transmission upgrades needed in connecting wind generation with the power system. The practical applications of the proposed model are illustrated using the IEEE Reliability Test System (IEEE-RTS). View full abstract»

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  • Quality without compromise [advertisement]

    Page(s): 527
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  • Leading the field since 1884 [advertisement]

    Page(s): 528
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  • 2011 Index IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy Vol. 2

    Page(s): 529 - 538
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  • IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy society information

    Page(s): C3
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  • IEEE Power Engineering Society information for authors

    Page(s): C4
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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy is a cross disciplinary and internationally archival journal aimed at disseminating results of research on sustainable energy that relates to, arises from, or deliberately influences energy generation, transmission, distribution and delivery.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Dr. Bikash C. Pal,  Ph.D.
Imperial College