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Robotics & Automation Magazine, IEEE

Issue 3 • Date Sept. 2011

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 31
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): C1
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 1 - 2
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  • Changes for Betterment [From the Editor's Desk]

    Page(s): 4
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  • School and the Distinguished Lecturer Program [President's Message]

    Page(s): 6
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  • Engineering from Prank to Product [News and Views]

    Page(s): 8 - 9
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  • SAUC-E: Fostering the Next Generation of Scientists and Engineers [Competitions]

    Page(s): 10 - 14
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  • Performance Metrics for Response Robots [Industrial Activities]

    Page(s): 12 - 14
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  • Robot Developer Kits [ROS Topics]

    Page(s): 16
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  • Domestic Service Robots [TC Spotlight]

    Page(s): 18 - 20
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  • Future RAS Support for Summer Schools [Education]

    Page(s): 20
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  • Robot challenges: Toward development of verification and synthesis techniques [from the Guest Editors]

    Page(s): 22 - 23
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  • Robotic Surgery

    Page(s): 24 - 32
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (922 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this article, we discuss formal methods for the verification of properties of control systems designed for autonomous robotic systems. In the last few decades, robotics played a relevant role in the progress of surgery. The use of robots in the operating rooms has given rise to new terminologies: robot-assisted surgery, medical robotics, rehabilitation robotics, telesurgery, robotic assistive systems, and so on. Since robotic surgery is a relatively new field of investigation, there are no established methods for bringing new concepts and operational procedures to the surgical practice, in spite of the interest and pressing requests of the medical community. View full abstract»

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  • Hybrid Systems in Robotics

    Page(s): 33 - 43
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1389 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Robotics has provided the motivation and inspiration for many innovations in planning and control. From nonholonomic motion planning [1] to probabilistic road maps [2], from capture basins [3] to preimages [4] of obstacles to avoid, and from geometric nonlinear control [5], [6] to machine-learning methods in robotic control [7], there is a wide range of planning and control algorithms and methodologies that can be traced back to a perceived need or anticipated benefit in autonomous or semiautonomous systems. View full abstract»

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  • Semiautonomous Multivehicle Safety

    Page(s): 44 - 54
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1855 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this article, we have illustrated the application of a formal hybrid control approach to design semiautonomous multivehicle systems that are guaranteed to be safe. Our experimental results illustrate that, in a structured task, such as driving, simple human-decision models can be effectively learned and employed in a feedback control system that enforces a safety specification. They also highlight how the incorporation of these models in a safety control system makes the control actions required for safety less conservative. In fact, by virtue of the mode estimate, the current (mode-dependent) capture set to avoid guaranteeing safety is considerably smaller than the capture set to be avoided when the mode estimate is not available. This is essential for the practical applicability of cooperative active safety systems. In our data set, the flow entered the capture set only 3% times. These failures are mainly due to communication delays between the vehicles and the workstation. These delays, when significant, cause the calculated capture set to be different from the actual one and hence may cause to enforce control too late. These delays, in future work, should be formally accounted for in the models and in the safety control algorithm. More complex models of human decisions in the proximity of an intersection and the incorporation of additional details, such as weather conditions and road geometry, offer the potential for reducing the conservatism of safe control actions even further. Future work will also consider the extension to the case in which vehicles are not known to evolve on a fixed route. This case will be handled by keeping track of routes that are compatible with the position and speed of the vehicle and by progressively eliminating those that become incompatible. The models considered here are deterministic because most of the tools currently available to perform safety control have assumed deterministic models, wherein uncertainty is bounded. Howeve- - r, human decision models are more naturally captured by stochastic frameworks, in which uncertainty due to variability in both subjects and realizations of the same decision is probabilistic. As results in stochastic safety verification and design become available, it will be important to extend the proposed techniques of this article to safety control of stochastic hybrid automata in which the mode estimate is constructed probabilistically. View full abstract»

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  • Motion Planning with Complex Goals

    Page(s): 55 - 64
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2388 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This article describes approach for solving motion planning problems for mobile robots involving temporal goals. Traditional motion planning for mobile robotic systems involves the construction of a motion plan that takes the system from an initial state to a set of goal states while avoiding collisions with obstacles at all times. The motion plan is also required to respect the dynamics of the system that are typically described by a set of differential equations. A wide variety of techniques have been pro posed over the last two decades to solve such problems [1], [2]. View full abstract»

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  • Correct, Reactive, High-Level Robot Control

    Page(s): 65 - 74
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    In this article, we presented an overview of how temporal logic synthesis, coupled with abstractions and continuous bisimilar controllers, can be used to generate high-level, reactive robot control. We illustrated the ideas using the DUC mission, and we presented two approaches to deal with the inherent state explosion problem. View full abstract»

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  • Automatic Deployment of Robotic Teams

    Page(s): 75 - 86
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    A major goal in robot motion planning and control is to be able to specify a task in a high-level, expressive language and have the robot(s) to automatically convert the specification into a set of low-level primitives, such as feedback controllers and communication protocols, to accomplish the task. The robots can vary from manipulator arms used in manufacturing or surgery, to autonomous vehicles used in search and rescue or in planetary exploration, and to smart wheel chairs for disabled people. They are subject to mechanical constraints (e.g., a carlike robot cannot move sideways,an airplane cannot stop in place) and have limited computation, sensing, and communication capabilities. The environments can be cluttered with possibly moving and shape-changing obstacles and can con tain dynamic (moving, appearing, or disappearing) targets. One of the major challenges in this area is the development of a computationally efficient frame work accommodating both the robot constraints and the complexity of the environment, while, at the same time, allowing for a large spectrum of task specifications. View full abstract»

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  • Automatic Sequencing of Ballet Poses

    Page(s): 87 - 95
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1247 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this article, we draw inspiration from the formal principals of movement organization in basic classical ballet. A grammar for leg positions in ballet movements restricted to the coronal plane is specified. Ballet is a highly ordered behavior of a truly complex biological system whose attributes have important analogs in systems theory that warrant quantitative study. By formulating aesthetic style from a systems theoretic perspective and, thus, resolving the attributes of human movement that typify and comprise stylized movement, we are beginning to define a metric for a previously abstract concept. Furthermore, the structure of the aesthetic movement explored here provides an interesting challenge for robotics research and formal methods, namely that of how the composition of structured discrete event systems may generate desired behavior for humanoid robotic tasks. View full abstract»

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  • A Three-DoF Actuated Robot

    Page(s): 96 - 103
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    This article presents the realization of a tensegrity-based robot composed of a three-bar symmetric prismlike minimal tensegrity configuration. Statics and kinematics are studied presenting the workspace for the designed robot. After a detailed implementation description of the physical robot, some trajectories within its workspace are analyzed. Although our long-term objective is to provide mobile tensegrity-based robots to the community, this work studies a case in which the robot is anchored to the ground. This provides us with a first insight of how these structures should be actuated and sensed to produce movement. View full abstract»

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  • A Mosaic of Eyes

    Page(s): 104 - 113
    Multimedia
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    Autonomous navigation is a traditional research topic in intelligent robotics and vehicles, which requires a robot to perceive its environment through onboard sensors such as cameras or laser scanners, to enable it to drive to its goal. Most research to date has focused on the development of a large and smart brain to gain autonomous capability for robots. There are three fundamental questions to be answered by an autonomous mobile robot: 1) Where am I going? 2) Where am I? and 3) How do I get there? To answer these basic questions, a robot requires a massive spatial memory and considerable computational resources to accomplish perception, localization, path planning, and control. It is not yet possible to deliver the centralized intelligence required for our real-life applications, such as autonomous ground vehicles and wheelchairs in care centers. In fact, most autonomous robots try to mimic how humans navigate, interpreting images taken by cameras and then taking decisions accordingly. They may encounter the following difficulties. View full abstract»

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  • ICRA 2017

    Page(s): 114
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  • SAC Programs at ICRA 2011 [Student's Corner]

    Page(s): 115 - 118
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  • Students at ICRA—Shanghai [Student's Corner]

    Page(s): 118 - 125
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  • Call for SAC Chairs

    Page(s): 119
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  • VIAC Expedition Toward Autonomous Mobility [From the Field]

    Page(s): 120 - 124
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine is a unique technology publication which is peer-reviewed, readable and substantive.  The Magazine is a forum for articles which fall between the academic and theoretical orientation of scholarly journals and vendor sponsored trade publications.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Eugenio Guglielmelli
Laboratory of Biomedical Robotics
      and Biomicrosystems
Universita' Campus Bio-Medico
      di Roma