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Mechatronics, IEEE/ASME Transactions on

Issue 5 • Date Oct. 2011

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 26
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): C1 - C4
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics publication information

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): C2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Guest Editorial

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 793 - 798
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (185 KB)  

    The 12 papers in this special section focus on sensing technologies for biomechatronics. View full abstract»

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  • The Use of Piezoceramics As Electrical Energy Harvesters Within Instrumented Knee Implant During Walking

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 799 - 807
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (963 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The goal of our paper is to quantify the electrical energy that can be harvested within a new generation of instrumented knee implant during normal walking. This generation of knee implant is proposed to assess the in vivo anteroposterior and mediolateral distributions of tibiofemoral force on the tibial baseplate without the need to be powered from an external source of energy. The proposed self-powered diagnostic knee implant can provide the clinicians with useful information on the sagittal and coronal instabilities of the prosthetic knee throughout its lifespan. Four piezoelectric elements were embedded within the anteromedial, posteromedial, anterolateral, and posterolateral compartments of the tibial baseplate. These elements can simultaneously be used to sense the force distribution and generate the electric power needed to supply the acquisition, processing, and transmission system located in the stem of the implant. In order to study the power generation issue, OrCAD/PSpice and MATLAB/Simulink models of the piezoelectric element have been developed to quantify the electrical energy harvested under operating conditions close to those encountered in vivo during normal walking. Furthermore, an experimental prototype of the self-powered diagnostic knee implant has been designed, developed, and tested in our laboratory (LaTIM, INSERM U650, Brest, France) in order to validate the modeling results. View full abstract»

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  • Haptic Device for Capturing and Simulating Hand Manipulation Rehabilitation

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 808 - 815
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (624 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes the preliminary development of a haptic setup for capturing and simulating musculoskeletal assessment and manipulation of the hand. A haptic device, called MasterFinger-2, is used for capturing one massage technique and one joint manipulation technique, and also for simulating this manipulation technique that can be used in both assessment and treatment of the hand. First, works developed demonstrate that an application of haptic devices enable quantitative characterization of forces and positions used in manipulation of musculoskeletal structures. Second, an application for simulation is developed using the MasterFinger-2 to display (both visually and haptically) manipulations of one joint of the hand around three axes. The novel aspects of this approach are the use of a multifinger device for capture, simulation, and modeling the movement of a biological joint for haptic simulation across three axes, each with nonlinear behavior. View full abstract»

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  • FES-Induced Torque Prediction With Evoked EMG Sensing for Muscle Fatigue Tracking

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 816 - 826
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1338 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper investigates a torque estimation method for muscle fatigue tracking, using stimulus evoked electromyography (eEMG) in the context of a functional electrical stimulation (FES) rehabilitation system. Although FES is able to effectively restore motor function in spinal cord injured (SCI) individuals, its application is inevitably restricted by muscle fatigue. In addition, the sensory feedback indicating fatigue is missing in such patients. Therefore, torque estimation is essential to provide feedback or feedforward signal for adaptive FES control. In this paper, a fatigue-inducing protocol is conducted on five SCI subjects via transcutaneous electrodes under isometric condition, and eEMG signals are collected by surface electrodes. A myoelectrical mechanical muscle model based on the Hammerstein structure with eEMG as model input is employed to capture muscle contraction dynamics. It is demonstrated that the correlation between eEMG and torque is time varying during muscle fatigue. Compared to conventional fixed-parameter models, the adapted-parameter model shows better torque prediction performance in fatiguing muscles. It motivates us to use a Kalman filter with forgetting factor for estimating the time-varying parameters and for tracking muscle fatigue. The assessment with experimental data reveals that the identified eEMG-to-torque model properly predicts fatiguing muscle behavior. Furthermore, the performance of the time-varying parameter estimation is efficient, suggesting that real-time tracking is feasible with a Kalman filter and driven by eEMG sensing in the application of FES. View full abstract»

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  • A Wearable Real-Time Intelligent Posture Corrective System Using Vibrotactile Feedback

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 827 - 834
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1078 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Biofeedback is known to improve postural control and shorten rehabilitation periods among the young and elderly. A biofeedback system communicates with the human central nervous system through a variety of feedback modalities. Vibrotactile feedback devices are gaining attention due to their desirable characteristics and simplistic manner of presenting biofeedback. In this study, we investigate the potential of incorporating a real-time biofeedback system with artificial intelligence for wobble board training, aimed at improving ankle proprioception. The designed system utilizes vibrotactile actuators to provide forewarning for poor postural control. The biofeedback system depended on Euler angular measurements of trunk and wobble board displacements, from inertial measurement units (IMUs). A fuzzy inference system was used to determine the quality of postural control, based on IMU-acquired measurements of trunk and wobble board. The designed system integrates: 1) two IMUs, 2) a fuzzy knowledge base, and 3) a feedback-generation module. Tests were conducted in eyes-open and eyes-close conditions while standing on the wobble board to assess viability of the system in providing accurate real-time intervention. The results observed an improvement in postural control with biofeedback intervention, demonstrating successfulness of the prototype built for improving postural control in rehabilitative and preventive applications. View full abstract»

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  • Estimating System State During Human Walking With a Powered Ankle-Foot Orthosis

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 835 - 844
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1335 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a state estimator that reliably detects gait events during human walking with a portable powered ankle-foot orthosis (AFO), based only on measurements of the ankle angle and of contact forces at the toe and heel. Effective control of the AFO critically depends on detecting these gait events. A common approach detects gait events simply by checking if each measurement exceeds a given threshold. Our approach uses cross correlation between a window of past measurements and a learned model to estimate the configuration of the human walker, and detects gait events based on this estimate. We tested our approach in experiments with five healthy subjects and with one subject that had neuromuscular impairment. Using motion capture data for reference, we compared our approach to one based on thresholding and to another common one based on k-nearest neighbors. The results showed that our approach reduced the RMS error by up to 40% for the impaired subject and up to 49% for the healthy subjects. Moreover, our approach was robust to perturbations due to changes in walking speed and to control actuation. View full abstract»

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  • Photoprocessible Hydrogel Microsensor for Local Environment Measurement on a Microfluidic Chip

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 845 - 852
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (938 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    On-chip environment measurement is an important technique for control ambient conditions of cells and monitoring cell activities. However, integration of many sensors in the chip has difficulties such as position and interconnection of sensors. We developed hydrogel microsensors made of photocrosslinkable resin impregnating with indicators for on-chip measurement. This sensor can be used for both area measurement and 3-D sensing by shaping the hydrogel by UV ray patterning. This sensor requires no interconnections since environmental information is detected as optical information such as brightness and color. The YCrCb color space was suitable than the HSV color space in terms of the linearity of the color calibration (H: hue, S: saturation, V: values (brightness). Y : brightness, Cr: color difference of red, Cb: color difference of blue). In this paper, we demonstrated measurement of pH distribution in the microchannel using a color indicator and measurement of oxygen consumption of brown fat cell (BFC) using a fluorescent oxygen indicator. On pH measurement, we used YCrCb color space because Cr and Cb represented monotone variation and robust against brightness fluctuation. The hydrogel was patterned by photolithography into the stripe shape and modified with the indicator. Color change was detected by a color charge-coupled device (CCD). On oxygen measurement, we formed the hydrogel impregnating with the fluorescent indicator into microsphere. Fluorescence change was detected by the spectrophotometer. We succeeded in measuring local pH distribution and oxygen consumption of BFC inside the microfluidic chip. View full abstract»

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  • Series Viscoelastic Actuators Can Match Human Force Perception

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 853 - 860
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (564 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Series elastic actuators (SEAs) are frequently used for force control in haptic interaction, because they decouple actuator inertia from the end effector by a compliant element. This element is usually a metal spring or beam, where the static force-deformation relationship offers a cheap force sensor. For high-precision force control, however, the remaining small inertia of this elastic element and of the end effector still limit the sensing performance and rendering transparency. Here, we extend the concept to deformable end effectors manufactured of viscoelastic materials. These materials offer the advantage of extremely low mass at high maximum deformation and applicable load. However, force and deformation are no longer statically related, and history of force and deformation has to be accounted for. We describe an observer-based solution, which allows drift-free force measurement with high accuracy and precision. Although the description of the viscoelastic behavior involves higher-order derivatives, the proposed observer does not require any numerical differentiation. This new integrated concept of sensing and actuation, called series viscoelastic actuator (SVA), is applied to our high-precision haptic device OSVALD, which is targeted at perception experiments that require sensing and rendering of forces in the range of the human tactile threshold. User-device interaction force is controlled using state-of-the-art control strategies of SEAs. Force estimation and force control performance are evaluated experimentally and prove to be compatible with the intended applications, showing that SVAs open up new possibilities for the use of series compliance and damping in high-precision haptic interfaces. View full abstract»

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  • A 1-D Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer Imaging Array Fabricated With a Silicon-Nitride-Based Fusion Process

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 861 - 865
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (489 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) are an alternative to the conventional method of generating ultrasound that increases bandwidths, simplifies fabrication, and facilitates the integration with necessary electronics. We report the fabrication, characterization, and initial-phased array imaging results of a 64-element array CMUT fabricated using a fusion bonding process where both the membrane and insulation layers are user deposited silicon nitride. Individual cells have a diameter of 25 μm and a membrane thickness of 500 nm. The center frequency in immersion is 6.6 MHz with a -6 dB fractional bandwidth of 123%. A 90° phased array sector scan is made of a four-wire target using a 32-element subset of the array. Pressures in excess of 2 MPa are measured. An axial resolution of 130 μm and a lateral resolution of 0.03 rad are obtained from a wire target 15 mm away from the transducer. View full abstract»

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  • Design Principles for Rapid Prototyping Forces Sensors Using 3-D Printing

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 866 - 870
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (2)
    Multimedia
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (453 KB)  

    Force sensors provide critical information about robot manipulators, manufacturing processes, and haptic interfaces. Commercial force sensors, however, are generally not adapted to specific system requirements, resulting in sensors with excess size, cost, and fragility. To overcome these issues, 3-D printers can be used to create components for the quick and inexpensive development of force sensors. Limitations of this rapid prototyping technology, however, require specialized design principles. In this paper, we discuss techniques for rapidly developing simple force sensors, including selecting and attaching metal flexures, using inexpensive and simple displacement transducers, and 3-D printing features to aid in assembly. These design methods are illustrated through the design and fabrication of a miniature force sensor for the tip of a robotic catheter system. The resulting force sensor prototype can measure forces with an accuracy of as low as 2% of the 10 N measurement range. View full abstract»

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  • Wireless and Portable EOG-Based Interface for Assisting Disabled People

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 870 - 873
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (456 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a new portable and wireless interface based on electrooculography (EOG) aimed at people with severe motor disorders. This interface allows us detecting the movement of the eyes measuring the potential between the cornea and the retina. The interface uses five electrodes placed around the eyes of the user in order to register this potential. A processing algorithm of the EOG signals has been developed in order to detect the movement of the eyes. This interface has many advantages in comparison to commercial devices. It is a cheap and small sized device with USB compatibility. It does not need power supply from the network as it works with batteries and USB supply. Several experiments have been done to test the electronics of the interface. A first set of experiments has been performed to obtain the movement of the eyes of the user processing the signals provided by the interface. In addition, the interface has been used to control a real robot arm. The accuracy and time taken have been measured showing that the user is capable of controlling the robot using only his/her eyes with satisfactory results. View full abstract»

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  • A Socially Inspired Framework for Human State Inference Using Expert Opinion Integration

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 874 - 878
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (401 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A complete biosensing involves two processes: data acquisition or collection and information inference. In this paper, a socially inspired framework to infer the human state using multiple cues or signals and inference techniques or “experts” is presented. A general idea with the proposed framework is that conventional inference algorithms are viewed as inference experts and then the inference problem can take advantage of the knowledge in expert opinion elicitation. The sense of the socially inspired lies in that 1) there are multiple cues, 2) there are multiple experts, 3) different experts have different expertise levels on different cues in association with different human states, and 4) there are different procedures to come up with a consensus or agreed opinion (i.e., human state in this case). To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework, inference of the fatigue state is taken as an example. The result is compared with that in a previous study in the literature and overall, it has been found that the proposed framework can deliver better results in terms of the inferring accuracy. View full abstract»

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  • A Wearable Sensor Network for Gait Analysis: A Six-Day Experiment of Running Through the Desert

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 878 - 883
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (522 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new system for analysis of walking and running gaits. The system is based on a network of wireless nodes with various types of embedded sensors. It has been designed to allow long-term recording in outdoor environments and was tested during the 2010 “Sultan Marathon des Sables” desert race. A runner was fitted with the sensory network for six days of the competition. Although technical problems have limited the amount of data recorded, the experiment was nevertheless successful: the system did not interfere with the runner, who finished with a high ranking, the concept was validated and high quality data were acquired. It should be noted that the loss of some of the measurements was mainly due to problems with the cable connectors between the nodes and batteries. In this paper, we describe the technical aspects of the system developed, the experimental conditions under which it was validated, and give examples of the data obtained with some preliminary processing. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling and Optimal Low-Power On–Off Control of Thin-Film Piezoelectric Rotational Actuators

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 884 - 896
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1326 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel open-loop minimal energy on-off servo system and control strategy are described for ensuring specified displacements from new microscale piezoelectric rotational joints under extremely strict power budgets. The rotational joints are driven by thin-film lead-zirconate-titanate actuators and are targeted for use in autonomous terrestrial microrobots. A lumped-parameter, second-order model of anticipated joint behavior is utilized to estimate the natural frequency and damping ratio of the robot joints, which, in turn, are used to identify necessary sampling rates and switching drive circuit parameters for implementation of on-off control. An identified model of leg joint behavior is then used to both verify lumped-parameter modeling and to optimize on-off input sequences to the rotary joint. The optimization procedure incorporates energy costs from both switching and holding an input voltage on microactuators that behave as a capacitive load, while ensuring that specified final states of a dynamic system are achieved at a specified point in time. Optimization is done via a new application of binary programming. In addition, modest robustness of the system response to parameter variation can be produced during control sequence generation. Optimized input sequences are applied to both macroscale piezoelectric actuators and to prototype thin-film piezoelectric leg joints, and show that specified actuator motions can be achieved with energy consumption of less than 5 μJ per movement. View full abstract»

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  • ROCR: An Energy-Efficient Dynamic Wall-Climbing Robot

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 897 - 906
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (944 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present a novel bioinspired dynamic climbing robot, with a recursive name: ROCR is an oscillating climbing robot. ROCR, pronounced “Rocker,” is a pendular, two-link, serial-chain robot that utilizes alternating handholds and an actuated tail to propel itself upward in a climbing style based on observation of human climbers and brachiating gibbons. ROCR's bioinspired pendular climbing strategy is simple and efficient. In fact, to our knowledge, ROCR is also the first climbing robot that is designed for efficiency. ROCR is a lightweight, flexible, and self-contained robot. This robot is intended for autonomous surveillance and inspection on sheer vertical surfaces. Potential locomotion gait strategies were investigated in simulation using Working Model 2D, and were evaluated on a basis of climbing rate, energy efficiency, and whether stable open-loop climbing was achieved. We identified that the most effective climbing resulted from sinusoidal tail motions. The addition of a body stabilizer reduced the robot's out-of-plane motion at higher frequencies and promoted more reliable gripper attachment. Experimental measurements of the robot showed climbing efficiencies of over 20% and a specific resistance of 5.0, while consuming 27 J/m at a maximum climbing speed of 15.7 cm/s (0.34 body lengths/s) - setting a first benchmark for efficiency of climbing robots. Future work will include further design optimization, integration of more complex gripping mechanisms, and investigating more complex control strategies. View full abstract»

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  • Hierarchical Fuzzy Cooperative Control and Path Following for a Team of Mobile Robots

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 907 - 917
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1495 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, an intelligent cooperative control and path-following algorithm is proposed and tested for a group of mobile robots. The core of this algorithm uses a fuzzy model, which mimics human thought to control the robot's velocity, movement, and group behavior. The designed fuzzy model employs two behaviors: path following and group cooperation. Hierarchical controllers have also been developed based on fuzzy and proportional integral derivative to instruct the robots to move in a group formation and follow specific paths. As the robots move along individual predetermined paths, the designed algorithm adjusts their velocities so that the group arrives at their target points within the same time duration regardless of the length of each individual path. The fuzzy rules applied to the robots are defined by the kinematics limitation, which is bounded by both linear and angular velocities and the length and curvature of the individual paths. The experimental results of three mobile robots traveling on different paths are presented to show the accuracy of obtaining control and cooperation by using the fuzzy algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • Orientation Control of Biological Cells Under Inverted Microscopy

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 918 - 924
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (811 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Orientation control of biological cells under inverted microscopes is important for cell birefringent imaging and micromanipulation. Taking our microrobotic mouse embryo injection research as an example, this paper presents a cell orientation control system operated under inverted microscopes. A compact motorized rotational stage for inverted microscopy was developed for orienting the polar body of mouse embryos away from the injection site to avoid damage of cellular organelles. An in-house developed microdevice was used for immobilizing many cells into a regular pattern. The polar body is tracked by a visual tracking algorithm with a translation-rotation-scaling motion model, providing image position feedback to an image-based visual servo controller that is responsible for online calibration of coordinate transformation during visually servoed orientation of the first embryo. High-speed, automatic cell orientation is then conducted on other embryos in the same batch of immobilized embryos through coordinate transformation and 3-DOF closed-loop position control. Experimental results demonstrate that the cell-orientation system is capable of orienting mouse embryos at a high speed of 720°/s with an accuracy of 0.24°. View full abstract»

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  • A High-Precision Dual-Servo Stage Using Halbach Linear Active Magnetic Bearings

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 925 - 931
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1037 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a high-precision dual-servo stage with a magnetically levitated fine stage is described. For magnetic levitation, a Halbach linear active magnetic bearing (HLAMB) is used. The HLAMB has two functions: gravity compensation and actively control of vertical motion. To implement these functions, the HLAMB utilizes permanent magnet arrays and Lorentz coils. The fine stage has positioning capabilities with 6 DOF due to four HLAMBs and four voice coil motors (VCM). The HLAMBs control out-of-plane motions, and the VCM control in-plane motions. The fine stage achieves high-precision position feedback using laser interferometers and capacitive sensors. The coarse stage has an H-type structure that can carry the fine stage 300 mm by 300 mm along the x - and y-axes. Positioning and scanning performances are verified by the experimental results. It has ±10 and ±15 nm in-position stability in the x- and y-axes, respectively. At the scan with 10 mm/s constant velocity, ±1 nm mean tracking error and 4.7 nm jitter were obtained. View full abstract»

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  • A Nonlinear Program for Angular-Velocity Estimation From Centripetal-Acceleration Measurements

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 932 - 944
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (681 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Measuring the trajectory of a rigid body in space is commonly done using an inertial measurement unit composed of one triaxial accelerometer and one triaxial gyroscope. When the rigid body undergoes high accelerations, it is often preferable to resort to an array of accelerometers rather than the traditional accelerometer-gyroscope combination, an approach that is now common in crashworthiness and other biomechanics applications. In this paper, we present an algorithm for the estimation of the rigid-body angular velocity from the centripetal components of the accelerations measured by the array of accelerometers. The proposed algorithm and the others available in the literature were benchmarked using the accelerometer array octahedral constellation of twelve accelerometers. In the reported testing conditions, the proposed method is slightly more robust than any other based on centripetal-acceleration measurements. View full abstract»

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  • The Optimal Design in External Gear Pumps and Motors

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 945 - 952
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1021 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    To improve the system performance of hydraulically assisted mechatronic systems, the research investigates the instantaneous pressure of the meshing action in the external gear pumps and motors. The undesired large pressure overshoots or spikes could be excited by virtue of the sudden volumetric change of meshing pockets. In practice, the spikes cause the gear machines to be noisy, inefficient, and have fatigue problems. The study employs the optimization theorem to analyze the nonlinear dynamical equations to define the instantaneous flow area overlapped by the wear-plate profiles and control volumes. The approach can also be applied to determine the backlash area to avoid large pressure variations between two meshing volumes. System noise may consequently be reduced and the mechanical efficiency is improved in gear machines. However, the volumetric efficiency may be compromised. Thus, all these issues have to be considered to achieve the optimal design. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Modeling of a Clutch Actuator System With Self-Energizing Mechanism

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 953 - 966
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1662 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The engineering technology for automotive systems is currently edging toward improving fuel economy. Transmission is one of the major parts to determine overall energy efficiency. The goal of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of a new clutch actuator in order to increase power transmitting efficiency. The new clutch actuator has self-energizing mechanism to amplify the normal force applied on the contact surfaces for the engagement. It allows the clutch module to consume less amount of energy for actuating the overall system. The equations of motion of the clutch mechanism coupled with a dc motor are represented to capture the essential dynamics. By using the proposed model, a model-based position-tracking controller is developed for the engagement of the clutch. Also, passivity analysis of the actuator system is performed to prevent the clutch from being stuck. Finally, the self-energizing effect and torque transmissibility of the proposed system and motion controller are validated experimentally. View full abstract»

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  • Comparison of Basic Visual Servoing Methods

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 967 - 983
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1452 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, comparison of the position-based and image-based robot visual servoing methods is investigated, with an emphasis on the system stability, robustness, sensitivity, and dynamic performance in the Cartesian and image spaces. A common comparison framework using both predefined and taught references is defined in the context of the sensory task space robot control approach. The camera, target, and robot modeling errors in the system are considered in the comparison. Both methods are shown to be locally asymptotically stable and locally robust with respect to modeling errors. While the two methods are shown to be comparable and sensitive to the camera and target modeling errors when using predefined references, they are insensitive to these errors when using taught references. However, the system Cartesian and image trajectories and time-to-converge are affected by the camera, target, and robot modeling errors regardless of the type of references. Finally, other fundamental characteristics of the two methods including sensory task space singularity and local minima, motion coupling, and implementation issues are also compared. The comparison results are verified in simulations. View full abstract»

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  • 2012 IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 984
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    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics encompasses all practical aspects of the theory and methods of mechatronics, the synergetic integration of mechanical engineering with electronic and intelligent computer control in the design and manufacture of industrial products and processes.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Okyay Kaynak
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Bogazici University
34342 Istanbul, Turkey
okyay.kaynak@boun.edu.tr