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Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 9 • Date Sept. 2011

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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): C1 - 3719
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  • IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics publication information

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): C2
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  • Guest Editorial

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 3720 - 3722
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  • Computational Algorithms for Induction-Motor Equivalent Circuit Parameter Determination—Part I: Resistances and Leakage Reactances

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 3723 - 3733
    Cited by:  Papers (38)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (541 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with methods and algorithms for the estimation of induction-motor equivalent circuit parameters starting from the geometrical and electrical data generally available after an electromagnetic design. The main aim of this paper is to help the readers pass from the theoretical analysis to the numerical code suitable to be included in its own design software. For this reason, the step-by-step algorithms are included in this paper. Some of the methods are based on well-known approaches while the other ones are original. For the latter ones, a complete discussion of the theoretical analysis is reported and discussed. The first part deals with the stator- and rotor-resistance computations and the determination of the leakage inductances based on an original flux classification. Finally, the skewing slot effects on the machine parameters are provided. The comparison between computed and measured values confirms the accuracy of the proposed computational algorithms. View full abstract»

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  • Computational Algorithms for Induction Motor Equivalent Circuit Parameter Determination—Part II: Skin Effect and Magnetizing Characteristics

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 3734 - 3740
    Cited by:  Papers (28)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (570 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes methods and algorithms for the estimation of induction motor equivalent circuit parameters, starting from the geometrical and electrical data generally available after an electromagnetic design. This part includes an approach for the skin effect determination in arbitrarily shaped rotor slots, based on the elementary layer method. In addition, a complete analytical development for the fundamental airgap flux density, including magnetic saturation phenomena and no-load characteristic determination, is reported. Finally, a comparison between the computed and measured values is provided and discussed for several induction motors. View full abstract»

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  • A Review of the Design Issues and Techniques for Radial-Flux Brushless Surface and Internal Rare-Earth Permanent-Magnet Motors

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 3741 - 3757
    Cited by:  Papers (27)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1693 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reviews many design issues and analysis techniques for the brushless permanent-magnet machine. It reviews the basic requirements for the use of both ac and dc machines and issues concerning the selection of pole number, winding layout, rotor topology, drive strategy, field weakening, and cooling. These are key issues in the design of a motor. Leading-edge design techniques are illustrated. This paper is aimed as a tutor for motor designers who may be unfamiliar with this particular type of machine. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Analysis of Star–Delta Hybrid Windings for High-Voltage Induction Motors

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 3758 - 3767
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (582 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a Y-Δ hybrid connection for a high-voltage induction motor is described. Low winding harmonic content is achieved by careful consideration of the interaction between the Y- and Δ-connected three-phase winding sets so that the magnetomotive force (MMF) in the air gap is close to sinusoid. Essentially, the two winding sets operate in a six-phase mode. This paper goes on to verify that the fundamental distribution coefficient for the stator MMF is enhanced compared to a standard three-phase winding set. The design method for converting a conventional double-layer lap winding in a high-voltage induction motor into a Y-Δ hybrid lap winding is described using standard winding theory as often applied to small- and medium-sized motors. The main parameters addressed when designing the winding are the conductor wire gauge, coil turns, and parallel winding branches in the Y and Δ connections. A winding design scheme for a 1250-kW 6-kV induction motor is put forward and experimentally validated; the results show that the efficiency can be raised effectively without increasing the cost. View full abstract»

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  • Design of Halbach-Array-Based Permanent-Magnet Motors With High Acceleration

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 3768 - 3775
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (737 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Halbach magnetized permanent-magnet (PM) motors can be designed to achieve high torque density and to realize hollow rotor structure with very low rotational inertia. In this paper, the design and analysis of Halbach-array-based PM motors, which can produce high output torque and meet the requirements for very fast dynamic performance, are presented. A design method is proposed to select the optimum dimensions of the Halbach-array-based PM machines. The analysis and design approach for the selection of the suitable stator winding distribution, while considering the effect of the end windings, are also presented. Loss analysis of the machine is carried out, and a simplified 3-D model is proposed for its thermal analysis. Detailed finite-element analysis results are provided for the verification of the performances of the designed machine. View full abstract»

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  • Permanent-Magnet Shape Optimization Effects on Synchronous Motor Performance

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 3776 - 3783
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1150 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The magnet shape in permanent-magnet (PM) synchronous motors substantially affects the back-electromotive-force (EMF) waveform and the stator iron losses, which are of particular importance in traction applications, where the energy available in the battery box is limited. This paper presents a methodology based on geometry optimization, providing sinusoidal back-EMF waveform. The method has been applied in a surface PM motor case for electric vehicle, and its validity has been checked by measurements on two prototypes, the first one with constant magnet width and the second one with optimized magnet shape. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Axial Flux Permanent-Magnet Machine for Flywheel Energy Storage System: Design and Analysis

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 3784 - 3794
    Cited by:  Papers (23)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1660 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the design and analysis of a novel axial flux permanent-magnet (AFPM) machine for a flywheel energy storage system (FESS). Its design and control facilitate significant reduction in axial bearing stress and losses. Due to the unconventional flux distribution in this machine, a 3-D finite element method was employed for its design and analysis, including its electromagnetic torque and axial force performances. The effects of the rotor PM skew angle on the cogging torque and the axial force have been studied. It is found that an optimum skew angle is effective in reducing the overall cogging torque with negligible effect on the static axial force. The latter is crucial as it can be utilized to minimize the axial bearing stress in FESS application. The concept, design, and analysis methodology have been validated by experimental results from an experimental AFPM machine prototype. View full abstract»

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  • Axial Flux PM Machines With Concentrated Armature Windings: Design Analysis and Test Validation of Wind Energy Generators

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 3795 - 3805
    Cited by:  Papers (34)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1420 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Some design and operation aspects of axial flux permanent magnet synchronous machines, wound with concentrated coils, are presented. Due to their high number of poles, compactness, and excellent waveform quality and efficiency, these machines show satisfactory operation at low speeds, both as direct drive generators and as motors. In this paper, after a general analysis of the model and design features of this kind of machine, the attention is focused on wind power generation: The main sizing equations are defined, and the most relevant figures of merit are examined by means of a suitable parametric analysis. Some experimental results obtained by testing a three-phase, 50-kW, and 70-rpm prototype are presented and discussed, validating the modeling theory and the design procedure. View full abstract»

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  • Novel Analysis and Design Methodology of Interior Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor Using Newly Adopted Synthetic Flux Linkage

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 3806 - 3814
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (915 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Novel analysis and design methodology using the newly adopted synthetic flux linkage for interior permanent-magnet (PM) synchronous motors (IPMSMs) with a multilayered PM have been proposed. In addition, cross magnetization between the d and q axes in the IPMSM is taken into account via the proposed synthetic flux linkage, which can be identified numerically and experimentally. It is validated with the experimental ones for the purposely built prototype, and its further effectiveness on control application is introduced. View full abstract»

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  • Rotor Design for Sensorless Position Estimation in Permanent-Magnet Machines

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 3815 - 3824
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1110 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A high-frequency injection sensorless rotor position estimation algorithm is incorporated directly into the finite-element design process to realize a permanent-magnet (PM) machine that is suited to zero- and low-speed sensorless control. The machine design is tightly constrained by an existing stator assembly, only enabling the redesign of the replacement PM rotor, and by the requirement that the manufacture of the resulting machine must be simple while meeting aerospace standards. Experimental results confirm that the resulting machine matches the original performance specification and that it operates under position sensorless control. View full abstract»

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  • Faulty Operations of a PM Fractional-Slot Machine With a Dual Three-Phase Winding

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 3825 - 3832
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1134 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The permanent-magnet (PM) machine with dual three-phase windings is proposed for applications requiring continuous operating even under a partial fault. The two windings are supplied by two separate inverters. Thus, in the event of a fault of one winding, this is disconnected, and the machine continues to be operated by means of the healthy winding. This paper investigates the PM machine with dual three-phase windings and its capabilities during faulty operating conditions. A fractional-slot interior PM machine with 12 slots and 10 poles is taken into account. Its performance is investigated according to different winding configurations. The torque behavior, overload capability, and thermal limits are evaluated under open-circuit and short-circuit faults. A finite-element analysis as well as experimental tests is carried out on a prototype of such a machine. View full abstract»

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  • Impedance and Emission Optimization of Low-Voltage DC Motors for EMC Compliance

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 3833 - 3839
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (881 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a method to automatically generate high-frequency (HF) generic electrical models for low-voltage dc motors. A software model generator creates an electrical circuit which reproduces both HF impedance and emission spectrum of any common dc motor within a frequency range from 150 kHz to 1 GHz. The impedance and emission spectrum are calculated from construction and material parameters like armature geometry and winding wire radius only; no measurements are required. This makes it possible to perform sensitivity analyses of motor construction parameters and minimize the motor's electromagnetic interference early in its design phase before samples and measurements are available. View full abstract»

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  • Active du/dt —New Output-Filtering Approach for Inverter-Fed Electric Drives

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 3840 - 3847
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (571 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Active du/dt is a new output-filtering method to mitigate motor overvoltages. The inverter pulse pattern edges are broken down into narrower pulses, which control the filter LC circuit. This results in an output voltage that does not have to exhibit the overshoot typically seen in common LC circuits in output-filtering applications. Furthermore, the shape of the output-voltage edge has properties well suited for output-filtering applications. An appropriate filter rise time is selected according to the motor-cable length to eliminate the motor overvoltage. The basis of the active du/dt method is discussed in brief. Considerations on the application of the active du/dt filtering in electric drives are presented together with simulations and experimental data to verify the potential of the method. View full abstract»

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  • Rotor Integrity Design for a High-Speed Modular Air-Cored Axial-Flux Permanent-Magnet Generator

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 3848 - 3858
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1609 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The rotor integrity design for a high-speed modular air-cored axial-flux permanent-magnet (AFPM) generator is presented. The main focus is on the mechanical parametric optimization of the rotor, which becomes a more dominating design issue over electromagnetic optimization at high operational speeds. Approximate analytical formulas are employed for preliminary sizing of the mechanical parameters of the rotor, which consists of the permanent magnets, retainment ring, and back iron. Two-dimensional (2-D) finite-element analysis (FEA) models are used to optimize the values of the parameters. Then, 3-D FEA models are developed to verify the final design. Finally, based on the final design, an AFPM prototype is built for experimental validation, and mechanical integrity tests for the rotor are undertaken. The results confirm the validity of the analytical and FEA models, as well as the overall design approach. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic Torque Analysis of a Wind Turbine Drive Train Including a Direct-Driven Permanent-Magnet Generator

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 3859 - 3867
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (413 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Mechanical interactions between a wind turbine and a direct-driven permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) are studied, and a model to analyze the system behavior is suggested. The proposed model can be applied to analyze the mechanical vibrations of direct-driven wind turbine installations both in steady state and in dynamic cases. The cogging torque and torque ripple of the PMSG are used as excitation sources in the mechanical model. Four different permanent-magnet rotor constructions are analyzed. It is shown that the maximum allowable value of the cogging torque of the direct-driven permanent-magnet wind generator in this case is 1.5%-2% of the rated torque even when the corresponding resonance frequency does not occur in the operational speed range of the wind turbine. Furthermore, it was noticed that the resonance caused by the excitation torque should occur at the lowest possible speed. View full abstract»

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  • A Multilevel Active-Clamped Converter Topology—Operating Principle

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 3868 - 3878
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1377 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a novel multilevel active-clamped converter topology, which is an extension to m levels of the three-level active neutral-point-clamped topology. The operating principle is established through the definition of a proper set of switching states and a transition strategy between adjacent switching states. The benefits of the proposed converter topology and control in comparison to alternative multilevel converter topologies are discussed. The simulation and experimental results of a simple four-level dc-dc converter configuration are presented to illustrate the converter performance features. The experimental results of a four-level three-phase dc-ac converter are also presented to further validate the proposed topology and operating principle. View full abstract»

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  • A Dual Full-Bridge Resonant Class-E Bidirectional DC–DC Converter

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 3879 - 3883
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (394 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new bidirectional dc-dc converter composed of two class-E resonant converters is presented in this paper. Bidirectional power flow is controlled by transistor control pulse frequency changes, with a constant break between the succeeding pulses as in quasi-resonant converters. The boost or buck mode converter operation depends on the mutual relation between the control pulses of the transistor pairs which are located diagonally in the converter bridge. The advantages of the system involve are high operation frequency (200 and 450 kHz) and zero value of the transistor switching losses. This paper includes an analytical description that is useful for the converter design. The investigations are confirmed by PSpice simulations and an experiment of a laboratory model (1.6 kW). View full abstract»

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  • High-Frequency Link: A Solution for Using Only One DC Source in Asymmetric Cascaded Multilevel Inverters

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 3884 - 3892
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1767 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multilevel inverters are in state-of-the-art power conversion systems due to their improved voltage and current waveforms. Cascaded H-bridge (CHB) multilevel inverters have been considered as an alternative in the medium-voltage converter market and experimental electric vehicles. Their variant, the asymmetrical CHB (ACHB) inverter, optimizes the number of voltage levels by using dc supplies with different voltages. However, the CHB and ACHB inverters require a large number of bidirectional and isolated dc supplies that must be balanced, and as any multilevel inverter, they reduce the power quality with the voltage amplitude. This paper presents a solution to improve the already mentioned drawbacks of ACHB inverters by using a high-frequency link using only one dc power source. This single power source can be selected according to the application (regenerative, nonregenerative, and with variable or permanent voltage amplitude). This paper shows the experimental results of a 27-level ACHB inverter with a variable and single dc source, but the strategy can be applied to any ACHB inverter with any single dc source. As a result, the reduction of active semiconductors, transformers, and total harmonic distortion was achieved using only one dc power source. View full abstract»

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  • Robust Deadbeat Control Scheme for a Hybrid APF With Resetting Filter and ADALINE-Based Harmonic Estimation Algorithm

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 3893 - 3904
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1354 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel hybrid active power filter (HAPF) topology is proposed, which shows advantages of the conventional HAPF and the LCL filter in terms of reduced dc-link voltage, lower switching ripples, and less electromagnetic interference injection. To enhance the noise rejection capability of the digital controller, the resetting filters (RFs) are utilized as prefilters before the analog/digital sampling stage. A robust deadbeat current control law is derived based on the average current tracking scheme, where the effect of the RFs is favorably incorporated. To alleviate the difficulties in current controller design, the ac-side capacitor voltage of the HAPF is estimated by using the adaptive linear neural network identifier in the load current feedforward loop. Hence, a simple proportional controller is utilized in the inner current loop. Moreover, the grid current feedback and load current feedforward strategies are used to achieve precise current tracking and fast dynamic response. A 75-kVA prototype system is built for verification. The validity of the proposed HAPF and its control algorithms are confirmed by the experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • High Cross-Regulation Multioutput LLC Series Resonant Converter With Magamp Postregulator

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 3905 - 3913
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (824 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A magnetic amplifier (Magamp) postregulator using a time-sharing control strategy is proposed when using a multioutput LLC series resonant converter. The operating principles of the proposed converter and the Magamp postregulator are analyzed in detail. Furthermore, the design criterion for the Magamp core is presented, and the dead-time problem of the Magamp postregulator is analyzed. Compared with a flyback converter, the dead-time impact in the LLC structure is much better for two main reasons. The first one is that there is no reverse-recovery resetting effect for the Magamp postregulator in an LLC topology, and the second is that, when the same dead time is applied in both converters, the effect is better by using an LLC topology than a flyback topology. Finally, an experimental prototype of 310-V input and 24-V/3-A and 18-V/2-A outputs was built and tested to verify the zero-voltage-switching (zero-current-switching) operation and the high cross-regulating ratio. The experimental results prove that the dead-time impact over a Magamp in an LLC converter is much better than that when using a flyback converter, since a high cross-regulating ratio was easily achieved without using complicate resetting methods or large dead load. View full abstract»

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  • Mitigation of Dynamic, Unbalanced, and Harmonic Voltage Disturbances Using Grid-Connected Inverters With LCL Filter

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 3914 - 3924
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1541 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a robust and fast control strategy for load-voltage regulation in grid-connected inverters with inductor-capacitor-inductor (LCL) filter. The LCL filter complicates the power circuit dynamics, particularly when the uncertain nature of the grid background distortion and system parameters is considered. Furthermore, grid-voltage control in the presence of LCL filter dynamics yields dynamic coupling between current and voltage control loops. To overcome these difficulties, first, a robust high-bandwidth multiloop current controller is designed to decouple the current and voltage control dynamics and mitigate uncertain interactions between the LCL-filtered current-controlled inverter and grid. Second, a dual-sequence adaptive-gain variable-structure voltage control scheme is proposed for effective mitigation of fast, dynamic, unbalanced, and harmonic voltage disturbances. A theoretical analysis and comparative experimental results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme in supporting the voltage reliability. View full abstract»

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  • Generalized Duty-Ratio-Based Pulsewidth Modulation Technique for a Three-to- k Phase Matrix Converter

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 3925 - 3937
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1925 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a novel topology for a direct ac-ac power converter, called as the “three-to- k” phase matrix converter. The input to the proposed matrix converter configuration is a three-phase fixed voltage and a fixed frequency supply from the grid. The output is a variable voltage and variable frequency ac supply of any number of phases (k phase). However, the discussion is limited here for a k that is equal to odd number of phases. As an example, a “three-to-five” phase matrix converter is utilized for discussion and analysis. This paper also proposes two pulsewidth modulation (PWM) control techniques for the general topology of the “three-to- k” phase matrix converter. This is based on the so-called direct duty ratio PWM (DPWM). In one presented technique, the output voltage is limited to one half of the input voltage. For the other proposed scheme, the output voltage is enhanced to 78.86% of the input voltage. The proposed control algorithm is validated using simulation and an experimental approach. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics encompasses the applications of electronics, controls and communications, instrumentation and computational intelligence for the enhancement of industrial and manufacturing systems and processes.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Carlo Cecati
DISIM - Univ. degli Studi dell'Aquila
67100 Aquila, Italy
c.cecati@ieee.org
Phone: +39 0862 434 450
Fax: +39 0862 1960 411