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Electronics Letters

Issue 14 • Date July 7 2011

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 31
  • In brief

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 784
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  • Interview

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 784
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (85 KB)  

    Dr Christoph Maier from the bioengineering department at the University of California San Diego, and fi rst author on the Letter 'Fast-settling multipleloop adaptive frequency locking scheme for energyeffi cient resonant FSK transmitter' on page 794 talks about his research. View full abstract»

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  • On the fast track

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 785
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (361 KB)  

    100 krad/s endless polarisation tracking is now possible thanks to the work of a team at the University of Paderborn in Germany, and its spin-off company Novoptel GmbH. Their latest optical polarisation controller, which can track arbitrary polarisation fluctuations without interruption, has a tracking speed that is nearly double their previous version and is over 100 times higher than their competitors' systems. View full abstract»

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  • The moving forest

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 786
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (364 KB)  

    This paper discusses about carbon nanotube. A carbon nanotube (CNT) forest-based pressure sensor that has a nearly symmetrical response for both positive and negative gauge pressures has been unveiled. Researchers at the University of British Columbia (UBC) in Canada created the sensor using a suspended diaphragm entirely covered with a CNT forest as a piezoresistive sensing element. Such a sensor could be used in a wide range of fields, and it is of particular interest for medical applications as the device is coated in Parylene, a biocompatible polymer. View full abstract»

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  • Wide dual-band CPW-FED slot antenna

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 789 - 790
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (278 KB)  

    A novel wide dual-band design of a coplanar waveguide (CPW) fed antenna is proposed. By using a double C-shaped metallic strip embedded in a big rectangle slot and an inserted tuning strip, the dual-band resonances of the antenna are generated. Good impedance matching condition at the two separated wide frequency bands is achieved by using two pairs of tuning strips at the double C-shaped strips and a pair of symmetrical slots. The measured results show good dual-band operation, with -10-dB impedance bandwidths of 900-MHz (1.97-2.87-GHz) and 3.22-GHz (4.87-8-GHz) at the two frequency bands, and average antenna gains of 3.2 and 4-dBi, respectively. Monopole-like radiations with small cross-polarisation patterns over the operating bands have been obtained. View full abstract»

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  • 14-bit two-step successive approximation ADC with calibration circuit for high-resolution CMOS imagers

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 790 - 791
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (218 KB)  

    A 14-bit two-step successive approximation analogue-to-digital converter (SA ADC) for high-resolution CMOS imagers is proposed. The proposed SA ADC consumes a small area because it uses only a capacitor array for 7-bit resolution to implement 14-bit ADC. To enhance accuracy, it uses digital-to-analogue conversion (DAC) embedded reference buffers to calibrate reference voltages. The average switching energy in the capacitor array is only 5.8 pJ per single conversion step. The HSPICE post-layout simulation results show that SNDR of the proposed ADC is improved from 73.41 to 81.52 dB after calibration. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamically switched low-phase-noise LC VCO with harmonic filtering

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 792 - 793
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (238 KB)  

    A novel load-independent switched LC VCO with PMOS dynamically switched current source and harmonic filtering is presented. The VCO has been designed and implemented with Jazz 0.18 μm CMOS process. At 5.47 GHz carrier frequency, the VCO achieves a measured phase noise of -122.4 and -102dBc/Hz at 1 MHz and 100 kHz offset, respectively. The VCO works between 5.3-5.7 GHz, which yields a tuning range of 400 MHz. This VCO consumes 4.2 mA from a 1.2 V supply and the figure-of-merit (FOM) is - 190.2 dBc/ Hz, which is among the best published FOM results for 5-6 GHz VCOs in standard CMOS process. View full abstract»

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  • Low power digital PLL based TDC using low rate clocks

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 793 - 794
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (274 KB)  

    A time-to-digital converter (TDC) using a low rate clock is presented. A simple TDC, capable of decreasing power consumption and solving the metastability problem by using low-rate clocks to detect the fine fractional time difference between the reference clock and digitally controlled oscillator (DCO) clock, is presented. The proposed TDC also includes a simple DCO clock period (Tv) calculation algorithm. An all-digital phase-locked loop (ADPLL), fabricated in 90 nm CMOS process, dissipates 0.8 mA at 1.2 V, and achieves 6.25 ps period RMS jitter from 2 GHz. View full abstract»

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  • Fast-settling multiple-loop adaptive frequency locking scheme for energy-efficient resonant FSK transmitter

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 794 - 796
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (217 KB)  

    An architecture for an energy-efficient frequency shift keying transmitter is presented, comprising a resonant tank oscillator with a loop antenna radiating inductor, a digitally controlled capacitor array, and interleaved frequency locked loops (FLLs). The interleaved FLLs allow frequency adaptation concurrent with data transmission, and retain frequency settings between bursts of data transmission, eliminating the need for dedicated frequency adaptation intervals prior to sending data. View full abstract»

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  • 3D model retrieval method by using fractal D2 distribution

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 796 - 797
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (339 KB)  

    An effective 3D model retrieval approach based on fractal D2 is presented, which is a combination of shape distribution and fractal dimensions of 3D models. Experimental results show that the proposed method is superior to other shape distribution approaches. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal grid pattern generation for automatic 2D-3D correspondence

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 797 - 799
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (202 KB)  

    In general, to calibrate a camera, a set of 2D-3D correspondences are needed. Because of its invariance under projective automorphisms, cross-ratio has been used to identify 2D points on a grid pattern yielding 2D-3D correspondences. However, the pixel errors in detecting grid corner points make the identification challenging. This even gets harder if the given cross-ratios are not distributed separatively enough. To build such a distribution of cross-ratios, in this work the authors have approximated the error propagation from corner point detection to cross-ratio calculation by unscented transform and optimised the distribution by particle swarm optimisation. Experimental results show that the grid patterns generated by the authors are unique enough to give automatic 2D-3D correspondences. View full abstract»

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  • Isotropic scaling iterative closest point algorithm for partial registration

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 799 - 800
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (475 KB)  

    The problem of partial registration of isotropic scaling point sets with outliers including noises and missing data is discussed. To solve this problem, a novel objective function based on bidirectional distance is proposed by introducing an overlapping percentage and a scale factor. Furthermore, a novel isotropic scaling iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm is proposed which can compute the scale transformation, the correspondence and the overlapping percentage automatically at each iterative step. Experimental results demonstrate that the algorithm is more robust and precise than the traditional ICP and the state-of-the-art algorithms. View full abstract»

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  • Miniaturised dual-band rat-race coupler based on double-sided parallel stripline

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 800 - 802
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (227 KB)  

    A dual-band rat-race coupler is proposed with double-sided parallel stripline topology, phase inverter and E-shaped impedance transformers. The developed component shows a miniaturised size and a flexible frequency ratio of two operating bands. For validation, a prototype operating at 0.9/1.8 GHz has been designed and measured with a very compact configuration and good performance has been obtained. View full abstract»

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  • Accurate measurement of microwave phase-shift from 2 to 18 GHz using heterodyne receiver

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 802 - 804
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (99 KB)  

    A dual channel phase-shift measurement system from 2 to 18 GHz using heterodyne receivers is described. The calculated phase-shift of a beadless air line has been used to verify this measurement system. The differential phase-shift measurement uncertainty is estimated to be 0.08°-0.31° for a two-port device with variable attenuation from 0 to 140 dB. The phase-shift measurement results of a 0-140 dB step attenuator at 18 GHz are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Low-power 100 GHz shunt-peaked regenerative frequency divider using 0.18 μm SiGe BiCMOS

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 804 - 805
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (209 KB)  

    A report is presented on the performance of a low-power 100 GHz high-speed shuntpeaked regenerative frequency divider (RFD) fabricated in a low-cost 200/180 GHz fT/fmax 0.18 μm SiGe BiCMOS technology. A bandwidth enhancement technique based on inductive peaking is employed to improve further the high frequency performance of the RFD with low power consumption. Design measures including the loop dynamics and selection of the shunt-peaked inductor are discussed. The RFD operates with a wide operation bandwidth from 20 GHz to at least 100 GHz with excellent input sensitivity while consuming a total DC power of only 198 mW from a nominal 3.3 V supply. The compact chip area including the pads is 0.6 × 0.4 mm2. View full abstract»

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  • Compact hollow-core photonic band gap resonator with optimised metallic cavity at microwave frequencies

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 805 - 807
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (229 KB)  

    A report is presented on the improvement by an optimised hexagonal metallic cavity of the electromagnetic field confinement in a hollow-core resonator based on out-of-plane two-dimensional photonic band-gap crystal cladding. A resonator was constructed with silica rods to prove the concept at frequencies around 30 GHz. It is shown that the technique can reduce the resonator size by 8.1 times without loss in quality. View full abstract»

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  • Piezoresistive pressure sensor using vertically aligned carbon-nanotube forests

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 807 - 808
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (310 KB)  

    A pressure sensor functionalised with vertically aligned carbon nanotubes is presented. The sensor is fabricated to have a multi-walled carbon-nanotube forest supported by a deflectable 8 m-thick Parylene-C membrane that is suspended by the silicon frame. The responses of the fabricated sensors are experimentally characterised. The sensitivities to positive and negative gauge pressures are found to be comparable in magnitude with the average values of -986 and +816 ppm/kPa, respectively. The measurement also reveals that the temperature coefficient of resistance for the forest suspended with the Parylene membrane is -515 ppm/°C and ~3× smaller than that for the forest fixed onto the silicon substrate. View full abstract»

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  • Wavelength multicasting of dpsk signal with NRZ-to-RZ format conversion

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 808 - 810
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (272 KB)  

    10 Gbit/s 1 × 4 wavelength multicasting of a DPSK signal with NRZ-to-RZ format conversion is demonstrated. The operation is achieved by four-wave mixing of the input DPSK signal with a time- and wavelength-interleaved pulsed source. Four multicast channels have been achieved with error-free operation. View full abstract»

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  • Multimode optical fibre communication at 25 Gbit/s over 300 m with small spectral-width 850 nm VCSELS

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 810 - 811
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (316 KB)  

    Error-free 25 Gbit/s optical fibre communication links at 850 nm with vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) via bit error ratio tests are demonstrated. At 25 C through 300 m of fibre a VCSEL dissipated-energy-to-bit-rate ratio of only 122.4 mW/Tbits is achieved. The energy efficient VCSELs reduce the energy required for data and computer communication. View full abstract»

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  • 40 Gbit/s 2-to-1 photonic data selector via XGM and FWM in two SOAS

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 811 - 813
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (404 KB)  

    A simple design of a 2-to-1 photonic data selector is proposed and has been experimentally demonstrated at 40 Gbit/s, employing four-wave mixing and cross-gain modulation in two parallel semiconductor optical amplifiers. All output signals with over 10 dB extinction ratios, clear and wide open eyes, are obtained without additional input. View full abstract»

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  • 100 krad/s endless polarisation tracking with miniaturised module card

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 813 - 814
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (209 KB)  

    For the first time, an endless optical polarisation tracking speed of 100 krad/s is demonstrated. During a 64-hour measurement, a polarisation trajectory of 18 gigaradian length was tracked with mean and maximum polarisation errors of 0.096 and 0.220 rad, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • All-optical temporal differentiation of ultra-high-speed picosecond pulses based on compact silicon microring resonator

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 814 - 816
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (189 KB)  

    A high-speed all-optical temporal differentiator based on a compact silicon microring resonator with a radius of 20 m is demonstrated. 80 Gbit/s signal differentiation is experimentally realised. View full abstract»

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  • Dual-frequency distributed feedback fibre laser for microwave signals generation

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 816 - 818
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (408 KB)  

    Presented is a new dual-frequency laser based on an erbium-doped distributed feedback fibre laser operating on two orthogonally polarised eigenstates around 1.55 μm, exhibiting a frequency offset in the micro-wave domain. The beatnote in the free running regime between these two optical waves allows the generation of an RF signal around 1 GHz with a RIN lower than - 115 dB/Hz over the frequency range 50 kHz to 10 MHz and a phase noise of -67 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz of the RF carrier. Up to 600 MHz tunability of the beatnote is obtained by mechanical stress applied to the cavity. View full abstract»

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  • High-performance 1.52 μm InAs/InP quantum dot distributed feedback laser

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 818 - 819
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (240 KB)  

    A high performance ridge-waveguide InAs/InP quantum dot distributed feedback laser around 1.52 μm with a cavity length of 1 mm and a stripe width of 3 μm is demonstrated. In continuous-wave operation singlemode output power was up to 18.5 mW and its sidemode suppression ratio was greater than 62 dB. The relative intensity noise was measured to be less than - 154dB/Hz from 10 MHz to 10 GHz, and the optical linewidth smaller than 150 kHz when the injection current was 200 mA at room temperature of 18°C. View full abstract»

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  • Near-diffraction-limited output from confined-doped ytterbium fibre with 41 μm core diameter

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 819 - 821
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (200 KB)  

    A confined-doped ytterbium fibre with a 41 μm core diameter has been fabricated by direct nanoparticle deposition process. Near-diffraction-limited beam quality (M2 ~ 1.3) was experimentally demonstrated from an amplified spontaneous emission source setup. Owing to the large core size and the confined Yb doping, the mode area is significantly enlarged while good beam quality is maintained. Such fibres have great potential for mitigating the detrimental nonlinear effects and for power scaling of fibre lasers and amplifiers. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Electronics Letters is internationally renowned for its rapid communication of new developments and emerging topics across the broad and interdisciplinary field of modern electronics and electrical engineering.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editors-in-Chief

Professor Chris Toumazou
Director of the Biomedical Institute
Imperial College, London, UK

Professor Ian White
Head of Photonics Research
University of Cambridge, UK