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Computer Graphics and Applications, IEEE

Issue 4 • Date July-Aug. 2011

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Displaying Results 1 - 18 of 18
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): c1
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  • Associated Information

    Page(s): c2
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 1 - 2
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  • Diving into the Flow

    Page(s): 3 - 4
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  • CG&A—Past and Future Themes

    Page(s): 5 - 6
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  • Collaboration-Specific Color-Map Design

    Page(s): 7 - 11
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    Designing color maps for domain experts differs fundamentally from designing them for general audiences. The same human-perception issues are at play, but with domain experts, domain-specific knowledge should inform the design choices. So, close collaboration between the visualization designers and experts is necessary. This article presents guidelines derived from such collaboration to help designers create effective color maps. View full abstract»

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  • Digitally Interpreting Traditional Folk Crafts

    Page(s): 12 - 18
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    Preserving cultural heritage requires that objects persist throughout time and continue to communicate an intended meaning. Owing to the decreasing number of masters of folk crafts, fading technologies, and crafts losing economic ground, computer-based preservation and interpretation of such crafts is necessary. To fabricate and preserve traditional crafts, a long-term applied-research project has combined mathematics and software tools with compact, cheap, and environmentally friendly desktop fabrication tools, including 3D printers. Case studies involving the digital capture of Japanese lacquerware and Norwegian carvings illustrate the project's modeling approach and fabrication system. Besides modeling existing artifacts, the project includes Web presentations of the models, automated model fabrication, and experimental manufacturing of new designs and forms. View full abstract»

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  • Apple Classified Advertisement

    Page(s): 19
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  • Physics-Based Characters

    Page(s): 20 - 21
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  • Simulating 2D Gaits with a Phase-Indexed Tracking Controller

    Page(s): 22 - 33
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    Tracking controllers produce realistic motion in simulations by mimicking an input motion. However, current time-indexed trackers adhere strictly to the input motion's timing, causing a lack of robustness. A new phase-indexed tracker for 2D characters can deviate from the input motion's timing. Compared to time-indexed tracking with a state-of-the-art nonlinear quadratic regulator, phase-indexed tracking can withstand force perturbations up to an order of magnitude larger. The phase-indexed controller employs motion constraints that induce a reduced dynamic for which we can design control policies that incorporate prediction. View full abstract»

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  • Stable Proportional-Derivative Controllers

    Page(s): 34 - 44
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    In computer animation, the proportional-derivative (PD) controller is a common technique for tracking characters' motion. A new formulation of the PD controller-stable PD (SPD)-allows arbitrarily high gains, even at large time steps. The key is to determine joint forces and torques while taking into account the character's positions and velocities in the next time step. SPD is stable even when combined with a physics simulator that uses simple Euler integration. SPD controllers have a variety of uses, including motion tracking in a physics simulator, keyframe interpolation with secondary motion, and constraint satisfaction for simulation. View full abstract»

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  • Practical Character Physics for Animators

    Page(s): 45 - 55
    Multimedia
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    To significantly improve the visual quality of certain types of animated 3D character motion, a proposed graphics system infers physical properties and corrects the results by using dynamics. The system visualizes these physical characteristics and provides information not normally available to traditional 3D animators, such as the center of mass, angular momentum, and zero moment point. By comparing the original path generated by an animator to a proper physically based path generated by the system, animators can interactively modify the original path to more closely match the system-generated path. This often produces better character motion. Users can adjust two types of motion: animations involving ballistic paths, such as falling and jumping, and animations involving movement requiring balance and posture, such as walking or running. A professional software system integrates this method for use in a visual effects studio that incorporates live action with 3D animated characters in feature films. Research shows that from 10 to 16 percent of the shots of a character-heavy feature film will incorporate ballistic motions that the system might improve. The Web extra is a video demonstrating an interactive system that helps animators create physically plausible character motions. You can also view the video on YouTube here: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-0OhS6Y5YX4. View full abstract»

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  • Direct Control of Simulated Nonhuman Characters

    Page(s): 56 - 65
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    A proposed system lets users directly control simulated self-propelled characters. Users drag a mouse to guide the character, while a physics simulation determines the motion. On the basis of the user input, the system computes an actuator command that causes the character to follow the user's intention as closely as possible while respecting the underlying physics. This direct control can be more intuitive than methods such as controlling character joints to track a given joint trajectory or using keyframes, especially when physically plausible dynamic motions are desired. With the system, users have created realistic motions of various kinds of characters, including rigid characters, characters with deformable bodies and rigid skeletons, and self-locomoting characters whose bodies form closed loops. The Web extras are screen-captured demos of algorithms for creating dynamic motions on various kinds of characters, and the resulting character animations. You can also view the videos on YouTube here: Part 1, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aD891Qub8kU; Part 2, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9tqUDijvzZc. View full abstract»

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  • Realistic Placement of Plants for Virtual Environments

    Page(s): 66 - 77
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    Creating natural forest landscapes for virtual environments (VEs) requires basic knowledge of botany and ecology, without which the terrain might appear synthetic. Although tools such as scene editors have made designers' jobs easier, manually creating a natural-looking landscape is time-consuming. And, depending on the artist's knowledge, the results often don't follow the principles of ecology and spatially viable plant positioning. A proposed approach adopts lessons from ecological modeling to grow vegetation as ground cover for virtual outdoor scenes. It simulates ecologically and spatially realistic placement of plants, from which users can employ the XML-based position data to populate other 2D and 3D VEs. Simulation results show this approach's potential for more complex applications, such as real-time plant growth and state changes in VEs. View full abstract»

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  • Intuitive Interactive Human-Character Posing with Millions of Example Poses

    Page(s): 78 - 88
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    The authors present a data-driven algorithm for interactive 3D human-character posing. They formulate the problem in a maximum a posteriori (MAP) framework by combining the user's inputs with the priors embedded in prerecorded human poses. Maximizing the posterior probability lets them generate a most-likely human pose that satisfies the user constraints. The system can learn priors from a huge, heterogeneous human-motion-capture database (2.8 million prerecorded poses) and use them to generate a wide range of natural poses. No previous data-driven character-posing system has demonstrated this capability. In addition, the authors present two intuitive interfaces for interactive human-character posing: direct-manipulation interfaces and sketching interfaces. They show their system's superiority compared to standard inverse-kinematics techniques and alternative data-driven techniques. View full abstract»

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  • The Third Wave in Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques

    Page(s): 89 - 93
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    Computer graphics advances driven by product development became mature in the late 1980s, and advances driven by arts and entertainment matured in the early 2000s. The graphics industry is at an innovation plateau and is ready for the next wave of innovation. This third wave won't be driven in response to a single industry. Rather, innovative researchers will respond to three drivers: the visual representations necessary to handle emerging application disciplines, display and interaction device advances, and graphics systems design and implementation. View full abstract»

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  • Computer Graphics: From Desktop to Mobile and Web

    Page(s): 94 - 96, c3
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    Traditionally, computer graphics courses have centered on desktop environments using well-known frameworks such as OpenGL. That approach might become obsolete in a new context in which developers must create applications for smart phones, tablets, and rich Internet applications. Teaching computer graphics in this situation is becoming difficult; traditional tools don't address these new requirements in an integrated way. To deal with this situation, the Processing development environment provides high-end solutions in visualization, animation, and interaction, while letting students deploy their programs on desktop computers, smart phones, tablets, and websites. Instructors can introduce devices and interaction paradigms in just a few hours. In an introductory computer graphics course, Processing dramatically boosted students' motivation. Their work wasn't just visible in the lab; they could show it to classmates and friends on their own smart phones, tablets, and websites. View full abstract»

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  • Vancouver SIGGRAPH 2011 advertisement

    Page(s): c4
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications bridges the theory and practice of computer graphics.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
L. Miguel Encarnação
University of Iowa