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Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date June 2011

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 27
  • "IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control - Front cover"

    Page(s): c1 - c2
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  • IEEE Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control Society - Staff

    Page(s): c3
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  • IEEE Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control Society - society information

    Page(s): c4
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): i - ii
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  • Information for contributors with multimedia addition

    Page(s): 1109 - 1112
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  • A multimedia example

    Page(s): 1113
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  • Directional acoustic underwater thruster

    Page(s): 1114 - 1117
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    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (840 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This study describes a tested prototype for a controllable directional underwater thruster with no moving parts. During operation, a high-intensity acoustic wave creates directional water jets and the device moves itself in the opposite direction. When the underwater thruster moves along a non-vertical angle, it can produce straight backward thrust of 2.3 mN and lateral thrust of 0.6 mN in parallel with the device surface, with a total thrust-to-weight ratio of 2:1. To enhance the acoustic streaming effect, a self-focusing acoustic transducer (SFAT) with air reflectors is used to focus the acoustic wave. View full abstract»

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  • Linear electro-optic properties of orthorhombic PZN-8%PT single crystal

    Page(s): 1118 - 1121
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    The optical transmittance spectra of relaxor ferroelectric 0.92Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.08PbTiO3 (PZN-8%PT) single crystals poled along different directions have been systematically studied at room temperature. After being poled along the [011] direction, the transmittance of induced orthorhombic PZN-8%PT single crystal is more than 50% from 0.5 to 5.7 μm, which is much higher than that poled along the [001] and [111] directions. The refractive indices and linear electro-optic properties of the orthorhombic PZN-8%PT single crystal were characterized at a wavelength of 632.8 nm. Large electro-optic responses were observed, γ33 = 220 pm/V, γ13 = 62 pm/V, and γ23 = 23 pm/V. Thus, orthorhombic PZN-8%PT single crystal is a promising material for high-performance electro-optic devices. View full abstract»

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  • Passive elastography: shear-wave tomography from physiological-noise correlation in soft tissues

    Page(s): 1122 - 1126
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    Inspired by seismic-noise correlation and time reversal, a shear-wave tomography of soft tissues using an ultrafast ultrasonic scanner is presented here. Free from the need for controlled shear-wave sources, this passive elastography is based on Green's function retrieval and takes advantage of the permanent physiological noise of the human body. View full abstract»

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  • Full tensorial elastic, piezoelectric, and dielectric properties characterization of [011]-poled PZN-9%PT single crystal

    Page(s): 1127 - 1130
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    Transverse piezoelectric property of 0.91Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.09PbTiO3 (PZN-9%PT) single crystal poled along [011] direction under different fields have been investigated, the poling field giving the best property was between 350 and 650 V/mm at room temperature. Full tensorial elastic, dielectric, and piezoelectric properties of PZN-9%PT single crystal poled along the [011] direction under 500 V/mm have been determined by resonance and ultrasonic methods. It was found that the electromechanical coupling coefficients k32 and k33 can reach 0.90 and 0.89 and the piezoelectric coefficients d32 and d15 are -1705 and 2012 pC/N, respectively. This complete set of physical properties can provide convenience for piezoelectric device fabrication and domain engineering studies. View full abstract»

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  • Precipitation phenomena in and electrical resistivity of high-temperature treated langatate (La3Ta0.5Ga5.5O14)

    Page(s): 1131 - 1139
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    La3Ta0.5Ga5.5O14 (LTG) single crystals, which have no phase transition up to the melting point, were heat treated in air at temperatures from 1000°C to 1450°C for 10 h. LaTaO4 (LT) and LaGaO3 (LG), which coexist with LTG in the three-phase region on the Ga-poor side, precipitated on the surface of the crystal for heat treatments above 1300°C because of Ga evaporation during the heat treatment. The Ga-poor state near the surface of the 1450°C heat-treated specimen was confirmed by electron probe micro-analysis measurements. The electrical resistivity of LTG single crystals de creased by heat treatment in the range of 1000°C to 1200°C for 10 h in air, where no precipitation was observed, whereas the resistivity increased with heat treatment over 1400°C for 10 h in air. The electrical resistivity of the Ga-poor surface region was higher than that of the interior. View full abstract»

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  • Tunable capacitors employing BZN/BST thin films for RF applications

    Page(s): 1140 - 1144
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    Tunable parallel-plate capacitors employing Bi1.5Zn1.0Nb1.5O7/Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 (BZN/BST) thin films for RF applications are reported. The intermediate frequency measurements indicate that the BZN/BST-based varactors demonstrate large tunability of 39% at 40 V and high device quality factor of 300 at 1 MHz. The devices maintain quite low leakage current density even under a high applied bias. The quality factor analysis shows that the device quality factor is highly dependent on conductor loss of electrodes at frequencies above 1 MHz. The phase shifter employing BZN/BST-based varactors exhibits lower insertion loss than does employing semiconductor diodes at a designed frequency of 445 MHz, demonstrating the potential of tunable capacitors employing BZN/BST thin films for RF applications. View full abstract»

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  • Design analysis of miniature quartz resonator using two-dimensional finite element model

    Page(s): 1145 - 1154
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    This study focused on 2-D miniature quartz plates. By assigning appropriate boundary condition using finite element modeling (FEM), the vibration of a quartz plate was analyzed for converse piezoelectric effect. The quality and stability of the resonance of a quartz plate was determined by examining changes on the response curve of resonant frequency when the length of plate was decreased or increased. A graphical user interface (GUI) was adopted to assist the finite element software to calculate the frequency responses with different length of a large number of quartz plates, and to conclude a detailed curve of resonant frequency versus size. With this diagram, changes of the resonant mode for quartz plates caused by length variation can be easily observed. An optimum size of the quartz plate is obtained from the curve. Moreover, analyses were also conducted on the electrode coverage of a quartz plate and the mass-loading effect of metallic electrodes for this study, to discuss the influence on the resonant frequencies of quartz plates. View full abstract»

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  • A low noise and ultra-narrow bandwidth frequency-locked loop based on the beat method

    Page(s): 1155 - 1158
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    A novel frequency-locked loop (FLL) based on the beat method is proposed in this paper. Compared with other frequency feedback loops, this FLL is a digital loop with simple structure and very low noise. As shown in the experimental results, this FLL can be used to reduce close-in phase noise on atomic frequency standards, through which a composite frequency standard with ultra-low phase noise and low cost can be easily realized. View full abstract»

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  • A new transducer receive transfer function calibration method: application to microbubble backscattering cross-section measurements at high frequency

    Page(s): 1159 - 1168
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    When comparing acoustic scattering experiments with theory, the relationship between the pressure generated by a scatterer at the surface of a transducer and the induced voltage must be known. Methods have been previously proposed to measure the receive transfer function that rely on several assumptions. A new, experimental method for measuring the acoustic response of a spherically-focused transducer, using a hydrophone at twice the focal distance, is proposed that requires a minimum number of assumptions and calculations. The receive transfer function of a spherically-focused, high-frequency transducer was calculated, and found to be within 10% of the receive transfer function calculated assuming reciprocity. Further, using the receive transfer function, the effective backscattering cross-section of bound microbubbles interrogated at 30 MHz was measured to be, on average, 65% of the geometric backscattering cross-section, with significant size-independent variability. These results give insight into selecting the optimal microbubble size distribution for linear microbubble imaging at high frequencies. View full abstract»

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  • Implementation of vibro-acoustography on a clinical ultrasound system

    Page(s): 1169 - 1181
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    Vibro-acoustography is an ultrasound-based imaging modality that uses two ultrasound beams of slightly different frequencies to produce images based on the acoustic response caused by harmonic ultrasound radiation force excitation at the difference frequency between the two ultrasound frequencies. Vibro-acoustography has demonstrated feasibility and usefulness in imaging of breast and prostate tissue. However, previous studies have been performed either in controlled water tank settings or a prototype breast scanner equipped with a water tank. To make vibro-acoustography more accessible and relevant to clinical use, we report here on the implementation of vibro-acoustography on a General Electric Vivid 7 ultrasound scanner. In this paper, we will describe software and hardware modifications that were performed to make vibro-acoustography functional on this system. We will discuss aperture definition for the two ultrasound beams and beamforming using a linear-array transducer. Experimental results from beam measurements and phantom imaging studies will be shown. The implementation of vibro-acoustography provides a step toward clinical translation of this imaging modality for applications in various organs including breast, prostate, thyroid, kidney, and liver. View full abstract»

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  • Effects of non-optimal focusing on dual-frequency ultrasound measurements of bone

    Page(s): 1182 - 1188
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    In pulse-echo (PE) ultrasound measurements, the use of focused transducers is desirable for quantitative assessment of bone characteristics because of the attenuation in the overlying soft tissues. However, the variable thickness and composition of the soft tissue overlying bone affect the focal depth of the ultrasound beam and induce errors into the measurements. To compensate for the attenuation-related effects caused by the interfering soft tissue (i.e., fat and lean tissue), a dual-frequency ultrasound (DFUS) technique was recently introduced. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of non-optimal focal depth of the ultrasound beam on the determination of the integrated reflection coefficient (IRC) of bone when overlaid by an interfering layer composed of oil and water. The feasibility of the DFUS-based correction of the IRC was evaluated through numerical simulations and experimental measurements. Even when the interfering layer-bone interface was out of focus, the total thickness of the interfering layer could be accurately determined with the technique. However, based on the simulations, the errors in the determination of the composition of the interfering layer increased (0.004 to 113.8%) with the increase in distance between the interfering layer-bone interface and the focus of the ultrasound beam. Attenuation compensation, based on the true composition of the interfering layer, resulted in an average relative error of 22.3% in the IRC values calculated from the simulations. Interestingly, the attenuation compensation with the interfering layer composition estimated using the DFUS technique resulted in a smaller average relative error of 14.9% in the IRC values. The simulations suggest that DFUS can reduce the errors induced by soft tissue in bone PE ultrasound measurements. The experimental measurements indicate that the accuracy of the IRC measurements is rather similar when using DFUS correction or correction based on the true composition of- the interfering layer. However, the results suggest that accurate determination of soft tissue composition may be difficult without optimal focusing of the ultrasound beam on the soft tissue-bone interface. View full abstract»

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  • The ultrasound brain helmet: new transducers and volume registration for in vivo simultaneous multi-transducer 3-D transcranial imaging

    Page(s): 1189 - 1202
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    Because stroke remains an important and time-sensitive health concern in developed nations, we present a system capable of fusing 3-D transcranial ultrasound volumes acquired from two sides of the head. This system uses custom sparse array transducers built on flexible multilayer circuits that can be positioned for simultaneous imaging through both temporal acoustic windows, allowing for potential registration of multiple real-time 3-D scans of cerebral vasculature. We examine hardware considerations for new matrix arrays-transducer design and interconnects-in this application. Specifically, it is proposed that SNR may be increased by reducing the length of probe cables. This claim is evaluated as part of the presented system through simulation, experimental data, and in vivo imaging. Ultimately, gains in SNR of 7 dB are realized by replacing a standard probe cable with a much shorter flex interconnect; higher gains may be possible using ribbon-based probe cables. In vivo images are presented, showing cerebral arteries with and without the use of microbubble contrast agent; they have been registered and fused using a simple algorithm which maximizes normalized cross-correlation. View full abstract»

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  • Effects of gas pockets on high-intensity focused ultrasound field

    Page(s): 1203 - 1210
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    The paper describes experimental and numerical studies of the effects of gas pockets on a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) field. Air bubbles ranging from 0.8 to 2.4 mm in radius were produced in transparent polyacrylamide tissue-mimicking gels. A single-element 3.5-MHz HIFU transducer was used to sonicate the gel phantoms. The changes in the HIFU beam pattern for air bubbles at different positions were visualized by the Schlieren method. Quantitative measurements of pressure at the HIFU focus by a calibrated needle hydrophone showed considerable reduction in the focal pressure with the presence of an air pocket. The presence of a single 1.2-mm-radius air bubble, at a 5 mm axial pre-focal position, reduced the focal intensity by 50% and increased the lateral focal dimension by 50%. For air bubbles at pre-focal position close to the focus, lesion formation was observed not at the theoretical focus, but in front of the air bubble and the air bubble became a barrier for the post-focal ultrasound propagation. The effects of reflection were simulated numerically and were compared with the experiments. The results can be used as guidelines for evaluation of potential safety concerns produced by trapped gas-pockets in various HIFU therapies. View full abstract»

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  • A wireless batteryless deep-seated implantable ultrasonic pulser-receiver powered by magnetic coupling

    Page(s): 1211 - 1221
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    This study tests a deep-seated implantable ultrasonic pulser-receiver, powered wirelessly by magnetic coupling. A 30-cm energy-transmitting coil was designed to wrap around the body, and was driven by a current of 1.2 A rms at a frequency of 5.7 MHz to generate a magnetic field. A 2-cm receiving coil was positioned at the center of the primary coil for receiving the magnetic energy and powering the implantable device. A capacitor-diode voltage multiplier in the implantable circuit was used to step-up the receiving coil voltage from 12.5 to 50 V to operate an ultrasonic pulser. FEA magnetic field simulations, bench-top, and ex vivo rabbit measurements showed that the magnetic energy absorption in body tissue is negligible and that the magnetic coupling is not sensitive to receiving coil placement. The receiving coil and the power conditioning circuits in the implantable device do not contain ferromagnetic material, so a magnetic-resonance-compatible device can be achieved. A 5-MHz ultrasound transducer was used to test the implantable circuit, operating in pulse-echo mode. The received echo was amplified, envelope-detected, frequency-modulated, and transmitted out of the rabbit body by a radio wave. The modulated echo envelope signal was received by an external receiver located about 10 cm away from the primary coil. The study concludes that operation of a batteryless and wireless deep-seated implantable ultrasonic pulser-receiver powered by coplanar magnetic coupling is feasible. View full abstract»

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  • Fast characterization of aluminum plates with TV-holography measurements of the frequency spectrum of multimode, quasi- monochromatic lamb waves

    Page(s): 1222 - 1231
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    We introduce a novel approach for measuring the frequency spectrum of Lamb waves and, subsequently, for obtaining the thickness and the bulk wave velocities of isotropic, homogeneous plates. It is based on Fourier transforming a set of spatial and temporal samples of the acoustic displacement but, in contrast to the traditional approach that employs dense temporal sampling and a reduced set of spatial sampling locations, our data set is a sequence of 2-D high-resolution maps of the instantaneous out-of-plane displacement obtained with TV holography. We have devised three variants to obtain a set of points of the wavenumber-frequency space, based, respectively, on the spatial (1-D or 2-D) and on the spatio-temporal (3-D) Fourier transforms. The whole process to obtain these points can be easily automated and substantial time savings can be achieved, compared with other full-field techniques that require human intervention or with pointwise scanned probes. Experimental demonstration of the three variants with quasimonochromatic multimode Lamb waves in aluminum plates is presented. The characteristic parameters of the plates are calculated by fitting the theoretical model to the experimental points of the frequency spectrum. The analysis of the uncertainties shows that the accuracy of the method is only slightly lower than the accuracy of a previously reported method based on measuring the wavelength of single-modes, for which the data acquisition procedure is much slower. View full abstract»

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  • Extensions of nonlinear B/A parameter imaging methods for echo mode

    Page(s): 1232 - 1244
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    This paper investigates nonlinear B/A parameter imaging in ultrasound echo mode. First, the B/A estimation methods which can be extended to echo mode are identified. The finite amplitude approaches are found to be excellent candidates to assess the nonlinear parameter because of their experimental simplicity, supported by a strong mathematical background. Second, three nonlinear coefficient measurement methods, thus far proposed for applications in homogeneous media, are extended to heterogeneous media. In particular, the simulations show that the extended comparative method (ECM) offers the best results when the probe diffraction effects are taken into consideration. The first experimental images obtained by applying the ECM for two different phantoms are also presented, showing the feasibility of B/A imaging. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal cuts to extract the third-order elastic constants of langasite single crystals

    Page(s): 1245 - 1254
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    Optimal cuts to determine the third-order elastic constants of langasite single crystals by the resonator method are proposed. By designing a small number of langasite resonators with optimal cut angles and measuring their forcefrequency effects, the third-order elastic constants of langasite single crystals may be extracted separately. The numerical method to search for these optimal cut angles is presented. All 14 third-order elastic constants may be determined through a series of experimental measurements. This method will simplify traditional methods used to determine the third-order elastic constants and could potentially produce more accurate results. View full abstract»

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  • Observation of induced longitudinal and shear acoustic phonons by Brillouin scattering

    Page(s): 1255 - 1260
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    To improve the accuracy of velocity measurements in the Brillouin scattering technique using weak thermal phonons, we have used induced coherent phonons, which intensify the scattering. To induce phonons in the gigahertz range, we used a c-axis tilted ZnO film transducer that was developed in our laboratory. This allowed us to induce longitudinal and shear acoustic phonons effectively at hypersonic frequencies. As a result, we obtained scattered light in the silica glass sample that was much more intense than that obtained from the thermal phonons. Because the Brillouin scattering from induced phonons was measured, the shift frequency was that of the electric signal applied to the ZnO transducer. Strong peaks lead to a reduction of the measurement time. This is useful for two-dimensional mapping of thin film elasticity using Brillouin scattering. Additionally, Brillouin scattering enables the simultaneous measurement of longitudinal and shear phonon velocities in the sample plane. This opens up a potential new technique for non-destructive elasticity measurements of various materials. View full abstract»

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  • Interfacial waves in dissimilar piezoelectric cubic crystals with an imperfect bonding

    Page(s): 1261 - 1265
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (312 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper studies propagation of shear waves along a weak interface of two dissimilar piezoelectric cubic crystals. Two piezoelectric cubic crystals are bonded along a specified cut direction. For an imperfect electrode interface, a dispersion relation of interfacial waves is derived explicitly. Numerical solutions are evaluated for several commonly-used piezoelectric cubic crystals. Our results show that interfacial imperfection alters the velocity of the interfacial shear waves. In particular, sometimes the interfacial shear waves may not exist for a perfect grounded interface and exist only for an imperfect electrode interface. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control focuses on the theory, design, and application on generation, transmission, and detection of bulk and surface mechanical waves.

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Editor-in-Chief
Steven Freear
s.freear@leeds.ac.uk