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Image Processing, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 7 • Date July 2011

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 31
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): C1 - C4
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Image Processing publication information

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): C2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Smoothlets—Multiscale Functions for Adaptive Representation of Images

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1777 - 1787
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1874 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper a special class of functions called smoothlets is presented. They are defined as a generalization of wedgelets and second-order wedgelets. Unlike all known geometrical methods used in adaptive image approximation, smoothlets are continuous functions. They can adapt to location, size, rotation, curvature, and smoothness of edges. The M-term approximation of smoothlets is O(M-3) . In this paper, an image compression scheme based on the smoothlet transform is also presented. From the theoretical considerations and experiments, both described in the paper, it follows that smoothlets can assure better image compression than the other known adaptive geometrical methods, namely, wedgelets and second-order wedgelets. View full abstract»

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  • Homogeneity Localization Using Particle Filters With Application to Noise Estimation

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1788 - 1796
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (10177 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a method for localizing homogeneity and estimating additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) variance in images. The proposed method uses spatially and sparsely scattered initial seeds and utilizes particle filtering techniques to guide their spatial movement towards homogeneous locations. This way, the proposed method avoids the need to perform the full search associated with block-based noise estimation methods. To achieve this, the paper proposes for the particle filter a dynamic model and a homogeneity observation model based on Laplacian structure detectors. The variance of AWGN is robustly estimated from the variances of blocks in the detected homogeneous areas. A proposed adaptive trimmed-mean based robust estimator is used to account for the reduction in estimation samples from the full search approach. Our results show that the proposed method reduces the number of homogeneity measurements required by block-based methods while achieving more accuracy. View full abstract»

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  • Autocorrelation-Driven Diffusion Filtering

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1797 - 1806
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1436 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present a novel scheme for anisotropic diffusion driven by the image autocorrelation function. We show the equivalence of this scheme to a special case of iterated adaptive filtering. By determining the diffusion tensor field from an autocorrelation estimate, we obtain an evolution equation that is computed from a scalar product of diffusion tensor and the image Hessian. We propose further a set of filters to approximate the Hessian on a minimized spatial support. On standard benchmarks, the resulting method performs favorable in many cases, in particular at low noise levels. In a GPU implementation, video real-time performance is easily achieved. View full abstract»

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  • Normalization of Face Illumination Based on Large-and Small-Scale Features

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1807 - 1821
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (6386 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A face image can be represented by a combination of large-and small-scale features. It is well-known that the variations of illumination mainly affect the large-scale features (low-frequency components), and not so much the small-scale features. Therefore, in relevant existing methods only the small-scale features are extracted as illumination-invariant features for face recognition, while the large-scale intrinsic features are always ignored. In this paper, we argue that both large-and small-scale features of a face image are important for face restoration and recognition. Moreover, we suggest that illumination normalization should be performed mainly on the large-scale features of a face image rather than on the original face image. A novel method of normalizing both the Small-and Large-scale (S&L) features of a face image is proposed. In this method, a single face image is first decomposed into large-and small-scale features. After that, illumination normalization is mainly performed on the large-scale features, and only a minor correction is made on the small-scale features. Finally, a normalized face image is generated by combining the processed large-and small-scale features. In addition, an optional visual compensation step is suggested for improving the visual quality of the normalized image. Experiments on CMU-PIE, Extended Yale B, and FRGC 2.0 face databases show that by using the proposed method significantly better recognition performance and visual results can be obtained as compared to related state-of-the-art methods. View full abstract»

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  • Framelet Algorithms for De-Blurring Images Corrupted by Impulse Plus Gaussian Noise

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1822 - 1837
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (10926 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper studies a problem of image restoration that observed images are contaminated by Gaussian and impulse noise. Existing methods for this problem in the literature are based on minimizing an objective functional having the l1 fidelity term and the Mumford-Shah regularizer. We present an algorithm on this problem by minimizing a new objective functional. The proposed functional has a content-dependent fidelity term which assimilates the strength of fidelity terms measured by the l1 and l2 norms. The regularizer in the functional is formed by the l1 norm of tight framelet coefficients of the underlying image. The selected tight framelet filters are able to extract geometric features of images. We then propose an iterative framelet-based approximation/sparsity deblurring algorithm (IFASDA) for the proposed functional. Parameters in IFASDA are adaptively varying at each iteration and are determined automatically. In this sense, IFASDA is a parameter-free algorithm. This advantage makes the algorithm more attractive and practical. The effectiveness of IFASDA is experimentally illustrated on problems of image deblurring with Gaussian and impulse noise. Improvements in both PSNR and visual quality of IFASDA over a typical existing method are demonstrated. In addition, Fast_IFASDA, an accelerated algorithm of IFASDA, is also developed. View full abstract»

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  • Image Deblurring and Super-Resolution by Adaptive Sparse Domain Selection and Adaptive Regularization

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1838 - 1857
    Cited by:  Papers (98)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5031 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As a powerful statistical image modeling technique, sparse representation has been successfully used in various image restoration applications. The success of sparse representation owes to the development of the l1-norm optimization techniques and the fact that natural images are intrinsically sparse in some domains. The image restoration quality largely depends on whether the employed sparse domain can represent well the underlying image. Considering that the contents can vary significantly across different images or different patches in a single image, we propose to learn various sets of bases from a precollected dataset of example image patches, and then, for a given patch to be processed, one set of bases are adaptively selected to characterize the local sparse domain. We further introduce two adaptive regularization terms into the sparse representation framework. First, a set of autoregressive (AR) models are learned from the dataset of example image patches. The best fitted AR models to a given patch are adaptively selected to regularize the image local structures. Second, the image nonlocal self-similarity is introduced as another regularization term. In addition, the sparsity regularization parameter is adaptively estimated for better image restoration performance. Extensive experiments on image deblurring and super-resolution validate that by using adaptive sparse domain selection and adaptive regularization, the proposed method achieves much better results than many state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of both PSNR and visual perception. View full abstract»

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  • Video Alignment for Change Detection

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1858 - 1869
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3054 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this work, we address the problem of aligning two video sequences. Such alignment refers to synchronization, i.e., the establishment of temporal correspondence between frames of the first and second video, followed by spatial registration of all the temporally corresponding frames. Video synchronization and alignment have been attempted before, but most often in the relatively simple cases of fixed or rigidly attached cameras and simultaneous acquisition. In addition, restrictive assumptions have been applied, including linear time correspondence or the knowledge of the complete trajectories of corresponding scene points; to some extent, these assumptions limit the practical applicability of any solutions developed. We intend to solve the more general problem of aligning video sequences recorded by independently moving cameras that follow similar trajectories, based only on the fusion of image intensity and GPS information. The novelty of our approach is to pose the synchronization as a MAP inference problem on a Bayesian network including the observations from these two sensor types, which have been proved complementary. Alignment results are presented in the context of videos recorded from vehicles driving along the same track at different times, for different road types. In addition, we explore two applications of the proposed video alignment method, both based on change detection between aligned videos. One is the detection of vehicles, which could be of use in ADAS. The other is online difference spotting videos of surveillance rounds. View full abstract»

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  • Video Super-Resolution Using Simultaneous Motion and Intensity Calculations

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1870 - 1884
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (6444 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose an energy-based algorithm for motion-compensated video super-resolution (VSR) targeted on upscaling of standard definition (SD) video to high-definition (HD) video. Since the motion (flow field) of the image sequence is generally unknown, we introduce a formulation for the joint estimation of a super-resolution (SR) sequence and its flow field. Via the calculus of variations, this leads to a coupled system of partial differential equations for image sequence and motion estimation. We solve a simplified form of this system and, as a by-product, we indeed provide a motion field for super-resolved sequences. To the best of our knowledge, computing super-resolved flows has not been done before. Most advanced SR methods found in literature cannot be applied to general video with arbitrary scene content and/or arbitrary optical flows, as it is possible with our simultaneous VSR method. A series of experiments shows that our method outperforms other VSR methods when dealing with general video input and that it continues to provide good results even for large scaling factors up to 8 × 8. View full abstract»

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  • Least-Squares Luma–Chroma Demultiplexing Algorithm for Bayer Demosaicking

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1885 - 1894
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (954 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper addresses the problem of interpolating missing color components at the output of a Bayer color filter array (CFA), a process known as demosaicking. A luma-chroma demultiplexing algorithm is presented in detail, using a least-squares design methodology for the required bandpass filters. A systematic study of objective demosaicking performance and system complexity is carried out, and several system configurations are recommended. The method is compared with other benchmark algorithms in terms of CPSNR and S-CIELAB ΔE* objective quality measures and demosaicking speed. It was found to provide excellent performance and the best quality-speed tradeoff among the methods studied. View full abstract»

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  • Curvature Interpolation Method for Image Zooming

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1895 - 1903
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2371 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We introduce a novel image zooming algorithm, called the curvature interpolation method (CIM), which is partial-differential-equation (PDE)-based and easy to implement. In order to minimize artifacts arising in image interpolation such as image blur and the checkerboard effect, the CIM first evaluates the curvature of the low-resolution image. After interpolating the curvature to the high-resolution image domain, the CIM constructs the high-resolution image by solving a linearized curvature equation, incorporating the interpolated curvature as an explicit driving force. It has been numerically verified that the new zooming method can produce clear images of sharp edges which are already denoised and superior to those obtained from linear methods and PDE-based methods of no curvature information. Various results are given to prove effectiveness and reliability of the new method. View full abstract»

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  • Compressive Sensing SAR Image Reconstruction Based on Bayesian Framework and Evolutionary Computation

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1904 - 1911
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3695 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Compressive sensing (CS) is a theory that one may achieve an exact signal reconstruction from sufficient CS measurements taken from a sparse signal. However, in practical applications, the transform coefficients of SAR images usually have weak sparsity. Exactly reconstructing these images is very challenging. A new Bayesian evolutionary pursuit algorithm (BEPA) is proposed in this paper. A signal is represented as the sum of a main signal and some residual signals, and the generalized Gaussian distribution (GGD) is employed as the prior of the main signal and the residual signals. BEPA decomposes the residual iteratively and estimates the maximum a posteriori of the main signal and the residual signals by solving a sequence of subproblems to achieve the approximate CS reconstruction of the signal. Under the assumption of GGD with the parameter 0 <; p <; 1, the evolutionary algorithm (EA) is introduced to CS reconstruction for the first time. The better reconstruction performance can be achieved by searching the global optimal solutions of subproblems with EA. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the important features of SAR images (e.g., the point and line targets) can be well preserved by our algorithm, and the superior reconstruction performance can be obtained at the same time. View full abstract»

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  • VE-LLI-VO: Vessel Enhancement Using Local Line Integrals and Variational Optimization

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1912 - 1924
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2510 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Vessel enhancement is a primary preprocessing step for vessel segmentation and visualization of vasculatures. In this paper, a new vessel enhancement technique is proposed in order to produce accurate vesselness measures and vessel direction estimations that are less subject to local intensity abnormalities. The proposed method is called vessel enhancement using local line integrals and variational optimization (VE-LLI-VO). First, vessel enhancement using local line integrals (VE-LLI) is introduced in which a vessel model is embedded by regarding a vessel segment as a straight line based upon the second order information of the local line integrals. Useful quantities similar to the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Hessian matrix are produced. Moreover, based upon the local line integrals, junctions can be detected and handled effectively. This can help deal with the bifurcation suppression problem which exists in the Hessian-based enhancement methods. Then a more generic curve model is embedded to model vessels and a variational optimization (VO) framework is introduced to generate optimized vesselness measures. Experiments have been conducted on both synthetic images and retinal images. It is experimentally demonstrated that VE-LLI-VO produces improved performance as compared with the widely used techniques in terms of both vesselness measurement and vessel direction estimation. View full abstract»

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  • 3-D Active Meshes: Fast Discrete Deformable Models for Cell Tracking in 3-D Time-Lapse Microscopy

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1925 - 1937
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1689 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Variational deformable models have proven over the past decades a high efficiency for segmentation and tracking in 2-D sequences. Yet, their application to 3-D time-lapse images has been hampered by discretization issues, heavy computational loads and lack of proper user visualization and interaction, limiting their use for routine analysis of large data-sets. We propose here to address these limitations by reformulating the problem entirely in the discrete domain using 3-D active meshes, which express a surface as a discrete triangular mesh, and minimize the energy functional accordingly. By performing computations in the discrete domain, computational costs are drastically reduced, whilst the mesh formalism allows to benefit from real-time 3-D rendering and other GPU-based optimizations. Performance evaluations on both simulated and real biological data sets show that this novel framework outperforms current state-of-the-art methods, constituting a light and fast alternative to traditional variational models for segmentation and tracking applications. View full abstract»

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  • A New Design Tool for Feature Extraction in Noisy Images Based on Grayscale Hit-or-Miss Transforms

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1938 - 1948
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (940 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The hit-or-miss transform (HMT) is a well-known morphological transform capable of identifying features in digital images. When image features contain noise, texture, or some other distortion, the HMT may fail. Various researchers have extended the HMT in different ways to make it more robust to noise. The most successful, and most recent extensions of the HMT for noise robustness, use rank-order operators in place of standard morphological erosions and dilations. A major issue with the proposed methods is that no technique is provided for calculating the parameters that are introduced to generalize the HMT, and, in most cases, these parameters are determined empirically. We present here, a new conceptual interpretation of the HMT which uses a percentage occupancy (PO) function to implement the erosion and dilation operators in a single pass of the image. Further, we present a novel design tool, derived from this PO function that can be used to determine the only parameter for our routine and for other generalizations of the HMT proposed in the literature. We demonstrate the power of our technique using a set of very noisy images and draw a comparison between our method and the most recent extensions of the HMT. View full abstract»

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  • Interval-Valued Fuzzy Sets Applied to Stereo Matching of Color Images

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1949 - 1961
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3772 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Stereo matching problem attempts to find corresponding locations between pairs of displaced images of the same scene. Correspondence estimation between pixels suffers from occlusions, noise, and bias. This paper introduces a novel approach to represent images by means of interval-valued fuzzy sets. These sets allow one to overcome the uncertainty due to the aforementioned problems. The aim is to take advantage of the new representation to develop a stereo matching algorithm. The interval-valued fuzzification process for images that is proposed here is based on image segmentation. Interval-valued fuzzy similarities are introduced to compare windows whose pixels are represented by intervals. To make use of color information, the similarities of the RGB channels were aggregated using the luminance formula. The experimental analysis makes a comparison with other methods. The new representation that is proposed together with the new similarity measure show a better overall behavior, providing more accurate correspondences, mainly near depth discontinuities and for images with a large amount of color. View full abstract»

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  • Multiclass Maximum-Likelihood Symmetry Determination and Motif Reconstruction of 3-D Helical Objects From Projection Images for Electron Microscopy

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1962 - 1976
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1770 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Many micro- to nano-scale 3-D biological objects have a helical symmetry. Cryo electron microscopy provides 2-D projection images where, however, the images have low SNR and unknown projection directions. The object is described as a helical array of identical motifs, where both the parameters of the helical symmetry and the motif are unknown. Using a detailed image formation model, a maximum-likelihood estimator for the parameters of the symmetry and the 3-D motif based on images of many objects and algorithms for computing the estimate are described. The possibility that the objects are not identical but rather come from a small set of homogeneous classes is included. The first example is based on 316&nbsp;128 &times;100&nbsp;pixel experimental images of Tobacco Mosaic Virus, has one class, and achieves 12.40-Å spatial resolution in the reconstruction. The second example is based on 400&nbsp;128 &times;128&nbsp;pixel synthetic images of helical objects constructed from NaK ion channel pore macromolecular complexes, has two classes differing in helical symmetry, and achieves 7.84- and 7.90-Å spatial resolution in the reconstructions for the two classes. View full abstract»

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  • Hybrid Diversification Operator-Based Evolutionary Approach Towards Tomographic Image Reconstruction

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1977 - 1990
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2207 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The proposed algorithm introduces a new and efficient hybrid diversification operator (HDO) in the evolution cycle to improve the tomographic image reconstruction and diversity in the population by using simulated annealing (SA), and the modified form of decreasing law of mutation probability. This evolutionary approach has been used for parallel-ray transmission tomography with the head and lung phantoms. The algorithm is designed to address the observation that the convergence of a genetic algorithm slows down as it evolves. The HDO is shown to yield a higher image quality as compared with the filtered back-projection (FBP), the multiscale wavelet transform, the SA, and the hybrid continuous genetic algorithm (HCGA) techniques. Various crossover operators including uniform, block, and image-row crossover operators have also been analyzed, and the latter has been generally found to give better image quality. The HDO is shown to yield improvements of up to 92% and 120% when compared with FBP in terms of PSNR, for 128 &times; 128 head and lung phantoms, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • A Split and Merge Based Ellipse Detector With Self-Correcting Capability

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 1991 - 2006
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2965 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel ellipse detector based upon edge following is proposed in this paper. The detector models edge connectivity by line segments and exploits these line segments to construct a set of elliptical-arcs. Disconnected elliptical-arcs which describe the same ellipse are identified and grouped together by incrementally finding optimal pairings of elliptical-arcs. We extract hypothetical ellipses of an image by fitting an ellipse to the elliptical-arcs of each group. Finally, a feedback loop is developed to sieve out low confidence hypothetical ellipses and to regenerate a better set of hypothetical ellipses. In this aspect, the proposed algorithm performs self-correction and homes in on “difficult” ellipses. Detailed evaluation on synthetic images shows that the algorithm outperforms existing methods substantially in terms of recall and precision scores under the scenarios of image cluttering, salt-and-pepper noise and partial occlusion. Additionally, we apply the detector on a set of challenging real-world images. Successful detection of ellipses present in these images is demonstrated. We are not aware of any other work that can detect ellipses from such difficult images. Therefore, this work presents a significant contribution towards ellipse detection. View full abstract»

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  • A Level Set Method for Image Segmentation in the Presence of Intensity Inhomogeneities With Application to MRI

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 2007 - 2016
    Cited by:  Papers (38)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2054 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Intensity inhomogeneity often occurs in real-world images, which presents a considerable challenge in image segmentation. The most widely used image segmentation algorithms are region-based and typically rely on the homogeneity of the image intensities in the regions of interest, which often fail to provide accurate segmentation results due to the intensity inhomogeneity. This paper proposes a novel region-based method for image segmentation, which is able to deal with intensity inhomogeneities in the segmentation. First, based on the model of images with intensity inhomogeneities, we derive a local intensity clustering property of the image intensities, and define a local clustering criterion function for the image intensities in a neighborhood of each point. This local clustering criterion function is then integrated with respect to the neighborhood center to give a global criterion of image segmentation. In a level set formulation, this criterion defines an energy in terms of the level set functions that represent a partition of the image domain and a bias field that accounts for the intensity inhomogeneity of the image. Therefore, by minimizing this energy, our method is able to simultaneously segment the image and estimate the bias field, and the estimated bias field can be used for intensity inhomogeneity correction (or bias correction). Our method has been validated on synthetic images and real images of various modalities, with desirable performance in the presence of intensity inhomogeneities. Experiments show that our method is more robust to initialization, faster and more accurate than the well-known piecewise smooth model. As an application, our method has been used for segmentation and bias correction of magnetic resonance (MR) images with promising results. View full abstract»

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  • Saliency and Gist Features for Target Detection in Satellite Images

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 2017 - 2029
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4559 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Reliably detecting objects in broad-area overhead or satellite images has become an increasingly pressing need, as the capabilities for image acquisition are growing rapidly. The problem is particularly difficult in the presence of large intraclass variability, e.g., finding “boats” or “buildings,” where model-based approaches tend to fail because no good model or template can be defined for the highly variable targets. This paper explores an automatic approach to detect and classify targets in high-resolution broad-area satellite images, which relies on detecting statistical signatures of targets, in terms of a set of biologically-inspired low-level visual features. Broad-area images are cut into small image chips, analyzed in two complementary ways: “attention/saliency” analysis exploits local features and their interactions across space, while “gist” analysis focuses on global nonspatial features and their statistics. Both feature sets are used to classify each chip as containing target(s) or not, using a support vector machine. Four experiments were performed to find “boats” (Experiments 1 and 2), “buildings” (Experiment 3) and “airplanes” (Experiment 4). In experiment 1, 14 416 image chips were randomly divided into training (300 boat, 300 nonboat) and test sets (13 816), and classification was performed on the test set (ROC area: 0.977 ±0.003). In experiment 2, classification was performed on another test set of 11 385 chips from another broad-area image, keeping the same training set as in experiment 1 (ROC area: 0.952 ±0.006). In experiment 3, 600 training chips (300 for each type) were randomly selected from 108 885 chips, and classification was conducted (ROC area: 0.922 ±0.005). In experiment 4, 20 training chips (10 for each type) were randomly selected to classify the remaining 2581 chips (ROC area: 0.976 ±0.003- - ). The proposed algorithm outperformed the state-of-the-art SIFT, HMAX, and hidden-scale salient structure methods, and previous gist-only features in all four experiments. This study shows that the proposed target search method can reliably and effectively detect highly variable target objects in large image datasets. View full abstract»

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  • Manifold Regularized Discriminative Nonnegative Matrix Factorization With Fast Gradient Descent

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 2030 - 2048
    Cited by:  Papers (36)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2340 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) has become a popular data-representation method and has been widely used in image processing and pattern-recognition problems. This is because the learned bases can be interpreted as a natural parts-based representation of data and this interpretation is consistent with the psychological intuition of combining parts to form a whole. For practical classification tasks, however, NMF ignores both the local geometry of data and the discriminative information of different classes. In addition, existing research results show that the learned basis is unnecessarily parts-based because there is neither explicit nor implicit constraint to ensure the representation parts-based. In this paper, we introduce the manifold regularization and the margin maximization to NMF and obtain the manifold regularized discriminative NMF (MD-NMF) to overcome the aforementioned problems. The multiplicative update rule (MUR) can be applied to optimizing MD-NMF, but it converges slowly. In this paper, we propose a fast gradient descent (FGD) to optimize MD-NMF. FGD contains a Newton method that searches the optimal step length, and thus, FGD converges much faster than MUR. In addition, FGD includes MUR as a special case and can be applied to optimizing NMF and its variants. For a problem with 165 samples in R1600 , FGD converges in 28 s, while MUR requires 282 s. We also apply FGD in a variant of MD-NMF and experimental results confirm its efficiency. Experimental results on several face image datasets suggest the effectiveness of MD-NMF. View full abstract»

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  • Active Learning for Solving the Incomplete Data Problem in Facial Age Classification by the Furthest Nearest-Neighbor Criterion

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 2049 - 2062
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1614 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Facial age classification is an approach to classify face images into one of several predefined age groups. One of the difficulties in applying learning techniques to the age classification problem is the large amount of labeled training data required. Acquiring such training data is very costly in terms of age progress, privacy, human time, and effort. Although unlabeled face images can be obtained easily, it would be expensive to manually label them on a large scale and getting the ground truth. The frugal selection of the unlabeled data for labeling to quickly reach high classification performance with minimal labeling efforts is a challenging problem. In this paper, we present an active learning approach based on an online incremental bilateral two-dimension linear discriminant analysis (IB2DLDA) which initially learns from a small pool of labeled data and then iteratively selects the most informative samples from the unlabeled set to increasingly improve the classifier. Specifically, we propose a novel data selection criterion called the furthest nearest-neighbor (FNN) that generalizes the margin-based uncertainty to the multiclass case and which is easy to compute, so that the proposed active learning algorithm can handle a large number of classes and large data sizes efficiently. Empirical experiments on FG-NET and Morph databases together with a large unlabeled data set for age categorization problems show that the proposed approach can achieve results comparable or even outperform a conventionally trained active classifier that requires much more labeling effort. Our IB2DLDA-FNN algorithm can achieve similar results much faster than random selection and with fewer samples for age categorization. It also can achieve comparable results with active SVM but is much faster than active SVM in terms of training because kernel methods are not needed. The results on the face recognition database and palmprint/palm vein database showed that our approach can handle p- oblems with large number of classes. Our contributions in this paper are twofold. First, we proposed the IB2DLDA-FNN, the FNN being our novel idea, as a generic on-line or active learning paradigm. Second, we showed that it can be another viable tool for active learning of facial age range classification. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient Texture Image Retrieval Using Copulas in a Bayesian Framework

    Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 2063 - 2077
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
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    In this paper, we investigate a novel joint statistical model for subband coefficient magnitudes of the dual-tree complex wavelet transform, which is then coupled to a Bayesian framework for content-based image retrieval. The joint model allows to capture the association among transform coefficients of the same decomposition scale and different color channels. It further facilitates to incorporate recent research work on modeling marginal coefficient distributions. We demonstrate the applicability of the novel model in the context of color texture retrieval on four texture image databases and compare retrieval performance to a collection of state-of-the-art approaches in the field. Our experiments further include a thorough computational analysis of the main building blocks, runtime measurements, and an analysis of storage requirements. Eventually, we identify a model configuration with low storage requirements, competitive retrieval accuracy, and a runtime behavior, which enables the deployment even on large image databases. View full abstract»

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IEEE Transactions on Image Processing focuses on signal-processing aspects of image processing, imaging systems, and image scanning, display, and printing.

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